BECK index


by Sanderson Beck

Volume 1: MIDEAST & AFRICA to 1700
Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800
Volume 3: CHINA, KOREA & JAPAN to 1800
Volume 4: GREECE & ROME to 30 BC
Volume 5: ROMAN EMPIRE 30 BC to 610
Volume 6: MEDIEVAL EUROPE 610-1250
Volume 7: MEDIEVAL EUROPE 1250-1400
Volume 8: EUROPE & Humanism 1400-1517
Volume 9: EUROPE & Reform 1517-1588
Volume 10: EUROPE: Wars & Plays 1588-1648
Volume 11: Latin America & Canada to 1850
Volume 11: AMERICA to 1744
Volume 12: EUROPE & Kings 1648-1715
Volume 13: AMERICAN REVOLUTION to 1800
Volume 14: EUROPE & REASON 1715-1788
Volume 15: EUROPE & REVOLUTION 1789-1830

Volume 16: MIDEAST & AFRICA 1700-1950
Volume 17: UNITED STATES Democracy & Slavery 1801-1844
Volume 17: AMERICAN Democracy & Slavery 1817-1844
Volume 19: UNITED STATES & Civil War 1845-1868
Volume 20: SOUTH ASIA 1800-1950
Volume 21: EAST ASIA 1800-1949
Volume 23: UNITED STATES & Capitalism 1869-1897

World Chronology

Volume 1: MIDEAST & AFRICA to 1700


Purposes and Motives
Philosophical Premises and Methods


Metaphysical Foundation
Universal Values
Applying Universal Values

Prehistoric Cultures

Evolution of Life
Human Evolution
Lemuria and Atlantis

Sumer, Babylon, and Hittites

Sargon the Akkadian
Sumerian Revival
Sumerian Literature
Epic of Gilgamesh
Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna, Mari, Assur, and Babylon
Hammurabi's Babylon
Kassites, Hurrians, and Assyria
Babylonian Literature

Ancient Egypt

Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
Hyksos Shepherd Kings
New Kingdom Empire
Egypt 1085-323 BC
Early Egyptian Literature
Book of the Dead
Later Egyptian Literature

Ancient Israel

Conquest of Canaan
David and the Psalms
Solomon and the Wisdom Books
Israel and Judah Divided
Amos, Hosea, Isaiah and Micah
Judah's Fall and Jeremiah
Ezekiel and Babylonian Isaiah
Jews in the Persian Empire

Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, and Persian Empires

Assyrian Empire 967-664 BC
Assyrian Empire 664-609 BC
Babylonian Empire
Persian Empire to 500 BC
Persian-Greek Wars 550-404 BC
Persian-Greek Wars 404-323 BC
Parthian Empire
Mani and Manichaeism
Sasanian Persia 224-531
Sasanian Persia 531-651

Muhammad and Islamic Conquest

Muhammad in Mecca
Muhammad in Medina at War 622-628
Muhammad Triumphant 628-632
Qur'an and Hadith
Islamic Wars in the Near East 632-644
Caliphs 'Uthman and 'Ali 644-661
Umayyad Caliphate 661-750

Abbasid, Buyid, and Seljuk Empires 750-1095

'Abbasid Caliphate 750-809
‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
Umayyad Spain
Samanids, Ghaznavids, Buyids, and Seljuqs
Mirrors for Princes
Nizam al-Mulk's Rules for Kings
Firdausi's Shah-nameh
Sufis: Rabi'a, Al-Hallaj, and Qushayri
Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
Avicenna, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Gabirol
1001 Nights and 'Umar Khayyam's Ruba'iyat

Islamic Culture 1095-1300

Mideast during the Crusades 1095-1192
Mideast during Crusades 1193-1300
Al-Ghazali's Mystical Ethics
Ibn Tufayl, Averroes, and Al-Tusi
Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed
Sufism of Gilani, Suhrawardi, and Ibn 'Arabi
Sufi Literature of Sana'i and 'Attar
Rumi's Masnavi and Discourses
Sa'di's Rose Garden and Orchard

Ottoman and Persian Empires 1300-1700

Ottoman Empire to 1451
Ottoman Empire 1451-1520
Ottoman Empire under Sulayman
Ottoman Empire 1566-1617
Ottoman Empire 1617-1700
Persia in the 14th Century
Timur and the Timurids
Safavid Persian Empire 1500-1700

North Africa to 1700

North Africa to 900
North Africa 900-1300
Egypt 1300-1700
Tunisia and Algeria 1300-1700
Morocco 1300-1700
Ibn Khaldun on History

Sub-Saharan Africa to 1700

West Africa to 1500
West Africa and Slavery to 1700
Bornu, Hausa, and Songhay to 1700
Dahomey, Gold Coast, and Oyo to 1700
Nubia and Ethiopia to 1700
East and Central Africa to 1700
Southern Africa to 1700
Traditional African Ethics

Summary and Evaluation

Ancient Near East
Muslim Mideast 610-1700
Africa to 1700
Evaluating the Mideast and Africa to 1700


Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800

Vedas and Upanishads

Harappan Civilization
Rig Veda
Sama Veda
Yajur Veda
Atharva Veda
Early Upanishads
Kena, Katha, Isha, and Mundaka
Later Upanishads

Mahavira and Jainism


Buddha and Buddhism

Siddartha Gautama
Doctrine (Dharma)
Questions of King Milinda
Community (Sangha)

Political and Social Ethics of India

Magadhan Ascendancy
Alexander's Invasion of India
Mauryan Empire, Ashoka and Sri Lanka
Dharma Sutras
Laws of Manu
Artha Shastra
Kama Sutra

Hindu Philosophy

Nyaya and Vaishesika
Mimamsa and Vedanta
Samkhya and Yoga

Literature of Ancient India


India 30 BC to 1300

India 30 BC-320 CE
Gupta Empire and India 320-750
Plays of Bhasa, Kalidasa, and Bhavabhuti
Hindu Kingdoms 750-1000
Tibetan Buddhism
India and Muslim Invaders 1000-1300
Literature of Medieval India

Delhi Sultans and Rajas 1300-1526

Delhi Sultanate 1300-1526
Barani on Politics of the Delhi Sultanate
Independent North India 1401-1526
Independent South India 1329-1526
Kabir and Chaitanya
Nanak and Sikhism

Mughal Empire 1526-1707

Mughal Conquest of India 1526-56
Akbar's Tolerant Empire 1556-1605
Jahangir and Shah Jahan 1605-58
Aurangzeb's Intolerant Empire 1658-1707
Kashmir and Tibet 1526-1707
Southern India 1526-1707
European Trade with Mughal India
Tulsidas and Maharashtra Mystics
Sikhs 1539-1708

Marathas and the English Company 1707-1800

Mughal Decline and Maratha Rise 1707-48
Afghan Invasions, Sikhs, and Marathas 1748-67
French, English, and Clive 1744-67
Marathas and Hastings 1767-84
Marathas and Cornwallis Reforms 1784-1800
Sikhs and North India 1767-1800
Tibet and Nepal 1707-1800
Sri Lanka 1707-1800

Southeast Asia to 1800

Burma and Arakan to 1800
Siam (Thailand) to 1800
Cambodia to 1800
Laos to 1800
Vietnam to 1800
Malaya to 1800

Pacific Islands to 1800

Sumatra, Java, and the Archipelago
Java and Dutch Trade 1613-1800
Philippines to 1800
Australia and New Zealand to 1800
Polynesian Islands to 1800

Summary and Evaluation of India and Southeast Asia to 1800

Ancient India
India 78-1526
Mughal Empire
British in India to 1800
Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands to 1800
Evaluating India and Southeast Asia to 1800


Volume 3: CHINA, KOREA & JAPAN to 1800

Shang, Zhou and the Classics

Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
Yi Jing (Book of Changes)
Shi Jing (Book of Odes)
Li (Propriety)
Shu Jing (Book of Documents)
Spring and Autumn Era
Sun-zi's Art of War
Period of Warring States

Confucius, Mencius and Xun-zi

Teachings of Confucius
Followers of Confucius
Later Confucian Works

Daoism and Mo-zi

Teachings of Mo-zi
Songs of Chu

Legalism, Qin Empire and Han Dynasty

Book of Shang Yang
Han Fei-zi
Qin Empire 221-206 BC
Founding the Han Dynasty 206-141 BC
Wu Di's Reign 141-87 BC
Confucian China 87-7 BC

China 7 BC to 1279

Wang Mang's Revolution
Later Han Empire
China Divided and Reunited 220-618
Sui Dynasty 581-617
Tang Dynasty Empire 618-907
Liao, Xi Xia, and Jin Dynasties 907-1234
Song Dynasty Renaissance 960-1279
Neo-Confucian Ethics
Literature of Medieval China

Mongols and Yuan China

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Khubilai Khan in China
Yuan Dynasty 1294-1368
Chinese Theater in the Yuan Era

Ming Empire 1368-1644

Ming Dynasty Founded by Hongwu
Ming Empire 1398-1464
Ming Empire 1464-1567
Ming Decline 1567-1644
Wang Yangming and Ming Confucians
Ming Era Short Stories
Novels of the Ming Era
Theater in the Ming Era

Qing Empire 1644-1799

Qing Conquest of Ming China 1644-61
Kangxi's Consolidation 1661-1722
Yongzheng's Reforms 1723-35
Qianlong's Expansion 1736-99
Confucian Intellectuals in the Qing Era
Theater in the Qing Era
Wu Jingzi's Novel The Scholars
Cao Xueqin's Dream of the Red Chamber

Korea to 1800

Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla to 668
Silla and Parhae 668-936
Koryo 936-1392
Yi Begins Choson Dynasty 1392-1567
Korea and Foreign Invasions 1567-1659
Korea and Practical Learning 1659-1800

Japan to 1615

Japan to 794
Japan's Heian Era 794-1192
Murasaki's Tale of Genji
Feudal Japan 1192-1333
Feudal Japan 1333-1465
No Plays of Kannami, Zeami, and Zenchiku
Japan under Warlords 1465-1568
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu 1568-1615

Japan 1615-1800

Tokugawa Japan's Seclusion 1615-1716
Japanese Confucianism and Religion
Saikaku's Stories of Sex and Money
Chikamatsu's Plays
Takeda-Namiki-Miyoshi Plays
Tokugawa Japan 1716-1800
Japanese Culture 1716-1800

Summary and Evaluation of China, Korea, and Japan to 1800

Ancient China to 221 BC
Imperial China 221 BC to 1368
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty to 1800
Korea to 1800
Japan to 1800
Evaluating China, Korea, and Japan to 1800


Volume 4: GREECE & ROME to 30 BC

Greek Culture to 500 BC

Crete, Mycenae and Dorians
Hesiod and Homeric Hymns
Aristocrats, Tyrants, and Poets
Spartan Military Laws
Athenian Political Laws
Aesop's Fables
Pythagoras and Early Philosophy

Greek Politics and Wars 500-360 BC

Persian Invasions
Athenian Empire 479-431 BC
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC
Spartan Hegemony 404-371 BC
Theban Hegemony 371-360 BC
Syracusan Tyranny of Dionysius 405-367 BC

Greek Theatre


The Persians
The Suppliant Maidens
Seven Against Thebes
Prometheus Bound

Libation Bearers
The Eumenides


Oedipus the Tyrant
The Women of Trachis
Oedipus at Colonus


The Cyclops

The Suppliant Women
The Trojan Women
Iphigenia in Tauris
The Phoenician Women

Iphigenia in Aulis
The Bacchae


The Acharnians
The Knights
The Clouds

The Wasps
The Birds
The Thesmophoriazusae

The Frogs
The Ecclesiazusae

Socrates, Xenophon, and Plato

Xenophon's Socrates

Defense of Socrates
Memoirs of Socrates


Ways and Means

Plato's Socrates

Defense of Socrates

Plato's Republic
Plato's Later Work

Seventh Letter

Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes

Aristotle's Rhetoric
Aristotle's Ethics
Aristotle's Politics

Philip, Demosthenes, and Alexander

Dionysius II, Dion, and Timoleon in Sicily
Wars and Macedonian Expansion under Philip
Demosthenes and Aeschines
Alexander's Conquest of the Persian Empire

Hellenistic Era

Battles of Alexander's Successors
Egypt Under the Ptolemies
Alexandrian Poetry
Seleucid Empire
Judea in the Hellenistic Era
Antigonid Macedonia and Greece
Xenocrates, Pyrrho, and Theophrastus
Menander's New Comedy
Epicurus and the Hedonists
Zeno and the Stoics

Roman Expansion to 133 BC

Roman and Etruscan Kings
Republic of Rome 509-343 BC
Rome's Conquest of Italy 343-264 BC
Rome at War with Carthage 264-201 BC
Republican Rome's Imperialism 201-133 BC

Roman Revolution and Civil Wars

Reforms of the Gracchi Brothers
Marius and Sulla
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cato
Julius Caesar Dictator
Brutus, Octavian, Antony and Cleopatra

Plautus, Terence, and Cicero


The Menaechmi
The Asses
The Merchant
The Swaggering Soldier
The Pot of Gold
The Captives
The Rope
The Two Bacchides
The Persian


The Woman of Andros
The Mother-In-Law
The Self-Tormentor
The Eunuch
The Brothers

Cicero on Oratory
Cicero's Republic and Laws
Cicero on Ethics

Summary and Evaluation of Greece & Rome to 30 BC

Greece to 30 BC
Rome to 30 BC
Evaluating Greece and Rome to 30 BC


Volume 5: ROMAN EMPIRE 30 BC to 610

Empire of Augustus and Tiberius

Rome Under Augustus
Virgil's Aeneid
Horace and Propertius
Ovid's Art of Love
Ovid's Metamorphoses
Rome Under Tiberius
Judea under Herod and Caesar
Essene Community by the Dead Sea
Philo of Alexandria

Jesus and His Apostles

John the Baptist
Jesus According to Mark
Jesus According to Matthew
Jesus According to Luke
Jesus According to John
Thomas and the Gnostics
Peter, James, and the Church
Paul and Christianity
Christian Fathers and Martyrs to 180

Roman Decadence 37-96

Caligula 37-41
Claudius 41-54
Nero 54-68
Seneca's Tragedies
Seneca's Stoic Ethics
Judean and Roman Wars 66-70
Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian 70-96
Roman Literature in the First Century
Quintilian's Education of an Orator
Apollonius of Tyana

Rome Under Better Emperors 96-180

Nerva 96-98 and Trajan 98-117
Dio Chrysostom's Discourses
Plutarch's Essays
Epictetus' Stoic Discourses
Hadrian 117-138
Antoninus Pius 138-161
Marcus Aurelius 161-180
Stoic Ethics of Marcus Aurelius
Literature in the Second Century
Lucian's Comic Criticism

Roman Empire in Turmoil 180-285

Commodus 180-192 and Pertinax
Severus Dynasty 193-235
Roman Wars 235-285
Judah and the Mishnah
Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and Cyprian
Clement of Alexandria and Origen
Mani and Manichaeism
Plotinus and Neo-Platonism
Literature in the Third Century

Roman Power and Christian Conflict 285-395

Diocletian's Reforms 284-305
Constantine's Religious Revolution 306-337
Constantine's Sons 337-361
Julian's Pagan Revival 361-363
Valentinian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius
Antony, Arius, and Athanasius
Basil and Two Gregorys of Cappadocia
Martin, Ambrose, and Prudentius
John Chrysostom and Jerome

Augustine and the Fall of Rome 395-476

Augustine's Confessions
Augustine and the Catholic Church
Augustine's City of God
Roman Empire Invaded 395-425
Macrobius and Cassian
Roman Empire Reduced 425-476
Orosius and Salvian
Leo, Patrick, and Severin

Goths, Franks, and Justinian's Empire 476-610

Zeno, Anastasius, and Theodoric's Ostrogoths
Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy
Frank Kingdom of Clovis and His Sons
Benedict's Monastic Rule
Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
Justinian and Roman Law
Roman Empire Disintegration 565-610
Frank Civil Wars and Brunhild 561-613
Saxon Kingdoms in Britain 476-616
Pope Gregory's Reforms 590-604

Summary and Evaluation

Roman Domination 30 BC to 180 CE
Roman Decline and Christianity 180-610
Evaluating the Roman Empire to 610


Volume 6: MEDIEVAL EUROPE 610-1250

Byzantine Empire 610-1095

Heraclius and Byzantine Wars 610-717
Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus
Leo III and Byzantine Iconoclasm 717-843
Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria 843-927
Byzantine Expansion 927-1025
Byzantine Decline 1025-1095
Barlaam and Ioasaph and Digenis Akritas

Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899

Isidore and Christian Spain
Lombards and Franks 613-774
Charlemagne 768-814 and Alcuin
Frank Empire Divided 814-899
Anglo-Saxons 616-865
Beowulf and Irish Legends
John Scotus Erigena
Danes in England and Alfred 871-899

Vikings and Feudal Europe 900-1095

Vikings and Scandinavia
England and the Danes 900-1042
Franks and Western Europe 900-1095
Christian Spain 900-1095
Germans and the Ottos 900-1002
Russia to 1097
Italy and the Popes 900-1045
Germans and Eastern Europe 1002-1095
Italy, Normans, and Reform Popes 1045-1095
England and the Norman Conquest 1042-1095

Crusaders, Greeks, and Muslims

Crusade for Jerusalem 1095-1100
Jerusalem Kingdom of the Baldwins 1100-1131
Crusaders, Manuel, and Nur-ad-Din 1131-1174
Saladin and Crusading Kings 1174-1198
Crusades to Constantinople and Egypt 1198-1250

Central and Eastern Europe 1095-1250

German Empire 1095-1152
Germany’s Friedrich and Heinrich VI 1152-1197
Italian Republics and Norman Sicily 1095-1197
Friedrich II, Italy and German Empire 1197-1250
Scandinavia 1095-1250
Eastern Europe 1095-1250

Western Europe 1095-1250

France and Flanders 1095-1200
France and Flanders 1200-1250
Spanish Peninsula 1095-1250
England under Norman Kings 1095-1154
England under Henry II and Richard 1154-1199
England’s John and Magna Carta 1199-1226
England under Henry III 1227-1250

Christian Ethics 1095-1250

Abelard and Bernard of Clairvaux
Aelred of Rievaulx's Spiritual Friendship
John of Salisbury on Politics
Hildegard of Bingen
Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade
Dominic and His Preaching Brothers
Francis of Assisi and His Lesser Brothers

European Literature 1095-1250

Epics of Roland and the Cid
Geoffrey of Monmouth and The Mabinogion
Romantic Love and Lais by Marie de France
Arthurian Romances by Chrétien de Troyes
Nibelungenlied and Wolfram von Eschenbach
Romances of Tristan and Lancelot
Snorri Sturluson and His Sagas
Religious Theater

Summary and Evaluation of the Roman Empire to 610

Byzantine and Frank Empires 610-1095
Crusades Era 1095-1250
Evaluating Medieval Europe 610-1250


Volume 7: MEDIEVAL EUROPE 1250-1400

Crusaders and Byzantine Decline 1250-1400

Crusaders Defeated 1250-1300
Byzantine and Balkan Decline 1250-1350
Byzantine and Balkan Decline 1350-1400

Eastern Europe 1250-1400

Hungary 1250-1400
Bohemia 1250-1400
Poland 1250-1400
Lithuania 1250-1400
Russia under the Mongols 1250-1400
Russian Orthodox Church 1250-1400

Catholic Ethics 1250-1350

Bonaventure’s Ethics
Ethics of Thomas Aquinas
Roger Bacon and Moral Philosophy
Ramon Llull’s Spiritual Writings
Lives of Saints
Franciscans and the Spirituals
Béguines and Marguerite Porete
Dominicans and Eckhart’s Mystical Unity
Duns Scotus and William of Ockham

German Empire 1250-1400

Germany and the Empire 1250-1313
Germany under Ludwig and Karl IV
Austria 1250-1400
Swiss Cantons and Confederation 1250-1400
Teutonic Knights, Prussia, and Livonia

Scandinavia 1250-1400

Denmark 1250-1400
Sweden 1250-1400
Norway 1250-1400
Iceland 1250-1400
Icelandic Sagas: Eyrbyggja and Njal

Castile, Aragon, Granada, and Portugal 1250-1400

Castile’s Alfonso X and the Zohar
Castile 1284-1350
Castile’s Pedro I and Civil War
Castile 1369-1400
Aragon 1250-1336
Aragon’s Pedro IV
Granada 1250-1400
Portugal 1250-1400
Juan Manuel’s Examples and Ruiz’s Good Love

Italian City States 1250-1400

Milan and the Visconti 1250-1400
Venice and Padua 1250-1350
Venice 1350-1400
Genoa and Pisa 1250-1400
Florence 1250-1336
Florence 1336-1400
Siena and Caterina
Rome and the Papal State 1250-1303
Rome and the Papal State 1303-1353
Rome and the Papal State 1353-1400
Sicily and Naples 1250-1400

Dante and Marsilius

Dante’s New Life and Banquet
Dante on One Government
Dante’s Inferno
Dante’s Purgatory
Dante’s Paradise
Defender of Peace by Marsilius of Padua

Petrarca and Boccaccio

Petrarca, the Poet Laureate
Petrarca’s Ethical Humanism 1345-53
Petrarca in Italy 1353-74
Boccaccio’s Early Work
Boccaccio’s Decameron
Boccaccio’s Illustrious Men and Famous Women
Salutati's Humanism

Low Countries and Burgundy 1250-1400

Flanders under France 1250-1320
Flanders under France 1320-1400
Brabant, Liege and Guelders 1250-1400
Holland, Hainault and Friesland 1250-1400
Ruusbroec and Groote

France and National War 1250-1400

Louis IX and Philippe III 1250-85
Philippe IV and His Sons 1285-1328
Philippe VI at War 1328-50
Jean II at War 1350-64
Charles the Wise 1364-80
Charles the Mad 1380-1400
Romance of the Rose
French Theatre to 1400
Machaut’s Poetry

England, Scotland, and Ireland 1250-1400

Henry III and Parliament 1250-72
Edward I, Ireland and Wales 1272-90
Edward I and Scotland 1290-1307
Scotland and Robert Bruce 1306-29
Scotland 1329-1400
Edward II and the Ordinances 1307-27
Edward III and National War 1327-50
Edward III and Prince Edward 1350-77
War Taxes and the Peasants’ Revolt 1377-81
Richard II 1381-99
Ireland 1327-1400

Mystics, Wyclif, Gower, and Chaucer

Mystics: Rolle, Hilton, and Juliana
The Cloud of Unknowing
Wyclif and the English Bible
Pearl, Purity, Patience, and Sir Gawain
Piers the Plowman
Gower’s Confessio Amantis
Chaucer and His Poetry
Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

Summary and Evaluation

Eastern Europe 1250-1400
Catholic Ethics 1250-1400
Northern Europe 1250-1400
Italy 1250-1400
Western Europe 1250-1400
British Isles 1250-1400
Evaluating Medieval Europe 1250-1400


Volume 8: EUROPE & Humanism 1400-1517

Milan and Venice 1400-1517

Milan and the Sforzas
Venice 1400-53
Venice and the Turks 1453-95
Venice and Wars 1495-1517
Genoa, Pisa, and Siena 1400-1517
Bernardino of Siena

Florence, the Medici and Machiavelli

Florence and the Medici 1400-69
Florence under Lorenzo de’ Medici 1470-92
Florence and Savonarola 1492-98
Florence and Machiavelli 1498-1517
Machiavelli’s Prince
Machiavelli’s Discourses
Machiavelli’s Mandragola

Rome, Popes, and Naples 1400-1517

Rome and the Popes 1400-58
Pius II, Paul II, Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII
Rome under the Borgias 1492-1503
Rome under Julius II and Leo X 1503-17
Naples and Sicily 1400-1517

Italy and Humanism

Vergerio and Bruni
Vittorino and Guarino Teaching
Alberti, Valla, Piccolomini, and Manetti
Ficino, Poliziano, and Pico della Mirandola
Humanists and Naples
Pulci and Boiardo’s Orlando Innamorato
Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso and Satires
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier

Eastern Europe 1400-1517

Greece and Hungary 1400-53
Jan Hus
Bohemia’s Hussite Revolution
Chelcicky’s Nonviolence
Hungary and Bohemia 1453-1517
Poland and Lithuania 1400-1517
Russia 1400-1517

German Empire 1400-1517

Germany and the Constance Council 1400-18
German Empire 1418-39
Council of Basel and Nikolaus of Cusa
German Empire 1440-53
German Empire and Hapsburgs 1453-1517
Swiss Cantons and Confederation 1400-1517
Low Countries and Burgundy 1400-53
Low Countries and Burgundy 1453-1517
Imitation of Christ

Scandinavia 1400-1517

Scandinavia’s Kalmar Union 1397-1450
Denmark 1450-1517
Sweden 1450-1517
Norway 1450-1517
Iceland 1400-1517

Castile, Aragon, Granada, and Portugal 1400-1517

Castile 1400-74
Castile of Isabel and Fernando 1474-92
Castile of Isabel and Fernando 1492-1504
Aragon 1400-79
Aragon of Fernando II 1479-1504
Spain of Fernando 1504-17
Granada 1400-1502
Portugal of Joao I and Afonso V 1400-81
Portugal of Joao II and Manuel 1481-1517

France’s Long War 1400-1453

France in Conflict 1400-15
France Invaded by the English 1415-29
Jeanne d’Arc 1429-31
French Expulsion of the English 1431-53
Gerson and the Church Schism
Christine de Pizan and Feminism
Christine de Pizan’s City of Ladies
Christine de Pizan’s Book of Peace

France and Wars in Italy 1453-1517

France under Louis XI 1461-70
France under Louis XI 1471-83
France under Anne and Beaujeu 1483-91
Charles VIII’s Invasion of Italy
France under Louis XII 1498-1515
France of François 1515-17
French Poetry, Villon and Theatre

England of Henry IV, V, and VI 1399-1461

England under Henry IV 1399-1413
England under Henry V 1413-22
England under the Regency 1422-37
England under Henry VI 1437-53
England’s War of the Roses 1453-61

England 1461-1517

Edward IV and the War of Roses 1461-71
England under Edward IV 1471-83
England under Richard III 1483-85
England under Henry VII 1485-91
England under Henry VII 1491-1509
England under Young Henry VIII 1509-17
Mystery, Miracle, and Morality Plays

Scotland and Ireland 1400-1517

Scotland and James I 1400-37
Scotland under James II 1437-60
Scotland during the Reign of James III 1460-88
Scotland under James IV 1488-1513
Scotland under Regency 1513-17
Ireland and the English Pale 1400-60
Ireland and the Kildares 1460-1517

Erasmus and Spreading Humanism

Humanists in Germany and Low Countries
Humanism in Eastern Europe
Humanism in France and Spain
Erasmus and Adages
Erasmus on Education 1501-14
Erasmus on Education 1514-17
Erasmus on Peace
Colet and English Humanism
More’s Utopia

Summary and Evaluation Europe & Humanism 1400-1517

Italian City States 1400-1517
Eastern and Northern Europe 1400-1517
Spain, Portugal, and France 1400-1517
England, Scotland and Ireland 1400-1517
Humanism from Italy to Europe 1400-1517
Evaluating Europe and Humanism 1400-1517


Volume 9: Europe & Reform 1517-1588

Luther’s Reforms and Germany 1517-88

Luther Exposes Papist Corruption 1517-20
Luther’s Defense of His Reforms 1520-21
Lutheran Reforms 1521-23

German Peasants’ Rebellion 1524-25

Luther and the Reformation 1525-30

Luther and the Reformation 1531-46

Germany and the Reformation 1546-64

Germany and Catholic Reformation 1564-88

Zwingli, Calvin, and the Swiss

Zwingli of Zurich and Reforms 1517-24
Zwingli, Zurich, and Conflicts 1525-31
Anabaptists in Switzerland 1525-31
Geneva and Calvin’s Reforms 1517-46
Calvinism and Reform 1547-88

Eastern Europe 1517-88

Austria and the Hapsburgs 1517-88
Hungary and Transylvania 1517-88
Bohemia 1517-88
Poland-Lithuania under Zygmunt I 1517-48
Poland-Lithuania under Zygmunt II 1548-72
Poland-Lithuania and Batory 1572-87
Russia and Ivan IV 1517-60
Russia under Ivan IV and Boris 1560-88

Scandinavia 1517-88

Denmark 1517-33
Denmark 1533-88
Sweden and Gustav Vasa 1517-60
Sweden under Erik XIV and Johan III 1560-88
Norway 1517-88
Iceland 1517-88

Imperial Spain and Portugal 1517-88

Spain, Charles V, and Comuneros 1517-22
Charles V Ruling in Spain 1522-29
Spain and Emperor Charles V 1530-42
Charles V and His Empire 1543-58
Spain and Felipe II 1556-64
Spain, Felipe II, and Rebellion 1564-68
Spain and Felipe II’s Empire 1569-80
Spain and Felipe II’s Wars 1580-88
Portugal and its Empire 1517-88

Spain’s Renaissance

Vives on Education
Vitoria and International Law
Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits
Servetus and His Martyrdom
Teresa of Avila
Juan de la Cruz
Lazarillo de Tormes and El Greco
Cervantes and His Numantia Play

Netherlands Revolt against Spain 1517-88

Netherlands under Margaret 1517-30
Netherlands under Mary 1531-55
Anabaptists and Menno Simons
Netherlands in Crisis 1555-67
Netherlands under Alba’s Repression 1567-72
Dutch Revolt 1573-78
Low Countries Divided 1579-1588

Italy and Spanish Domination 1517-88

Italian Wars with France and Spain 1517-29
Italian Wars under Spanish Rule 1530-59
Popes Leo X, Clement VII and Paul III
Popes Paul IV, Pius IV and Pius V
Popes Gregory XIII and Sixtus V
Venice 1517-88
Naples and Sicily 1517-88
Guicciardini and Italian Philosophy
Bruno’s Philosophy and Martyrdom
Aretino and Italian Comedies
Tasso and Italian Literature

France and Foreign Wars 1517-1559

François I and His Wars 1517-30
François I and His Wars 1530-47
Henri II, Wars and Calvinists 1547-59
Rabelais’ Gargantua and Pantagruel
Marguerite of Navarre and Heptameron
Nostradamus and His Prophecies

France’s Christian Wars 1559-88

France in Turmoil 1559-62
France’s First Civil War and Peace 1562-67
France’s Civil Wars 1566-76
Henri III and the Catholic League 1576-89
French Poetry and Ronsard
Montaigne’s Essays

England, Henry VIII & Reform 1517-1558

Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey 1517-30
English Reformation 1525-34
Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell 1534-40
Northern England and Wales 1517-58
Henry VIII and War 1540-47
Elyot and His Book of the Governor
England of Edward VI 1547-53
Mary Tudor and Catholic England 1553-58
English Theater 1517-58

England of Elizabeth 1558-88

Elizabeth’s Reform 1558-64
Elizabeth and Northern Rebels 1564-71
Elizabeth and Protestants 1572-83
Elizabeth and Catholic Threats 1583-88
Lyly’s Euphues and Sidney’s Writing
Elizabethan Theater to 1588
Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy and Marlowe’s Tamberlaine

Scotland and Ireland 1517-88

Scotland under James V 1517-42
Scotland under Regency 1543-61
Scotland under Mary Stuart 1561-67
Scotland under Regents 1567-88
Ireland under Henry VIII 1517-47
Ireland under English Conquest 1547-88

Summary and Evaluation Europe & Reform 1517-1588

Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin
Eastern Europe and Scandinavia 1517-88
Spain and Portugal 1517-88
Low Countries and Italy under Spanish Empire 1517-88
France 1517-88
England, Scotland, and Ireland 1517-88
Evaluating Europe & Reform 1517-1588


Volume 10: EUROPE Wars & Plays 1588-1648

Germanic Empire and the 30-Year War

Austrian and German Empire 1588-1607
Austrian and German Empire 1608-18
Bohemia 1588-1617
30-Year War Begins in Bohemia 1618-20
Ferdinand II’s Imperial Victories 1621-30
Swedes in the Imperial War 1630-35
Imperial War 1636-44
Negotiating Peace in Central Europe 1644-48
Kepler and Boehme
Comenius on Education to 1648
Swiss Confederation and Neutrality 1588-1648

Eastern Europe 1588-1648

Hungary and Transylvania 1588-1648
Poland-Lithuania under Zygmunt III 1587-1600
Poland-Lithuania under Zygmunt III 1600-32
Poland-Lithuania 1632-48
Russia of Boris Godunov 1588-1605
Russia’s Time of Troubles 1605-13
Russia under Romanovs 1613-48

Scandinavia 1588-1648

Denmark of Kristian IV 1588-1648
Sweden’s Revolution 1588-1611
Sweden of Gustav II Adolf 1612-32
Sweden 1632-48
Norway and Iceland 1588-1648

Netherlands Divided 1588-1648

Spanish Netherlands 1588-1648
United Dutch Republic 1588-1608
Netherlands during the Truce 1609-21
Netherlands Divided 1621-28
Netherlands at War 1629-48
Grotius on the Laws of War and Peace

Spanish and Portuguese Empires 1588-1648

Spanish Empire of Felipe II 1588-98
Spain of Felipe III and Lerma 1598-1606
Spain of Felipe III and Lerma 1607-21
Spain of Felipe IV and Olivares 1621-39
Spain of Felipe IV in Decline 1640-48
Portugal under Spain and Liberated
Suarez on Law
Quevedo and Satire
Gracian’s Art of Prudence

Cervantes, Lope de Vega & Calderon

Cervantes’ Don Quixote
Cervantes’ Exemplary Novels
Lope de Vega’s Life, Loves, and Literature
Lope de Vega’s Plays before 1611
Lope de Vega’s Plays after 1611
Tirso de Molina and Alarcon
Calderon’s Plays before 1634
Calderon’s Plays after 1634

Italy and Spanish Rule 1588-1648

Venice, a Republic, Sarpi and Zen
Milan and Northwest Italy 1588-1648
Florence under the Medici 1588-1648
Popes Clement VIII, Paul V and Urban VIII
Naples 1588-1648
Sicily 1588-1648
Campanella and His City of the Sun
Galileo and Scientific Discoveries

France’s Henri IV, Richelieu & Mazarin

Henri IV Ends France’s Civil Wars 1589-98
France at Peace under Henri IV 1598-1610
France’s Regency of Marie de Médici 1610-17
France under Louis XIII 1617-24
Richelieu, Master of Catholic France 1624-34
Richelieu and France’s Wars 1635-42
France under Regency and Mazarin 1643-48

Vincent, Descartes & Corneille

François de Sales and Jeanne de Chantal
Vincent de Paul and Ladies of Charity
Descartes’ New Philosophy
Descartes on Emotions
Corneille’s Comedies
Corneille’s Tragedies to 1648

England, Ireland & Scotland 1588-1625

Elizabethan England 1588-1603
Irish Rebels & Scotland of James VI 1588-1603
England under James I 1603-11
England under James I 1612-25
Ireland and Scotland under James 1603-25
Francis Bacon and His Essays
Bacon’s Advancement of Learning
Bacon’s Career and Scientific Ideas
Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy
Donne’s Poetry and Preaching

Britain of Charles and Civil War 1625-49

England of Charles I 1625-39
Ireland and Scotland 1625-39
British Conflict 1640-42
British Civil War 1642-45
British Civil War and Levellers 1646-49
Browne’s Religio Medici
Milton on Education and Freedom

Shakespeare’s Plays

Shakespeare’s Henry VI, Richard III & King John
Shakespeare’s Early Comedies
Shakespeare’s Richard II, Henry IV, V & VIII
Shakespeare’s Middle Comedies
Romeo & Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, Lear & Macbeth
Shakespeare’s Classical Tragedies
Shakespeare’s Late Romances

English Theater 1588-1642

Marlowe’s Last Four Plays
Greene, Peele, and Thomas Heywood
Chapman’s Plays
Dekker and Marston
Ben Jonson’s Plays
Middleton’s Plays
Webster and Tourneur
Beaumont and Fletcher
Massinger and Fletcher
Ford and Shirley

Summary and Evaluation of Europe 1588-1648

German Empire and the 30-Year War
Eastern and Northern Europe 1588-1648
Spain, Portugal, and Italy 1588-1648
France 1588-1648
England, Ireland & Scotland 1588-1648
English Theater 1588-1642
Evaluating Europe 1588-1648


Volume 11: Latin America & Canada to 1850

Caribbean & Central America to 1580

Columbus & the Caribbean
Caribbean & Panama 1500-21
Caribbean & Central America 1521-80
Las Casas on the Spanish Conquest

West Indies 1580-1850

Spanish & French West Indies 1580-1744
British & Dutch West Indies 1580-1744
British & French West Indies 1744-1850
Haiti’s Slave Revolution 1749-1817
Haiti & Santo Domingo 1817-50
Cuba 1744-1850
Puerto Rico 1744-1850

Central America 1580-1850

Central America 1580-1744
Central America 1744-1817
Central America & Confederation 1817-52
Costa Rica 1835-50
Guatemala & Carrera 1837-50
El Salvador 1839-50
Honduras 1839-50
Nicaragua 1838-50
Panama 1817-50

Incas, Peru & Chile to 1817

Incas to 1532
Pizarros & Peru 1532-80
Peru & Chile 1580-1744
Peru 1744-1817

Brazil & Guiana 1500-1850

Portuguese in Brazil 1500-80
Brazil & the Dutch 1580-1654
Brazil & Vieira 1654-1700
Brazil & Slavery 1700-44
Brazil under Portugal 1744-88
Brazil’s Rise to Power 1788-1817
Brazil’s Revolution 1817-22
Brazil’s Independence 1823-30
Brazil 1831-50
Guiana to 1744
Guiana 1744-1850

Southern South America to 1850

Southern South America to 1850
Rio de la Plata 1580-1744
Rio de la Plata 1744-1810
Chile 1744-1817
Argentine Revolution 1810-17
Argentine Revolution & Paraguay 1817-30
Argentina & Paraguay 1831-50

New Granada & Bolívar to 1830

New Granada 1525-1744
New Granada 1744-1814
Bolivar in Venezuela 1808-11
Bolivar in Venezuela 1812-13
Bolivar & Revolution 1814-17
Bolívar & Venezuela 1817-23
Peru’s Revolution 1819-22
Bolívar in Peru & Bolivia 1823-25
Bolívar & Colombia 1817-25
Chilean Revolution 1817-30
Bolívar & Northern Conflicts 1826-30

Bolivian Nations 1830-50

Peru 1831-50
Bolivia 1829-50
Venezuela 1830-50
New Granada (Colombia) 1830-50
Ecuador 1830-50
Chile 1831-50

Mexico to 1768

Toltecs & Anasazi
Aztecs to 1519
Cortes in Mexico 1519-28
Mexico 1528-80
Cabeza, Coronado, Soto & Menendez
Mexico 1580-1700
Northern Mexico 1580-1700
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Mexico 1700-1768

Mexico & Independence 1768-1831

Mexico 1768-1809
Northern Mexico 1768-1809
California Missions 1768-1809
Mexico’s Struggle for Independence 1810-17
Mexican Independence & Iturbide 1817-23
Mexico of Victoria & Guerrero 1823-31
Mexican California 1810-31
Northern Mexico & Texas 1810-31

Mexico & Wars 1832-50

Mexico & Santa Anna 1832-44
Mexican California 1832-45
Northern Mexico & Texas 1832-45
Mexico & the American War 1845-50

Iroquois & French in America 1534-1744

Hiawatha & the Iroquois League
Cartier & Champlain in Canada 1534-1642
French & the Iroquois 1642-63
Canada of Louis XIV & Frontenac 1663-80
Canada & La Salle 1680-88
Canada, Frontenac & War 1689-1713
Canada Between Wars 1713-44
Louisiana 1699-1750

Canada 1744-1817

Canada & New England 1744-53
English-French War 1754-57
English Defeat of New France 1758-63
British Canada during Revolution 1763-83
British in Canada 1783-1812
Canada in War & Peace 1812-17

Canada under British Rule 1817-50

Canada under British Rule 1817-29
Canada & Mackenzie 1830-36
Canadian Rebellion & Reforms 1837-39
Canadian Union 1840-44
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia & New Brunswick
Canadian Union 1845-49

Summary & Evaluation of Latin America & Canada to 1850

Mayans, Aztecs & Incas
Spanish Colonies 1492-1744
Brazil 1500-1744
Latin America 1744-1817
South America 1817-50
West Indies & Central America 1817-50
Mexico 1817-50
Evaluating Latin America to 1744
Evaluating Latin America 1744-1850
French & Canada 1534-1812
Canada 1812-1850
Evaluating Canada to 1850


Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs & Incas
Latin America
Colonial Latin America
South America
Central America

Volume 12: EUROPE & Kings 1648-1715

British Commonwealth 1649-60

Rump Parliament and Cromwell 1649-52
Cromwell and the Dutch War 1652-54
Ireland and Scotland 1649-60
Cromwell’s Protectorate 1655-58
England in Transition 1558-60
Hobbes’ Leviathan and Harrington’s Oceana
George Fox and Friends (Quakers) to 1660
Commonwealth Plays and Davenant

Britain of Charles II 1660-85

Charles II Restored 1660-68
Charles II’s Britain 1668-77
Charles II’s Britain 1677-85
Ireland and Scotland 1660-85
Quakers Fox and Penn 1660-85
Milton’s Paradise Lost, Regained and Samson
Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress and Badman
English Vegetarians and Newton’s Theories

Britain's Revolution & Wars 1685-1714

Britain under Catholic James II 1685-88
William III’s Revolution and War 1689-94
William III’s War and Peace 1694-1702
Anne’s War and Union with Scotland 1702-07
Queen Anne’s War and Peace 1708-14
Quakers and European Peace 1693-1710
Locke and Toleration
Locke on Government
Locke on Understanding and Education
Berkeley’s Spiritual Philosophy

English Restoration Plays

Restoration Theatre and Robert Howard
Dryden’s Heroic Dramas
Dryden’s Later Plays
Wycherley’s Four Comedies
Etherege and Shadwell
Aphra Behn’s Plays and Novella Oroonoko
History Plays of Lee and Banks
Tragedies of Otway and Southerne
Congreve’s Comedies
Cibber’s Comedies and Vanbrugh’s Relapse
Farquhar’s Comedies
Rowe’s Tragedies and Addison’s Cato

France in the Era of Louis XIV

Fronde Revolt 1648-53
France Governed by Mazarin 1653-60
Louis XIV Begins Ruling 1661-65
Louis XIV and Two Wars 1666-80
Louis XIV and Expanding Power 1681-99
France and the War over Spain 1700-15
Saint-Pierre’s Plan for Peace in Europe

French Culture 1648-1715

Jansenism and Pascal’s Provincial Letters
Pascal’s Pensées
Quietism, Fénelon, Bayle & Malebranche
La Rochefoucauld and Mme. de Lafayette
Boileau, Fontenelle & La Fontaine’s Fables
La Bruyère’s Characters

Molière and Racine

Corneille’s Later Plays
Molière’s Early Comedies
Molière’s Tartuffe, Don Juan & Misanthrope
Molière’s Comedies 1666-70
Molière’s Last Two Plays
Racine’s Tragedies to 1670
Racine’s Tragedies after 1670

Spain, Portugal and Italy 1648-1715

Spain in Decline under Felipe IV 1648-65
Spain in Decline under Carlos II 1665-1700
Spain’s War of Succession & Felipe V 1700-15
Portugal under Spain and Liberated 1648-1715
Venice, Milan, and Tuscany 1648-1715
Popes from Innocent X to Clement XI
Sicily, Naples, and Vico

Austrian Empire & German States 1648-1715

Austrian Empire 1648-70
Leopold’s Austria and Hungary 1671-88
Austrian Empire and Wars 1689-1715
Comenius on Education 1650-70
German States 1648-80
German States 1680-1715
Pufendorf and Thomasius
Leibniz and Ethics
Grimmelshausen’s Simplicissimus
Swiss Confederation and Neutrality 1648-1715

Netherlands and Spinoza

Netherlands and Johan de Witt 1648-59
Netherlands and Johan de Witt 1660-72
Netherlands and Willem III 1672-1702
Netherlands and War Against France 1702-15
Spinoza’s Life and Early Work
Spinoza’s Ethics
Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

Scandinavia 1648-1715

Denmark of Frederik III 1648-70
Denmark of Kristian V & Frederik IV 1670-1715
Norway and Iceland 1648-1715
Sweden of Kristina and Karl X 1648-60
Sweden of Karl XI 1660-97
Sweden of Karl XII and War 1697-1715

Poland-Lithuania and Russia 1648-1715

Poland-Lithuania 1648-73
Poland-Lithuania of Jan Sobieski 1674-96
Poland-Lithuania of August II 1697-1715
Russia of Tsar Aleksei 1648-76
Russia of Fyodor III and Sophia 1676-89
Russia and Tsar Petr 1689-1700
Russia and Tsar Petr at War 1700-15

Summary and Evaluation of Europe 1648-1715

Britain and Revolutions 1648-1715
British Ideas and Culture 1648-1715
France during the Reign of Louis XIV
Southern Europe 1648-1715
Germanic Empire 1648-1715
Northern Europe 1648-1715
Eastern Europe 1648-1715
Evaluating Europe 1648-1715


Volume 13: AMERICAN REVOLUTION to 1800

English & Dutch Colonies to 1642

Hiawatha & the Iroquois League
Raleigh & Roanoke 1585-90
Jamestown, Smith & Pocahontas 1607-16
Virginia Company & Colony 1616-42
Maryland & Cecil Calvert 1632-42
New Netherland Company 1614-42
Plymouth Pilgrims & Bradford 1620-43
Massachusetts Puritans & Winthrop 1629-43
Pequot War & Connecticut 1634-42

Roger Williams & Rhode Island to 1642

English & Dutch Colonies 1643-64

New England Confederation 1643-64
Rhode Island & Williams 1643-64
New Netherland & Stuyvesant 1642-64
Maryland & the Calverts 1642-64
Virginia & Berkeley 1642-64

New England 1664-1744

New England & Metacom’s War 1664-77
New England Disunion 1676-91
Salem Witch Trials
Massachusetts 1692-1744
Cotton Mather & John Wise
Rhode Island 1692-1744
Connecticut 1692-1744
Edwards & the Great Revival

New York to Pennsylvania 1664-1744

New York under James 1664-88
New York 1689-1744
New Jersey 1664-1744
Penn & Pennsylvania 1681-88
Pennsylvania & Penn 1688-1701
Pennsylvania Expansion 1702-44

Maryland, Virginia, Carolinas & Georgia 1664-1744

Maryland & Calverts 1664-1744
Virginia & Bacon’s Rebellion 1664-80
Virginia Expansion 1680-1744
Carolina Proprietary Colonies 1663-88
North Carolina 1689-1744
South Carolina 1689-1719
South Carolina & Slavery 1720-44
Georgia & Oglethorpe 1732-44

Franklin’s Practical Ethics

Franklin’s Autobiography
Silence Dogood & Franklin’s Religion
Franklin’s Journalism 1729-47
Poor Richard’s Almanac 1733-58

English-French Conflict in America 1744-54

French & New England 1744-54
New York, New Jersey & Pennsylvania 1744-54
Franklin in Pennsylvania 1744-54
Virginia, Ohio & Maryland 1744-54
Carolinas & Georgia 1744-54

English, French & Indian War 1754-63

English-French War in America 1754-57
English Defeat of the French 1758-1760
New York & New Jersey 1754-63
Pennsylvania & War 1754-63
Franklin & Pennsylvania 1757-64
Maryland & Virginia 1754-63
Carolinas & the Cherokees 1754-63
Georgia & the Creeks 1754-63
New England & British Canada 1760-63
Pontiac’s Uprising of 1763

American Resistance to British Taxes 1763-75

Peace Treaty & Sugar Tax 1763-65
Stamp Act Crisis 1765-66
Townshend Acts 1767-70
Tea Tax Resistance 1770-74
Continental Congress 1774-75
Western Frontier 1763-75

American War of Independence 1775-83

British War in Massachusetts 1775
Congress & the War 1775-76
Paine’s Common Sense
American Declaration of Independence
British War in America 1776
British War in America 1777
British War in America 1778-79
British War in America 1780-81
American Peacemaking 1782-83
Frontier during the Revolutionary War

Confederation & a Constitution 1784-89

United States Confederation 1784-85
United States Confederation in 1786
Shays’s Rebellion & Congress 1786-87
Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia
Ratification & the Federalists
Transition & the Bill of Rights
American Frontier 1784-89

United States & Washington 1789-97

America’s New Government 1789-90
Washington & Hamilton’s Bank 1790
Washington & Hamilton’s Bank 1791
Washington & Hamilton’s Bank 1792
America & the French Revolution 1793-94
Whiskey Rebellion
Washington & Peace 1795
Washington & Peace in 1796
American Frontier 1789-96

United States & John Adams 1797-1800

Adams Administration in 1797
Adams & the Quasi-War in 1798
Adams & the Election 1799-1800

Summary & Evaluation

Dutch & English Colonies to 1664
New England & New York 1664-1744
New Jersey & Pennsylvania 1664-1744
Maryland to Georgia 1664-1744
English-French Conflict 1744-63
American Revolution 1763-1783
American Constitution & Federalists 1783-1800
Evaluating American Revolution to 1800
Evaluating Presidents Washington & Adams


Volume 14: EUROPE & REASON 1715-1788

Britain of Georges I-III 1714-88

Britain of George I 1714-27
Britain of George II and Walpole 1727-44
Britain and French Wars 1744-60
Britain of George III 1760-67
Britain and the American Crisis 1768-75
Britain and the American War 1775-82
Britain and the Younger Pitt 1782-88
Ireland 1714-89

Wesley, Hume, Johnson, Smith & Pope

John Wesley and Methodism
Law, Hutcheson, Butler, and Richard Price
Hume’s Moral Principles
Samuel Johnson to 1749
Johnson’s Essays, Dictionary and Rasselas
Adam Smith on Morals and Wealth
Alexander Pope and His Essay on Man

British Novels and Plays 1715-88

Defoe’s Journalism and Robinson Crusoe
Defoe’s Cavalier & Captain Singleton
Defoe’s Moll Flanders, Col. Jack & Roxana
Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels
Richardson’s Pamela, Clarissa & Charles
Fielding’s Early Novels
Fielding’s Tom Jones and Amelia
Smollett’s Comic Novels
Goldsmith, Mackenzie & Burney
Plays by Steele, Gay and Lillo
Comedies by Goldsmith and Sheridan

France of Louis XV and XVI

France under Regent Philippe 1715-23
France and Cardinal Fleury 1723-42
Louis XV and Wars 1743-63
France under Louis XV 1763-74
Louis XVI and the British War 1774-83
France under Louis XVI 1783-86
France on the Brink 1787-88

Montesquieu, Voltaire & Rousseau

Montesquieu and The Spirit of the Laws
Voltaire to 1747
Voltaire’s Zadig, Candide and Socrates
Voltaire in Exile 1760-78
Rousseau to 1754
Rousseau on Inequality and Political Economy
Rousseau’s Peace Plan
Rousseau’s Novel Julie and Emile (on Education)
Rousseau’s Social Contract
Diderot’s and D’Alembert’s Encyclopédie

French Literature and Theatre 1715-88

Diderot’s Philosophical Novels
Prévost and Manon Lescaut
Laclos: Soldier, Novelist & Feminist
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s Paul and Virginia
Le Sage’s Novels and His Comedy Turcaret
Marivaux’s Romantic Comedies
Beaumarchais and His Figaro Comedies

Spain, Portugal & Italy 1715-88

Spain of Felipe V and Fernando VI 1715-59
Spain under Carlos III 1759-88
Portugal 1715-88
Sicily 1715-88
Naples and Vico’s New Science
Clement XI-XIV, Benedict XIII-XIV & Pius VI
Decline of Tuscany and Lombardy
Beccaria’s On Crimes and Punishments
Venice 1715-88
Goldoni’s Comedies

Austrian Empire and German States 1715-88

Austrian Empire and Wars 1715-48
Austrian Empire of Maria Theresa 1748-80
Austrian Empire of Joseph II’s Reforms 1780-88
Swiss Confederation 1715-88
Vattel on International Law
Pestalozzi’s Early Ideas on Education
Germans 1713-40 and Wolff on Law
Germany, Friedrich II and Wars 1740-63
German States and Friedrich’s Prussia 1763-88

Lessing, Kant, Goethe and Schiller

Mendelssohn’s Jewish Enlightenment
Lessing and His Philosophy
Lessing’s Plays
Kant’s Moral Philosophy
Lichtenberg’s Aphorisms and Herder’s Ideas
Goethe’s Life to 1788 and Young Werther
Goethe’s Early Plays
Schiller’s Robbers and Fiesco
Schiller’s Intrigue and Love and Don Carlos

Netherlands and Scandinavia 1715-88

Austrian Netherlands 1713-88
Netherlands and Stadholder Willem IV 1715-51
Netherlands and the Patriots 1751-88
Denmark 1715-88
Norway and Iceland under Denmark 1715-88
Sweden 1715-88
Swedenborg and His Mystical Theology

Poland-Lithuania and Russia 1715-88

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1715-88
Ukraine 1715-88
Russia of Petr 1715-25
Russian Empire 1725-62
Russia under Ekaterina II 1762-70
Russia under Ekaterina II 1770-88

Summary and Evaluating Europe 1715-88

Britain’s Imperial Wars & Industrial Progress 1715-88
British Enlightenment
British Novels and Plays 1715-88
France of Louis XV and XVI
French Enlightenment
Southern Europe 1715-88
Austrian Empire and Prussian Militarism 1715-88
German Enlightenment
Northern Europe 1715-88
Eastern Europe 1715-88
Evaluating Europe 1715-88


Volume 15: EUROPE & REVOLUTION 1789-1830

France’s Revolution 1789-95

French Revolution in 1789
Declaration of Rights
French Revolution 1790-91
French Revolution and War in 1792
French Revolution January-September 1793
French Terror October 1793 to July 1794
French White Terror and a Directorate 1794-95
Condorcet’s Philosophy and Babeuf’s Equality

France & Napoleon’s Rise & Fall 1796-1815

French Directorate and Napoleon 1796-97
France’s Second Directorate 1797-98
Fall of France’s Directorate in 1799
France under Consul Napoleon 1800-1804
France’s Napoleonic Empire at War 1805-07
France’s Napoleonic Empire at War 1808-10
Napoleon’s Empire and Russia 1811-12
France and Napoleon’s Decline in 1813
France and Napoleon’s Decline 1814-15
Germaine de Staël
Madame de Staël’s novels Delphine and Corinne
Germaine de Staël’s Later Years

France of Louis XVIII & Charles X 1814-30

France of Louis XVIII 1814-24
France of Charles X 1824-29
France’s Revolution of 1830
Socialism of Saint-Simon
Fourier’s Social Harmony
Constant’s Liberalism and Adolphe
Chateaubriand’s Romanticism

Britain’s Reaction to France 1789-1799

Britain Debating Revolution 1789-92
Paine and The Rights of Man
Paine’s Age of Reason
Wollstonecraft on the Rights of Women
Godwin on Political Justice
Britain at War Against France 1793-95
Britain at War Against France 1796-99
Ireland’s Rebellion in 1798 and Union

Britain: War and Recovery 1800-30

Britain and War 1800-05
Britain and War 1806-10
Britain and War 1811-15
Bentham’s Utilitarian Ethics
Malthus, Ricardo and James Mill
Ireland and Scotland 1800-30
Britain under the Tories 1815-19
Britain under the Tories 1820-30
Owen’s Economic Reforms
Thompson and Owenism

Romantic Era of English Literature 1789-1830

Burns’ Poetry of Scotland
Blake’s Visionary Poetry
Coleridge’s Spiritual Writing
Byron the Romantic Poet to 1816
Byron in Exile and His Manfred
Byron’s Cain and Don Juan
Shelley the Radical
Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound and Later Work
Austen’s Realistic Novels
Scott’s Historical Novels

Germans, Austria & Swiss 1789-1830

Prussia and Germans at War 1792-1815
Prussia and German States 1815-30
Austrian Empire during Revolution 1789-99
Austria and Napoleonic War 1800-14
Austria and Metternich’s Diplomacy 1814-18
Austria and Metternich’s Diplomacy 1819-30
Hungary under Imperial Austria
Swiss Cantons during the Revolution 1789-99
Swiss Cantons in Wars and After 1800-30

German Idealists and Romantics 1789-1830

Kant on Morals and Peace
Fichte’s Political Idealism
Fröbel and Herbart on Education
Hegel’s Dialectical Idealism
Schiller on Aesthetics and Ethics
Schiller’s Wallenstein and Mary Stuart
Schiller’s Maid of Orleans and Wilhelm Tell
Kleist’s Plays
Goethe’s Torquato Tasso
Goethe’s Later Novels
Goethe’s Faust

Spain, Portugal and Italy 1789-1830

Spain’s Decline and Wars 1789-1807
Spain’s War of Independence 1808-14
Spain under Fernando VII 1814-30
Portugal and War 1789-1815
Portugal 1816-30
Italy and the French Invasion 1789-99
Northern Italy under Napoleon 1800-14
Southern Italy under Napoleon 1800-14
Italy’s Restoration 1815-30

Netherlands and Scandinavia 1789-1830

Netherlands and Revolution 1789-99
Netherlands under the French 1800-14
Netherlands United under Willem 1814-30
Denmark-Norway’s Reforms & War 1789-1814
Norway’s Union with Sweden 1814-30
Sweden and Reforms 1789-1808
Sweden and Norway 1809-30

Poland, Russia & Greek Revolution 1789-1830

Poland Liberated & Invaded 1788-97
Poland Divided 1798-1830
Russian Empire 1789-1801
Russia under Aleksandr 1801-14
Russia of Aleksandr & Nikolay 1815-30
Greek War of Independence

Summary and Evaluating Europe 1789-1830

French Revolution 1789-95
France and Napoleon’s Wars 1796-1815
France’s Monarchical Restoration 1815-30
Britain during Revolution 1789-99
Britain during War and After 1800-30
Romantic English Literature
Germans and Central Europe 1789-1830
German Idealism and Romanticism
Southern Europe 1789-1830
Northern Europe 1789-1830
Eastern Europe 1789-1830
Evaluating Europe 1789-1830


Volume 16: MIDEAST & AFRICA 1700-1950

Ottoman Empire 1700-1907

Ottoman Empire 1700-1826
Ottoman Reforms 1826-53
Ottoman Reforms 1853-75
Ottoman Empire under Abdulhamid 1876-1908
Young Turks and Armenians 1889-1907

Ottoman Fall and Turkey 1908-1950

Revolution by Young Turks 1908-11
Ottoman War Losses 1911-15
Armenian Genocide and the War 1915-18
Ottoman and Turkish Split 1919-20
Turkish War of Independence 1920-23
Turkey Republic under Ataturk 1923-38
Turkey Republic under Inonü 1938-50
Halide Edib, Karaosmanoglu, and Güntekin

Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan 1700-1950

Persia of Nadir and Zands 1726-94
Persia under Qajars 1794-1876
Persia under Qajars 1876-1905
Iran and its Constitution 1905-25
Iran under Reza Pahlavi 1925-41
Iran and Its Allies 1941-50
Bábis and Bahá’u’lláh
Afghanistan 1880-1919
Afghanistan Independent 1919-50

Arabia, Yemen, and Iraq 1700-1950

Wahhabis and Saudi Arabia 1744-1810
Arabia 1810-1906
Arabia 1907-21
Saudi Arabia 1922-50
Yemen and the Persian Gulf 1741-1950
Iraq 1700-1930
Iraq 1931-50

Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan 1700-1950

Syria and Lebanon 1700-1920
Syria under the French 1920-26
Syria under the French 1927-39
Syria and Lebanon 1940-50
Gibran and The Prophet
Trans-Jordan 1917-50

Palestine and Zionism 1700-1950

Palestine 1700-1922
Zionism and Herzl 1839-1904
Zionism 1905-20
Palestine under the British 1920-39
Palestine under the British 1939-47
Israel and War 1948-50

Egypt, Sudan, and Libya 1700-1950

Egypt under the Ottomans 1700-1805
Egypt of Muhammad ‘Ali 1805-48
Egypt and the British 1848-1921
Egypt and the British 1922-50
Sudan 1700-1950
Tripoli and Libya 1700-1950

Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco 1700-1950

Algeria in the Ottoman Empire 1700-1830
Algeria under the French 1830-1919
Algeria under the French 1919-50
Tunisia under the Ottoman Empire 1700-1881
Tunisia under the French 1881-1950
Morocco 1700-1873
Morocco 1873-1911
Morocco under France and Spain 1912-39
Morocco under France and Spain 1939-50

West Africa and the French 1700-1950

West Africa and Slavery 1700-1800
Bornu and Hausaland 1700-1900
Segu 1700-1787
Futa Jallon and Tukulor 1700-1950
Guinea and Ivory Coast 1849-1916
Dahomey, Togo and Cameroun 1700-1918
French West Africa 1900-50

West Africa and the British 1700-1950

Gold Coast and Slavery 1700-1807
Asante and the British 1700-1867
Asante and the British 1867-1901
Gold Coast Colony 1901-50
Oyo and Nigeria 1700-1888
Nigeria 1888-1950
Gambia 1588-1950
Sierra Leone 1787-1950
Liberia 1816-1950

Ethiopia and Somaliland 1700-1950

Ethiopia and Somalia 1700-1868
Ethiopia and Menelik II 1868-1913
Ethiopia and Haile Selassie 1913-1950
Somaliland and Eritrea 1869-1950

East Africa 1700-1950

East Africa, Arabs, and Europeans 1700-1856
East Africa and the British 1856-1918
Kenya 1918-50
Africa’s Lakes Region 1700-1875
Buganda and the British 1875-94
Uganda and the British 1894-1950
East Africa and the Germans 1884-1918
Tanganyika and the British 1918-50

Congo, Angola, and Mozambique 1700-1950

Kongo, Angola, and the Portuguese 1700-1875
Stanley, Leopold, and the Congo 1875-1908
French Congo and Equatorial Africa 1839-1950
Belgian Congo and Rwanda 1908-50
Angola under the Portuguese 1875-1950
Mozambique 1700-1884
Mozambique under Portugal 1884-1950
Madagascar 1700-1950

Southern Africa 1700-1950

Southern Africa and the Dutch 1700-1800
South West Africa 1806-1950
Southern Africa and Rhodes 1835-1902
Rhodesia 1901-50
Zulus and Sotho 1800-75
British and Boers in South Africa 1800-42
British and Boers in South Africa 1842-75
South Africa and Imperial Wars 1875-1902
Gandhi in South Africa
South Africa and Segregation 1902-50
ANC and Dissent in South Africa 1912-50

Summary and Evaluation

Ottoman Empire and Turkey 1700-1950
Persia, Arabia, and Iraq 1700-1950
Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine 1700-1950
North Africa 1700-1950
West Africa 1700-1950
East Africa 1700-1950
Southern Africa 1700-1950
Evaluating the Mideast and Africa 1700-1950


Volume 17: United States Democracy & Slavery 1801-1844

Jeffersonian Democracy 1801-1809

Jefferson Before His Presidency
Jefferson Inauguration & Peace Policy 1801
Jefferson Administration 1801-02
America’s Naval War in North Africa
Louisiana Purchase & Exploration
Jefferson & Indian Issues
Jefferson Administration in 1803
Jefferson Administration in 1804
Jefferson Administration 1805-06
Burr Conspiracy & Trial
Jefferson & the Embargo 1807-09

Madison & the War of 1812

Madison Administration in 1809
Madison Administration in 1810-11
Madison Takes US into War in 1812
American-British War in 1813
American-British War in 1814
Madison Administration in 1815
Madison Administration 1816-17

US Era of Monroe & J. Q. Adams 1817-29

Monroe Era of Good Feeling 1817-18
General Jackson & Florida 1817-22
US Banking Crisis & Depression 1818-19
Missouri-Maine Compromise 1819-21
Monroe’s Foreign Policy 1822-23
United States Elections in 1824
United States under John Q. Adams 1825-27
United States Elections in 1828

Native Tribes, Removal & the West

Jackson, Creeks & Seminoles in Florida 1817-21
Cherokees & Laws 1817-29
Evarts & Opposition to Cherokee Removal
Cherokees & Removal West 1830-43
Choctaws & Chickasaws
Creeks & Removal West 1825-44
Black Hawk War
Second Seminole War 1835-43
Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho & Kiowa
Texas Revolution in Mexico 1817-36
Texas Republic 1836-44
Americans in New Mexico & Oregon

Jacksonian Democracy 1829-37

Jackson’s Democratic Presidency in 1829
Jacksonian Democracy 1830-31
Jackson & the US Bank
Jackson, Tariff & Nullification in 1832
Jacksonian Democracy & Whigs in 1833-34
Jacksonian Democrats & Whigs in 1835
Jacksonian Democracy in 1836-37

US Depression, Van Buren & Tyler 1837-44

Van Buren & the Panic of 1837
Van Buren & Depression 1838-39
Elections in 1840 & Harrison
Whig Government & Tyler in 1841
Tyler Administration in 1842
Tyler Administration 1843-44
Umited States Elections in 1844
De Tocqueville’s Democracy in America

US Slavery & Abolitionists 1801-44

Slavery Increases in the United States
Slave Revolts: Vesey, Turner & on Ships
Frederick Douglass & Slave Narratives
Abolitionists Lundy & Walker 1817-29
Garrison & The Liberator 1829-32
American Anti-Slavery Society 1833-34
Militant Abolitionists 1835-36
Abolitionists, Peace & Women 1837-40
Abolitionist Politics 1839-44

Women Reforming America 1801-44

Educating American Women
Catherine Beecher on Educating Women
Frances Wright & Free Inquiry
Dorothea Dix Helping the Insane
Lydia Maria Child to 1831
Childs & Abolition 1832-44
Abolitionists Mott & Grimké Sisters
Margaret Fuller
Fuller & The Dial

American Philosophy & Religion 1801-44

American Peace Societies
Unitarians & Channing
New Harmony, Brook Farm & Hopedale
Bancroft on the Human Spirit
Joseph Smith & the Book of Mormon
Joseph Smith & the Mormon Church 1830-38
Smith, Brigham Young & Mormons 1839-44

Emerson’s Transcendentalism

Emerson’s Education & Nature
Emerson’s Lectures & The Dial
Emerson on War, Peace & Reform
Emerson on History & Self-Reliance
Emerson on Compensation & Spiritual Laws
Emerson on the Over-Soul, Circles & Art
Emerson from 1841 to 1844

Literature of Irving, Cooper & Whittier

Washington Irving’s Essays & Stories
Washington Irving’s Stories & Histories
James Fenimore Cooper & his Early Novels
Cooper & His Writing 1827-38
Cooper’s Novels 1839-44
John Greenleaf Whittier

Summary & Evaluating America 1801-44

Jefferson’s Republic & Madison’s War 1801-17
United States 1817-1828
Jackson, Native Tribes & the West
Jacksonian Democracy
United States 1837-44
Slavery & Reformers 1801-44
American Philosophy & Literature 1801-44
Evaluating the United States 1801-44


United States History & Politics
Native Americans
American Slavery & Abolitionist
Women Reforming America
American Philosophy & Religion
American Literature

Volume 19: UNITED STATES & Civil War 1845-1868

Polk & the US-Mexican War 1845-49

Polk, Texas & Manifest Destiny in 1845
Polk Begins War Against Mexico in 1846
US Conquest of California & New Mexico 1846-49
Polk’s War Against Mexico in 1847
Mexican Cession & the 1848 US Election

US of Taylor, Clay & Fillmore 1849-52

Whigs & Taylor in 1849
Whigs & Taylor in 1850
Fillmore & Clay’s Compromise of 1850
United States Elections & Census of 1850
Fillmore Maintains the Union 1851-53

US of Pierce & Kansas Conflicts 1853-56

Pierce Administration in 1853
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Kansas Conflict in 1855
Kansas Conflict Resolved in 1856
United States Politics & Elections of 1856

US Western Expansion & Indians 1845-65

Native Tribes in the West 1845-65
New Mexico Territory 1845-56
New Mexico, Colorado & Arizona 1858-65
California Gold Rush & Politics 1848-65
California Indian Killing 1848-64
Mormons, Brigham Young & Utah 1845-62
Oregon & Washington Territory 1845-65

Black Americans & Abolitionists 1845-65

Black Progress in the North 1845-53
Black Progress in the North 1853-60
Blacks During Slavery in the South 1845-60
Harriet Tubman & Solomon Northup
Sojourner Truth & Harriet Jacobs
Frederick Douglass 1845-55
Frederick Douglass 1856-65

United States & Buchanan 1857-59

Buchanan, Dred Scott & Panic in 1857
Kansas & Conflicts over Slavery 1857-58
Lincoln & the Douglas Debates
Buchanan & Elections in 1858
United States in 1859
John Brown’s Crusade Against Slavery

United States Dividing 1860-61

United States in 1860
United States Elections in 1860
United States & Secession in Late 1860
United States & Secession in Early 1861

Lincoln’s War for Union in 1861

Lincoln’s Inauguration in March 1861
North & South War Begins in April 1861
Confederate Congress on April 29
North & South Mobilization in May 1861
US Civil War June-July 1861
US Civil War August-October 1861
US Civil War November-December 1861

Lincoln’s War for Union in 1862

US Civil War January-February 1862
US Civil War March-May 1862
US Civil War June-July 1862
US Civil War August-October 1862
US Civil War November-December 1862

Lincoln’s War for Emancipation in 1863

US Civil War January-February 1863
US Civil War March-April 1863
US Civil War May-July 1863
US Civil War August-October 1863
US Civil War November-December 1863

Lincoln’s War for Emancipation in 1864

US Civil War January-February 1864
US Civil War March-April 1864
US Civil War May-June 1864
US Civil War July-August 1864
US Civil War September-October 1864
US Civil War November-December 1864

United States Victory in 1865

US Civil War January-February 1865
US Civil War March 1865
United States Victory in April-May 1865

Preventing United States Civil War

How Lincoln Could Have Prevented Civil War
US Civil War Atrocities
How US History Might Have Been Better

US Reconstruction & Johnson 1865-66

US Reconstruction April-June 1865
US Reconstruction July-October 1865
US Reconstruction November-December 1865
Reconstruction & Johnson January-April 1866
Reconstruction & Johnson May-July 1866
Reconstruction & Johnson August-December 1866
United States & Red Cloud’s War 1865-66

Republican Reconstruction 1867-68

Republican Reconstruction January-March 1867
Republican Reconstruction April-December 1867
Constitutional Conventions in the South 1867-68
United States & Red Cloud’s War 1867-68
Impeachment & Trial of Johnson in 1868
United States in 1868
United States Elections in 1868

US Peacemakers & Women Reformers 1845-68

American Peacemakers & Abolitionists
Burritt & Ballou on Peace
Thoreau’s Walden & “Civil Disobedience”
Emerson on War, Great Men & Conduct
Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the 19th Century
Mrs. Stanton, Lucretia Mott & Lucy Stone
Susan B. Anthony
Lydia Child, Dorothea Dix & Oneida

American Literature 1845-65

Lowell, Longfellow & Whitman
Stowe & Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Hawthorne’s Romances
Melville’s Sea Novels
Melville’s Satirical Novels

Summary & Evaluating United States 1845-1868

United States & Mexican War 1845-1852
United States 1853-1859
US Western Expansion & Indian Tribes 1845-65
United States Slavery & Division 1845-60
United States Civil War 1861-1862
United States Civil War 1863-1865
American Reformers & Literature 1845-65
What Could Have Prevented US Civil War?
Evaluating the United States in 1845-68


United States History & Politics
Native Americans
American Slavery & Abolitionists
Women Reforming America
American Philosophy & Religion
American Literature

Volume 20: SOUTH ASIA 1800-1950

British India 1800-1848

British Conquest of the Marathas 1800-18
Sikhs and North India 1800-18
British Expansion 1818-28
Bentinck's Reforms 1828-35
Rammohun Roy and Social Reform
British Invasion of Afghanistan and Sind
Sikhs and the Punjab 1839-48

British India's Wars 1848-1881

Dalhousie's Annexations 1848-56
Mutiny and Revolt 1857-58
Reconstruction of British India 1858-76
Famine and a Second Afghan War 1876-81
Bankim Chandra Chatterji's Novels

India's Renaissance 1881-1905

Reforms in India 1881-99
Curzon's Viceroyalty 1899-1905
Ramakrishna and Vivekananda
Theosophy and Blavatsky 1875-88
Besant and Theosophy 1889-1905
Indian National Congress 1885-1905

India's Freedom Struggle 1905-1918

India's Boycott 1905-07
British Repression of India 1907-10
India in an Imperial War 1911-18
Besant, Krishnamurti, and Bhagavan Das
Aurobindo's Spiritual Evolution
Tagore's Spiritual Expressions

Gandhi and India 1919-1933

Gandhi's Soul Force and Nonviolence
Gandhi's Nonviolent Campaigns 1919-22
India's Struggle 1922-29
Premchand's Realistic Fiction
Iqbal's Islamic Poetry
India's Civil Disobedience 1930-33

Liberating India and Pakistan 1934-1950

Indian Politics 1934-39
India during World War II
India Divided 1945-47
Indian Independence 1947-48
India and Pakistan 1948-50

Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950

Tibet 1800-1905
Tibet 1905-33
Tibet 1934-50
Nepal 1800-77
Nepal 1877-1950
Ceylon 1800-75
Ceylon 1875-1931
Ceylon 1931-50

Burma, Malaya and the British 1800-1950

Burma 1800-85
Burma under the British 1886-1929
Burma under the British 1930-41
Burma Invaded 1942-45
Burma Liberated 1945-50
Malaya and the British 1800-96
Malaya and the British 1896-1941
Malaya Invaded and in Conflict 1941-50

Siam, Cambodia, and Laos 1800-1950

Siam's Monarchy 1800-1910
Siam's Monarchy 1910-32
Siam Becomes Thailand 1932-39
Thailand 1940-50
Cambodia 1800-1904
Cambodia 1904-50
Laos 1800-1940
Laos 1940-50

Vietnam and the French 1800-1950

Vietnam's Monarchy 1800-57
French Conquest of Vietnam 1858-85
Vietnamese Resistance and Doumer 1885-1902
Vietnamese Nationalists 1902-08
Vietnam under the French 1909-28
Vietnamese Revolutionaries 1928-39
Vietnam during World War II
Vietnam's August 1945 Revolution
French-Vietnam War 1946-50

Indonesia and the Dutch 1800-1950

Netherlands East Indies 1800-40
Netherlands East Indies 1840-1900
Indonesia under the Dutch 1900-08
Indonesian Nationalism 1908-27
Indonesia under Dutch Repression 1927-41
Japanese Occupation of Indonesia 1942-45
Indonesia Liberated 1945
Indonesian Revolution 1946-50

Australia to 1950

Australia as a British Penal Colony 1788-1823
Australia in Transition 1823-50
Maconochie's Penal Reforms
Australia Gold and Democracy 1851-75
Australia Reforms 1875-87
Australian Unions and Federation 1887-1900
White Australia United 1901-14
Australia in the Great War 1914-19
Australia Between Wars 1920-39
Australia and World War II 1939-50

New Zealand to 1950

Maoris and New Zealand to 1841
New Zealand and Maoris 1841-70
New Zealand Democracy 1870-1914
New Zealand's Reforms 1914-41
New Zealand and World War II 1939-50

Summary and Evaluation of South Asia 1800-1950

British India 1800-1905
India's Freedom Struggle 1905-50
Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950
Burma, Malaya, and Siam 1800-1950

Indochina 1800-1950
Australia and New Zealand 1800-1950
Evaluating South Asia 1800-1950


Volume 21: EAST ASIA 1800-1949

Qing Decline 1799-1875

Jiajing Era 1799-1820
Li Ruzhen's Flowers in the Mirror
Daoguang Era 1821-50
Opium Wars
Taiping Revolution and Other Rebellions
Qing Reconstruction 1861-75

Qing Dynasty Fall 1875-1912

China under Cixi 1875-98
Kang's Reforms of 1898
Boxer Uprising of 1900
Late Qing Reforms 1901-10
Sun Yatsen and Revolutionaries
Chinese Revolution 1911-12

Republican China in Turmoil 1912-1926

Yuan Shikai's Presidency 1912-16
China under Warlords 1916-19
May Fourth Movement of 1919
China's Struggle for Power 1920-24
Sun Yatsen and Guomindang 1920-24
May 30th Movement of 1925-26
Lu Xun's Stories

Nationalist-Communist Civil War 1927-1937

Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist Revolution 1927-28
Chinese Communism 1927-31
Nationalist China 1929-34
Chinese Communism 1932-37
Nationalist China 1934-37
Lu Xun's Essays
Mao Dun, Lao She, and Ba Jin
Ding Ling and Shen Congwen
Pearl Buck

China at War 1937-1949

Japanese Invasion of China 1937-38
Fighting the Japanese Occupation 1939-41
China's War with Allies 1942-45
Jiang, CCP, US, and USSR 1945-46
Nationalist-Communist Civil War 1946-49
Mao Zedong's Political Philosophy

Korea 1800-1949

Korea in Isolation 1800-64
Korea in Transition 1864-93
Korea Reforms 1894-1904
Japan's Annexation of Korea 1904-18
March First Movement 1919-20
Colonial Korea under Japan 1921-45
Korea Liberated and Divided 1945-49

Japan's Modernization 1800-1894

Japan Isolated 1800-37
Japan's Transition 1837-67
Meiji Restoration 1868-73
Meiji Conflicts 1873-77
People's Rights Movement 1877-84
Japan's Constitutional Development 1884-94
Fukuzawa Yukichi's Ethics

Imperial Japan 1894-1937

Japan's Growing Military 1894-1903
Japan's Victory over Russia 1904-05
Japan Between Wars 1906-14
Japan in the World War 1914-19
Japanese Progress 1920-30
Japan Takes Manchuria 1931-33
Japan's Militarism 1933-37

Japan's War and Defeat 1937-1949

Japan Invades China 1937-38
Japan's Occupation of China 1939-40
Japanese and American Diplomacy in 1941
Japan's Aggressive War 1941-42
Japan's Losing War 1943-45
Japan's Defeat and Surrender
American Occupation of Japan in 1945
American Occupation of Japan 1946-49
Trials of Japanese War Crimes
Censorship and Kurosawa's Early Films

Philippines 1800-1949

Philippines under Spain to 1800
Philippines under Spain 1800-80
Rizal and Filipino Reformers 1880-96
Filipino Revolution 1896-98
US Intervention and Filipino Independence 1898
Filipino-American War 1899-1902
Philippines under US Republicans 1902-10
Philippines under Americans 1910-33
Philippines and Quezon 1933-41
Philippines, Japan, and MacArthur 1941-45
Philippines American Independence 1945-49

Pacific Islands 1800-1949

Micronesia to 1949
Melanesia to 1949
Fiji and Tonga to 1949
Samoa to 1899
Samoa Divided 1899-1949
Tahiti to 1949
Hawaiian Islands to 1836
Hawaiian Islands 1836-76
Hawaii and the United States 1876-1900
Hawaii under the United States 1900-49

Summary and Evaluation of East Asia 1800-1949

Qing Decline 1800-1912
China's Long Revolution 1912-49
Korea 1800-1949
Japan's Modernization 1800-1930
Japan's Imperial Wars 1931-1949
Pacific Islands
Evaluating East Asia 1800-1949


Volume 23: UNITED STATES & Capitalism 1869-1897

US Reconstruction & Grant 1869-72

US Reconstruction & Grant in 1869
US Reconstruction & Grant in 1870
US Reconstruction & Grant in 1871
Grant & United States Elections in 1872
Grant’s US Indian Policy 1869-72
“Boss” Tweed in New York 1863-73

Grant & United States Depression 1873-77

Grant & the US Panic of 1873
Grant & US Depression in 1874
Grant & US Depression in 1875
Grant’s US Indian Policy 1873-76
Grant & United States Elections in 1876

United States & Hayes 1877-81

Hayes to 1877
United States & Hayes in 1877
Nez Perce, Cheyenne, Ponca & Apache 1877-80
United States & Hayes in 1878-79
United States & Hayes in 1880-81 
United States Elections in 1880

United States, Garfield & Arthur 1881-85

Garfield to 1881
United States & Garfield March-June 1881
Assassination of President Garfield
Chester Arthur to 1881
United States & Arthur July-December 1881
United States & Arthur in 1882
United States & Arthur in 1883
United States, Arthur & Elections in 1884

United States & Cleveland 1885-89

Cleveland to 1885
United States & Cleveland in 1885
United States & Cleveland in 1886
United States & Cleveland in 1887
Cleveland, Indians & the West
United States, Cleveland & Elections in 1888

United States & Harrison 1889-93

Benjamin Harrison to 1889
United States & Harrison in 1889
US, Oklahoma Territory & Wounded Knee
United States & Harrison in 1890
United States & Harrison in 1891
Harrison & United States Elections in 1892
US, Harrison & Hawaii in Early 1893

US Depression & Cleveland 1893-97

Grover Cleveland 1889-93
Cleveland, United States & Hawaii in 1893
Cleveland & United States Panic of 1893
Cleveland, Debs & the General Strike in 1894
United States & Cleveland in 1894
United States & Cleveland in 1895
Cleveland & United States Elections in 1896

US Capitalists & Socialists 1869-97

Morgan’s Capitalism & Rockefeller’s Oil
Carnegie, Steel & Philanthropy
Monopolies Versus Social Control
Henry George & Progress and Poverty

Gronlund’s Co-operative Commonwealth
Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives
Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000-1887
Donnelly & Caesar’s Column

US Labor Unions & Railroads 1869-97

Unions & Knights of Labor
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Debs & the American Railroad Union
Pullman’s Company & the 1894 ARU Strike

Edison, Bell & Inventions 1869-97

Edison’s Improved Telegraph & Telephone
Edison’s Electric Light & Phonograph
Alexander Graham Bell
Other Inventions 1869-97

US Women Reformers 1869-97

Stanton, Anthony & Suffrage 1869-79
Women Reformers 1880-96
Victoria Woodhull
Howe & Mother’s Day
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union & Willard
Lydia Maria Child’s Aspirations of the World
Jane Addams & Hull House
Ida B. Wells & Lynching Statistics

American Philosophy & Religion 1869-97

Evolution & Social Darwinism
Fiske & Cosmic Evolution|
Ward & Sociology
Royce on Idealistic Moral Insight
William James & The Principles of Psychology
American Religion 1869-97
Mary Baker Eddy’s Christian Science

American Education 1869-97

American Learning & Universities
The Education of Henry Adams

Francis Parker on Education for Freedom
Booker T. Washington & Tuskegee Institute

American Literature 1869-97

American Writing
Louisa May Alcott & Little Women
George Washington Cable
William Dean Howells
Mark Twain’s Life up to 1869
Mark Twain & His Books 1869-96
Henry James & His American Novels

US Summary & Evaluation 1869-1897

Ulysses S. Grant 1869-77
Hayes, Garfield & Arthur 1877-85
Grover Cleveland & Benjamin Harrison 1885-97
American Capitalism & Socialism
American Inventions & Women Reformers
American Philosophy & Religion
American Education & Literature
Evaluating United States 1869-1897


United States History & Politics
Native Americans
Capitalism & Socialism
Women Reformers
Philosophy, Religion & Education
American Literature

World Chronology


Volume 1: MIDEAST & AFRICA to 170000
Volume 4: GREECE & ROME to 30 BC
Volume 2: INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA to 1800
Volume 3: CHINA, KOREA & JAPAN to 18
Volume 5: ROMAN EMPIRE 30 BC to 610
Volume 6: MEDIEVAL EUROPE 610-1250
Volume 7. MEDIEVAL EUROPE 1250-1400
Volume 8. EUROPE & HUMANISM 1400-1517
Volume 9: EUROPE & Reform 1517-1588
Volume 10: EUROPE: Wars & Plays 1588-1648
Volume 11: Latin America & Canada to 1850
Volume 11: AMERICA to 1744
Volume 12: EUROPE & Kings 1648-1715
Volume 13: AMERICAN REVOLUTION to 1800
Volume 14: EUROPE & REASON 1715-1788
Volume 15: EUROPE & REVOLUTION 1789-1830

Volume 16: MIDEAST & AFRICA 1700-1950
Volume 17: UNITED STATES Democracy & Slavery 1801-1844
Volume 17: AMERICAN Democracy & Slavery 1817-1844
Volume 28. EUROPE & EVOLUTION 1830-1875 
Volume 19: UNITED STATES & Civil War 1845-1868

Volume 20: SOUTH ASIA 1800-1950
Volume 21: EAST ASIA 1800-1949
Volume 22. Latin America & Canada 1850-1950
Volume 23: UNITED STATES & Capitalism 1869-1897
Volume 24. EUROPE & IMPERIALISM 1875-1914                               
Volume 25. UNITED STATES & PROGRESS 1897-1921
Volume 26. EUROPE & WORLD WARS 1914-1945
Volume 28. EUROPE & COLD WAR 1945-1968
Volume 30. EUROPE & COLD WAR 1969-1988
Volume 31. UNITED STATES & COLD WAR 1969-1988
Volume 32. SOUTH ASIA 1950-2020
Volume 33. EAST ASIA 1950-2020
Volume 34. MIDEAST & AFRICA 1950-2020
Volume 35. LATIN AMERICA & CANADA 1950-2020
Volume 36. EUROPEAN UNION 1989-2020
Volume 38. GLOBAL SOCIETY 2021-2028
Volume 39. GLOBAL SOCIETY 2029-2036
Volume 40. GLOBAL SOCIETY 2037-2044

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1648
Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950
Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1648

Chronology of America to 1817

BECK index