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World Chronology

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE

World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1648
World Chronology 1588-1715
World Chronology 1715-88

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750 Nan-chao allied with Tibet.
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
c. 750 Old English epic Beowulf was composed.
750-945 'Abbasid Caliphate ruled most of Islam.
751 Tang armies were defeated by Nan-zhao.
751 Muslim paper mill was founded at Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
751 Byzantines lost Ravenna to the Lombards.
751 Pippin was anointed king of the Franks by bishops. Franks
752 Rushana (Vairocana) Buddha was dedicated in Nara. Japan
753 Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga controlled Maharashtra. Hindu Kingdoms
753, 758 Pippin fought the Saxons. Franks
754 Boniface was killed by marauding Frisians. Franks
754 Pope Stephen II anointed King Pippin. Franks
754-64 Chinese population fell from 52,880,488 to 16,900,000. Tang Dynasty
754-75 Caliph Al-Mansur ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
755-63 Rebellion against Tang was led by general An Lu-shan.
755 Tibet collected tribute from the Pala king of Bengal.
755-97 Khri-slon-Ide-brtsan ruled Tibet.
756 Bulgarians invaded Byzantine territory.
756 Eadberht and Picts captured Briton capital Alcluith. Anglo-Saxons
756-62 Su Zong reigned during An Lu-shan's rebellion in China. Tang Dynasty
756-65 Byzantines fought annual campaigns against Bulgarians.
756-74 Desiderius was the last independent Lombard king.
756-88 Umayyad Rahman Ibn Mu'awiya ruled Spain at Cordoba.
756-1031 Umayyads ruled Muslim Spain.
757-68 Fruela I ruled in Leon. Spain
757-86 Cynewulf ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
757-96 Offa ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
758 Arabs and Persians sacked Canton. 'Abbasid Caliphate
758 Slav uprisings in Thrace and Macedonia were put down. Byzantine
758-810 Northumbria suffered revolts and changing rulers. Anglo-Saxons
759 Tang state began the lucrative salt monopoly.
759 Franks took Narbonne back from the Muslims. Franks
760 Monasteries Clonmacnoise and Birr battled each other. Franks
760-68 Pippin led annual campaigns against Aquitane. Franks
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
762 Islamic capital at Baghdad was begun. 'Abbasid Caliphate
762-79 Dai Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
763 Tibetans invaded China's capital at Chang-an. Tang Dynasty
767 'Abd al-Rahman made a 20-year truce with Asturias. Umayyad Spain
768 Civil war broke out in Silla. Korea
768-814 Charlemagne ruled the Frank empire.
768-824 Writer Han Yu criticized Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
771 Charlemagne became sole Frank king.
772 Al-Fazari in Baghdad called Ghana the land of gold. West Africa
772-805 Charlemagne's Franks waged war against the Saxons.
772-846 Bo Ju-yi wrote poetry and served government. Tang Dynasty
774 Javanese invaded Annam and Champa. Java
775-80 Leo IV ruled the Byzantine empire.
775-85 Caliph Al-Mahdi ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
776 Early Sufi Abu Hashim died.
777 Early Sufi Ibrahim Ibn Adham died.
778 Charlemagne failed at Zaragoza but razed Pamplona.
779 Mercia's Offa conquered Wessex at Bensington. Anglo-Saxons
779-805 De Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
780 Tara king Donnchadh Midi defeated the Ui Chennselaig. Irish Legends
780-97 Constantine VI reigned over the Byzantine empire.
781 Pope Adrian crowned Pippin and Louis kings. Charlemagne
c. 781 Alcuin wrote The Bishops, Kings, and Saints of York.
781-86 Tax rebellions occurred in northwest China. Tang Dynasty
781-806 Kammu ruled Japan.
781-857 Harith Muhasibi was a theologian of the Shafi'i school.
782 Charlemagne appointed Saxon nobles as counts.
782-94 Alcuin traveled with Charlemagne's itinerant court.
783 Persian prophet Salik Ibn Abdul Quddus was crucified. 'Abbasid Caliphate
784-806 Tarasius was Constantinople patriarch. Byzantine Iconoclasm
785 Tibet invaded Shensi.
786 Thuringian counts rebelled. Charlemagne
786-802 Brihtric ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
786-809 Caliph Harun al-Rashid ruled from wealthy Baghdad. 'Abbasid Caliphate
787 Bavaria's Tassilo capitulated to the Franks. Charlemagne
787 Franks invaded southern Italy. Charlemagne
788 Silla instituted civil service examinations. Korea
788-820 Shankara taught Vedanta philosophy. Hindu Kingdoms
788-974 Idrisid dynasty ruled Morocco. 'Abbasid Caliphate
789, 800 Charlemagne ordered oaths of allegiance.
789-804 Willihad was bishop of Bremen. Charlemagne
791 Buddhism was made the official religion of Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
791 Franks invaded the Avars in the Danube region. Charlemagne
791-842 Alfonso II ruled Leon. Spain
793 Vikings raided and slaughtered monks at Lindisfarne. Anglo-Saxons
793-814 Rashtrakuta king Govinda III ruled most of India. Hindu Kingdoms
794 Walid ibn Tarif in Jazira led a Khariji rebellion. 'Abbasid Caliphate
c. 794 Alcuin wrote a book on rhetoric for Charlemagne.
794 Mercia's Offa had East Anglia's Aethelberht beheaded. Anglo-Saxons
794, 798 Franks deported Saxons. Charlemagne
795 Islamic jurist Malik ibn Anas died. 'Abbasid Caliphate
795-835 Norsemen raided the coasts of Ireland. Anglo-Saxons
796 Franks seized Avar treasures in their Ring capital. Charlemagne
796 Offa had a long dyke built and invaded Dyfed. Anglo-Saxons
796-804 Alcuin was abbot of St. Martin's at Tours.
796-821 Cenwulf ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
796-822 Al-Hakam I ruled Muslim Spain.
796-859 Dhu al-Nun Misri was an ascetic Sufi.
797 'Abbasids and Byzantines exchanged prisoners.
797-802 Irene ruled the Byzantine empire.
797, 807 Frank ambassadors went to Harun al-Rashid at Baghdad. Charlemagne
799 Pope Leo III was mutilated. Charlemagne
799 Alcuin debated Felix, who recanted on Adoptionism.
799-801 Franks blockaded Barcelona. Charlemagne
c. 799-847 Vijayaditya II ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
800.12.25 Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III.
c. 800-1400 Mound builders had cities in Mississippi Valley. Northern America
801 Nan-zhao and China invaded Tibet. Tang Dynasty
802 Harun divided his empire between his two sons. 'Abbasid Caliphate
802 Charlemagne promulgated Christianized laws.
802-11 Nicephorus I ruled the Byzantine empire.
802-39 Ecgberht ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
802-50 Jayavarman II ruled Cambodia.
803 Harun al-Rashid had his best friend Ja'far killed. 'Abbasid Caliphate
804 Tibetan king Mu-ne-btsan-po was murdered. Tibet
804 Franks deported 10,000 Saxon families. Charlemagne
804-05 Tara king Aed Oirnide attacked Leinster. Irish Legends
805 Saicho (Dengyo Daishi) founded Tendai Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
805 Rafi Ibn Layth led a rebellion in Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
805 Muslim navy plundered Cyprus. 'Abbasid Caliphate
805 Avar khagan was baptized and pledged fealty. Charlemagne
805 Frank prince Charles invaded Bohemia. Charlemagne
806 Muslims led by Harun al-Rashid captured Tyana. 'Abbasid Caliphate
806-20 Xian Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
807 China had an army of 850,000 men. Tang Dynasty
807 Muslim navy plundered Rhodes. 'Abbasid Caliphate
807 Kent returned to being a Mercian province. Anglo-Saxons
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
808-10 Franks made war against the Danes. Charlemagne
809 Bulgarians led by Krum destroyed Sardica. Byzantine
809 Ecgberht conquered Cornwall for Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
810-40 Eanred ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
812 Byzantines recognized Charlemagne as western emperor.
813-20 Leo V ruled the Byzantine empire.
813-33 Caliph Al-Ma'mun ruled from Marv and Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
814-31 Omurtag ruled the Bulgarian kingdom. Byzantine
814-40 Louis the Pious ruled the Frank Empire.
816 Kukai (Kobo Daishi) founded Shingon Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
817 Vengi king Vijayaditya II overthrew Rashtrakutas. Hindu Kingdoms
817-37 Ral-pa-can ruled Tibet.
c. 820 Chinese army reached 990,000 men. Tang Dynasty
820 Islamic jurist al-Shafi'i died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
820-29 Michael II ruled the Byzantine empire.
821 Karakka reinstated Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I. Hindu Kingdoms
822 Tibetan king Ral-pa-can made peace with China. Tibet
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
822 Mercia's Ceolwulf conquered the kingdom of Powys. Anglo-Saxons
822-52 'Abd al-Rahman II ruled Muslim Spain.
824-44 Sena I ruled Lanka, fled Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
825 Ecgberht's Wessex army defeated Mercia at Ellendum. Anglo-Saxons
825-961 Muslims ruled Crete. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
826 Danes were baptized and pledged fealty to the Franks. Frank Empire
827 Al Ma'mun declared the Qur'an a creation. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
827-40 Chinese emperor Wen Zong drank himself to death. Tang Dynasty
827-40 Wiglaf regained and ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
829 Anskar visited Swedish king Bjorn at Birka. Frank Empire
829-37 Toledo revolted. Umayyad Spain
829-42 Theophilus ruled the Byzantine empire.
831 Aghlabids occupied most of Sicily. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
831 Anskar was consecrated archbishop at Hamburg. Frank Empire
832 Nanchao plundered the Pyu capital. Vietnam
833 Emperor Louis gave Pippin's kingdom to Charles. Frank Empire
833-42 Caliph Al-Mu'tasim acquired an army of Turkish slaves. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
834 Viking raids of Frisia became frequent.
836 Chinese were forbidden to relate to foreigners. Tang Dynasty
836 Al-Mu'tasim had a new capital built at Samarra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
836 Nubians made a treaty with the Baghdad Caliph.
836 Vikings sacked Clonmore and sold prisoners.
838 Dane king Horic claimed Dorestad. Vikings
839 Charles, Lothar, and Louis divided the Frank Empire.
839-56 Aethelwulf ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
840 Muslims destroyed independent Capua.‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
840-46 Daoist Wu Zong ruled China and cut back Buddhists. Tang Dynasty
841 Muslims captured Bari. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
841 Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar. Frank Empire
841 Vikings stayed the winter at Dublin.
842 Dane army killed many at Canterbury and London. Anglo-Saxons
842-47 Caliph Al-Wathiq enforced his liberal views. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
842-67 Michael III reigned over the Byzantine empire.
843 Treaty of Verdun divided Frank Empire in three.
843-46 Buddhism was persecuted in China. Tang Dynasty
843-55 Lothar I ruled the Frank kingdom of Lotharingia. Frank Empire
843-75 Louis the German ruled the eastern Frank kingdom. Frank Empire
843-77 Charles the Bald ruled the western Frank kingdom. Frank Empire
844 Vikings raided Gijon, La Coruña, and Seville. Umayyad Spain
844-79 Sena II ruled Lanka and defeated the Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
845 Vikings raided Paris and Hamburg. Frank Empire
845 Charles the Bald paid Ragnar 7,000 pounds of silver. Frank Empire
845 Turgeis was captured by Meath king Mael Seachlainn. Irish Legends
c. 845 Charles the Bald made Erigena head of his palace school. Frank Empire
845-82 Rheims archbishop Hincmar led clergy. Frank Empire
846 Muslim army from Cordoba sacked Leon. Umayyad Spain
846 Moravian Christian Rastislav overthrew pagan Mojmir. Frank Empire
846-59 Xiuan Zong ruled China and revived Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
847 Kings Lothar, Louis, and Charles issued Edict of Mersen. Franks
847-61 Caliph al-Mutawakkil reasserted Sunni orthodoxy. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
848-92 Vijayaditya III ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
849 Burmese capital of Pagan was founded. Burma
849-c. 1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
c. 850 Thousand Legends was translated into Arabic. 1001 Nights
850-66 Ordoño ruled Leon. Spain
851 John Scotus Erigena challenged the views of monk Gottschalk.
851 Danes took over Dublin. Vikings
852 Norwegians attacked the Danish fleet at Carlingford. Vikings
852-86 Muhammad I ruled Muslim Spain. Umayyad Spain
852-89 Boris I Michael ruled Bulgaria.
853 Byzantine fleet burned Damietta in Egypt. Byzantine Empire
853-71 Norwegian Prince Olaf ruled Dublin. Vikings
854-93 Indravarman II ruled Champa. Cambodia
855 Lothar's kingdom was divided for his three sons. Frank Empire
855-69 Lothar II ruled Lotharingia. Frank Empire
855-83 Avanti-varman ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
857 Salomon replaced Brittany duke Erispoe by assassination. Frank Empire
858 Gandersheim monastery was founded. Frank Empire
858-72 Yoshifusa governed Japan as regent.
858-922 Persian Sufi al-Hallaj lived.
859-73 Yi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
860 Russians attacked Constantinople. Byzantine Empire
c. 860 Alsatian monk Otfrid wrote a poetic life of Christ. Frank Empire
860-62 Pope Nicholas refused to grant Lothar a divorce. Frank Empire
860-65 Aethelberht ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
862 Judith eloped with Count Baldwin of Flanders. Frank Empire
862-66 John Scotus Erigena wrote On the Division of Nature.
862-79 Count Baldwin I ruled Flanders. Frank Empire
863 Nanchao captured the Annam capital. Vietnam
863 Utamish, first Turkish vizier, was assassinated. 'Abbasid Caliphate
863 Cyril and Methodius began preaching to Slavs. Byzantine Empire
863 Young Charles died, and Louis II took Provence. Frank Empire
863 Pope Nicholas deposed two archbishops. Frank Empire
864 Bulgarian prince Boris was baptized Michael.
865 A large army of Danes landed in East Anglia. Anglo-Saxons
865-71 Aethelred ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
865-925 Al-Razi taught Platonic philosophy and medicine.
866 Louis II conscripted an army. Frank Empire
866-911 Alfonso III ruled Castile. Spain
867 Constantinople synod excommunicated Pope Nicholas. Byzantine Empire
867 Muslims besieged Dubrovnik. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
867-86 Basil I ruled the Byzantine empire.
868 Pope Adrian II approved a Slavic church. Frank Empire
868-905 Tulunids ruled Egypt and Syria. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
869 Al-Jahiz, author of Book of Proof, died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-73 Carloman was a robber baron. Frank Empire
870-91 Al-Muwaffaq ruled for his brother Caliph al-Mutamid. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-950 Al-Farabi combined Platonic philosophy and Islam.
871 Ex-slaves destroyed Basra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
871-99 Alfred ruled Wessex.
871-907 Aditya I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
872 Byzantines attacked Paulicians in Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire
873-88 Xi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
873-98 Barcelona count Wifred was independent of Franks. Spain
874 Persian Sufi Bayazid Bistami died.
874-79 Ceolwulf II ruled Mercia for the Danes.
874-83 Rebellions spread throughout China. Tang Dynasty
875 Pope John VIII crowned Charles the Bald emperor. Frank Empire
876 Ya'qub was defeated trying to take Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
877 Danes from neighboring Deira attacked Ivar at Dublin.
877-91 Fujiwara Mototsune governed Japan as regent.
878 Muslims conquered Syracuse. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
878 Dane army led by Guthrum occupied Chippenham.
878-914 Rashtrakuta king Krishna II fought wars. Hindu Kingdoms
879-918 Count Baldwin II ruled Flanders. Frank Empire
881 Charles the Fat was crowned emperor. Frank Empire
881 Louis III defeated Vikings at Saucourt. Frank Empire
882-942 Saadia ben Joseph taught Judaic philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
883 Muslims defeated Byzantines at Tarsus. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
884, 892 Danes returned to attack Kent.
885-99 Alfred sponsored translation of books into English.
886 Alfred occupied London and made a treaty with Guthrum.
886-912 Leo VI ruled the Byzantine empire.
887 Charles the Fat abdicated. Frank Empire
888-904 Xi Zong reigned over a disintegrating China. Tang Dynasty
888-912 'Abd Allah ruled Muslim Spain.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
889 Peasant uprisings began in Silla. Korea
889-93 Vladimir tried to return Bulgaria to paganism.
892 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was compiled. England
892-96 Alfred's forces fought the Danes.
892-902 Caliph al-Mu'tadid regained territories from the Tulunids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
892-907 Isma'il ruled the Samanid state.
892-914 Smbat ruled Armenia. Byzantine Empire
892-922 Chalukya-Bhima I ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
893 Dane army raided Hampshire and Berkshire.
893 Welsh bishop Asser wrote a biography of Alfred.
893-927 Symeon ruled Bulgaria.
893-974 Yahya ibn 'Adi taught Jacobite Christian philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
898 Berengar I was made king of Italy.
898-922 Charles the Simple ruled western Francia. Franks
899-924 Edward ruled Wessex. England
900 Count Baldwin II had Rheims archbishop Fulk murdered. Franks
c. 900 Zapatec centralized government ended. Mayans
900-11 Louis the Child reigned in Germany.
902-08 Caliph al-Muktafi made peace with Saminids and Saffarids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
902-14 Cearbhall, Irish king of Leinster, ruled Dublin. England
902-24 Berengar I was king of Italy.
904 Chinese used gunpowder as a weapon. Tang Dynasty
904-11 Marozia was the mistress of Pope Sergius.
905-26 Sancho I ruled Navarre. Spain
907 Sufi Abu'l-Husayn an-Nuri died.
907-23 Zhu Wen founded the Later Liang dynasty. Tang Dynasty
907-53 Parantaka I ruled the Chola empire in south India. Hindu Kingdoms
907-60 Five dynasties and ten kingdoms ruled China. Tang Dynasty
908-32 Caliph al-Muktadir ruled a disintegrating Muslim empire. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
909 Fatimids and Berbers conquered Qairawan.
909 Rheims archbishop Herveus convened a reform synod. Franks
909 Edward's army attacked Danes in Northumbria. England
910 Sufi scholar Junayd of Baghdad died.
910 Aquitane's William the Pious founded Cluny monastery. Franks
910 Danes invaded Mercia and were defeated.
911 Russia's Oleg made a trade treaty with Constantinople.
911 Normans led by Rolf settled in Normandy. Western Europe
911 Lotharingia led by Reginar went over to Charles. Franks
911-18 Conrad ruled Germany.
911-19 Aethelflaed, Edward's sister, ruled Mercia. England
912-61 'Abd al-Rahman III ruled from flourishing Cordoba. Spain
913 Al-Tabari wrote Muslim history up to this year. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
913-45 Igor ruled Russia.
914-22 Rashtrakuta king Indra III captured Kanauj. Hindu Kingdoms
914-24 Ordoño II ruled Leon and Gallicia. Spain
914-28 John X was Pope.
915 Italians defeated marauding Saracens near the Garigliano. Italy
915-28 Ashot II ruled Armenia. Byzantine Empire
918 Wang Kon founded the Koryo dynasty. Korea
918 Vikings invaded Brittany.
918 Vikings led by Raegnald attacked the Scots.
918-65 Count Arnulf ruled Flanders. Western Europe
919 Vikings took over York. Danes
919-36 Heinrich the Fowler ruled Germany.
920 Fatimids built their capital at Mahdiyya.
920 Vikings led by Sihtric invaded Mercia with a Dublin army. Danes
920-44 Romanus ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
922 Francia duke Robert was crowned king at Rheims. Franks
923-36 Raoul ruled France. Franks
924 Normans took Bessin and Maine. Western Europe
924-33 Heinrich's Germans and the Magyars observed a truce.
925-39 Athelstan ruled much of England.
926-41 Cluny abbot Odo secured free elections. Franks
926-47 Hugh of Arles was king of Italy.
927 Scotland and Strathclyde recognized English authority. England
927-69 Peter ruled Bulgaria. Germans
928 Guido and Marozia imprisoned and killed Pope John X.
928-32 Heinrich's German army fought the Slavic Wends.
928-51 Abas ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
929-47 Sindok founded a dynasty in east Java.
929-67 Boleslav ruled Bohemia. Germans
930 Raoul's Franks defeated the Normans at Limoges.
930 36 chieftains adopted Gulathing Law in Iceland. Vikings
931-50 Ramiro II ruled Leon. Spain
932 Agrarian revolt occurred in Bithynia. Byzantine Expansion
932-39 Doge Pietro Candiano II ruled Venice. Italy
932-54 Alberic II governed Rome. Italy
933 Tendai Ennin faction went to Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
933 Venice boycotted Istria to get a peace treaty. Italy
933 Heinrich's forces defeated the Magyar invasion of Saxony. Germans
933 Normans took Cotentin and Avranchin. Western Europe
934 Sweden king Gnupa attacked Frisia. Vikings
934 Denmark king Gorm the Old accepted peace with Germany. Vikings
934 Athelstan invaded Scotland by land and sea. England
935 Last Silla king Kyongsun surrendered. Korea
935 Germany's Heinrich reconciled Herbert and Raoul. Franks
935-1000 Hrotsvitha wrote six plays at Gandersheim abbey. Germans
936 Koryo's first king Taejo unified the Korean peninsula. Korea
936-50 Gorm the Old ruled at Jelling in Jutland. Vikings
936-54 Louis IV ruled France. Franks
936-73 Otto I ruled Germany.
936-1030 Miskawayh wrote history and taught philosophy.
937 Magyars crossed Franconia and invaded Saxony. Germans
937 Scots and Vikings invading England were defeated.
939 Vietnam became independent.
939 Germans made civil war against Otto.
939-46 Edmund ruled England.
939-67 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III ruled an empire in India. Hindu Kingdoms
940 Otto's army drove Frank king Louis out of Lotharingia. Franks
941 Russians raided the Bithynian coast.
942 William I of Normandy was murdered in Flanders. Western Europe
942-52 Malcolm ruled Scotland. England
942-59 Doge Pietro Candiano III ruled Venice. Italy
942-96 Richard I ruled Normandy. Franks
942-1017 Genshin wrote Essentials of Salvation. Japan's Heian Era
944 Venice boycotted Aquileia to get a peace treaty. Italy
944-59 Constantine VII ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
945 Cambodians invaded Champa.
945 Buyid brothers took power in Baghdad.
945-62 Olga ruled Russia.
946 Constantine VII and Saif ad-Daula exchanged prisoners. Byzantine Expansion
946 Otto I helped Louis IV recapture Rheims. Franks
946-55 Eadred ruled England.
947 Constantine VII ordered land restored to peasants. Byzantine Expansion
947 Magyars led by Taxis ravaged Apulia. Germans
947-51 Later Hans destroyed 30,000 Buddhist monasteries. Tang Dynasty
947-92 Count Borrell ruled Barcelona. Spain
947-1125 Khitans ruled Liao empire. Song Dynasty
948 Otto founded five bishoprics in Mainz and Bremen.
948, 952-54 Erik Bloodaxe was king in York. England
949 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III defeated the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
949 Magyars made peace and were baptized. Germans
950 Otto's army ended the rebellion of Bohemia's Boleslav. Germans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in the valley of Mexico.
950-61 Berengar II and his son Adalbert were co-kings of Italy.
951 Otto with his brothers Heinrich and Bruno invaded Italy.
952 Council of Augsburg forbade marriage to ecclesiastics. Germans
952-77 Ashot III ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
953-55 Franconia, Swabia, Saxony, and Bavaria revolted. Germans
953-69 Mahendra IV ruled Lanka and restored monasteries. Hindu Kingdoms
954 Magyars pillaged Vermandois and Burgundy. Germans
954-86 Lothair ruled France. Franks
955 Otto's army slaughtered Obodrites. Germans
956 Otto's son Liutprand drove out Italy's kings.
957 Olga of Russia visited Constantinople.
959 Jain Somadeva wrote Sanskrit romance Yashastilaka. Literature of Medieval India
959-75 Edgar ruled England in relative peace.
959-76 Doge Pietro Candiano IV ruled Venice. Italy
960 Fujiwara Morosuke wrote Admonitions of Kujo-den. Japan's Heian Era
960-76 Tai-zi founded Song dynasty.
960-1028 Gershom ben Jehuda taught the Talmud in Mainz. Germans
960-1279 Song dynasty ruled China.
961 Otto sent Adalbert to Kiev as a missionary.
961-76 Al-Hakam II ruled from flourishing Cordoba. Umayyad Spain
962 Nubians occupied southern Egypt.
962 Otto was crowned Emperor at Rome. Italy
962 Otto proclaimed John XII's possession of papal lands. Italy
962-72 Sviatoslav ruled Russia.
963-69 Nicephorus Phocas ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
964 Russians led by Sviatoslav subjugated the Viatichi.
965 Poland's Duke Mieszko married Bohemian Dubravka. Germans
965 Lothair invaded Flanders. Franks
965 Iceland was divided into quarters. Vikings
966-84 Ramiro III ruled Leon. Spain
967-81 Pandulf Ironhead was duke of Spoleto. Italy
968 Fatimids and Berbers took over Egypt.
968 Byzantines and Russians captured the Bulgarian capital.
969-76 John Tzimisces ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
970 Bardas Sclerus defeated Russians at Arcadiopolis. Byzantine Expansion
970-94 Sancho II ruled Navarre. Spain
970-95 Count Garcia Fernandez ruled Castile. Spain
970-97 Geza ruled the Magyars. Germans
971 Russians retreated from Constantinople
971 John Tzimisces attacked the Bulgarian capital. Byzantine Expansion
972 Otto II married Byzantine princess Theaphano at Rome.
973 Harald Bluetooth paid homage to German emperor Otto I. Vikings
973 Otto I met various envoys at Quedlinburg.
973-83 Otto II ruled Germany.
974 Chalukya king Taila II defeated Ganga Marasimha III. Hindu Kingdoms
974 Qarmatians invaded Egypt but were defeated. Fatimid Africa
974 Harald Bluetooth raided Holstein. Vikings
974 Otto II fought wars with Danes, Lotharingia and Bohemia.
974-95 Rajamalla IV ruled Gangas. Hindu Kingdoms
976-97 Tai Zong ruled China. Song Dynasty
976-1009 Hisham II reigned over Muslim Spain.
976-1025 Basil II ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
977 Sebuk-Tegin founded the Ghaznavid empire.
977 Otto II defeated the three Heinrichs.
978 Chinese imperial library had 80,000 volumes. Song Dynasty
978 Lothair's forces drove Otto II out of Aachen. Franks
978-83 'Adud al-Daula ruled in Baghdad. Buyids
978-1015 Aethelred ruled England.
979-1027 Mahendra V ruled Lanka. India
980 Otto II's German army occupied Paris.
980 Lothar agreed to let Otto have Lotharingia. Franks
980-82 Vikings raided the English coastline.
980-1003 Queen Didda ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
980-1010 Firdausi wrote The Book of Kings (Shah-nameh).
980-1015 Vladimir ruled Russia.
980-1037 Avicenna developed Aristotelian philosophy.
981 Annam (Vietnam) repelled a Song invasion.
981 Enryakuji monks demonstrated at court. Japan's Heian Era
981-97 Songjong ruled Koryo. Korea
982 Germans were defeated by Saracens near Cotrone.
982 Greenland was explored and named by Erik the Red. Vikings
982-97 Prague bishop Adalbert was killed converting Prussians. Germans
983 Svein Forkbeard led Danes in an attack on Slesvig. Vikings
983-91 Empress Theaphano was regent in Germany.
983-1002 Otto III was king of Germany.
985 Muslims led by al-Mansur burned Barcelona. Spain
c. 985 Svein Forkbeard overthrew Harald Bluetooth. Vikings
985-1014 Rajaraja I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
986 Erik the Red began a colony on Greenland. Vikings
987-96 Hugh Capet ruled France. Franks
987-1040 Count Fulk the Black ruled Anjou. Franks
988 Muslims led by al-Mansur destroyed Leon. Spain
988 Vladimir and Russians adopted Christianity.
988-1069 Buddhist Tilopa taught Naropa in India.
c. 989 Invading Ghazni sultan Sabutkin defeated Hindu chiefs. Muslim Invaders
989 Russians helped Basil II defeat Bardas Phocas. Byzantine Expansion
989 Church council at Charroux declared the Peace of God. Franks
990 Soninke of Ghana captured Awdaghost. West Africa
c. 990 Svein Forkbeard attacked Norway. Vikings
990-1006 Srivijaya fought east Java.
990-1020 Gagik I ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
994-1049 Odilo was abbot of Cluny. Franks
991 Basil II invaded Macedonia. Byzantine Expansion
991 King Aethelred paid Olaf's Vikings to leave England.
991 England and Normandy signed a treaty.
991 Aelfric published Catholic Homilies in English. England
991-95 Empress Adelaide was regent in Germany.
991-1008 Doge Peter Orseolo II ruled Venice. Italy
991-1018 English paid 228,500 pounds of silver to Vikings. England
991-1031 Caliph al-Qadir codified Sunni doctrine. Buyids
992 Venice gained a commercial treaty with Byzantines. Italy
992-1018 Count Ramon Borrell ruled Barcelona. Spain
992-1025 Duke Boleslav I ruled Poland. Germans
992-1074 Drogmi taught Tantric Buddhism in Tibet.
993 Khitan army invaded Koryo. Korea
994 Olaf Tryggvason and Svein Forkbeard attacked London. England
994-1064 Ibn Hazm wrote wise books.
c. 995 Sei Shonagon wrote Pillow Book. Japan's Heian Era
995-1000 Olaf Tryggvason ruled Norway. Vikings
995-1027 Fujiwara Michinaga dominated the Japanese court. Japan's Heian Era
996 Basil II issued a new law on land reform. Byzantine Expansion
996-99 Bruno as Gregory V was the first German Pope.
996-1026 Duke Richard II ruled Normandy. Western Europe
996-1031 Robert II ruled France. Franks
996-1037 Count Odo II ruled Blois. Franks
997-1002 Viking raiders harried the Wessex coast. England
997-1038 King Stephen ordered all Magyars to be baptized. Eastern Europe
998-1022 Zeng Zong ruled China and paid Liao annual tribute. Song Dynasty
998-1030 Mahmud expanded the militaristic Ghaznavid empire.
999 Fatimids and Byzantines agreed to a ten-year truce.
999-1003 Gerbert as Sylvester II was the first French Pope.
999-1028 Alfonso V ruled Leon. Spain
1000 Venice conquered the Dalmatians. Italy
1000 Denmark and Sweden defeated Norway's Olaf. Vikings
1000 Thorgeir adopted Christianity in Iceland. Vikings
c. 1000 Leif Erikson explored the North American continent. Vikings
c. 1000 Mississippi river valley people built mounds. North America
1000-27 Ghazni ruler Mahmud invaded India 12 times.
1000-35 Sancho Garcés III ruled Navarre. Spain
1001 Basil II launched a campaign to regain the Balkans. Byzantine Expansion
1001-31 William of Dijon ran the monastery at Féchamp. Franks
1002 Aethelred ordered Danish men in England killed.
1002-24 Heinrich II ruled Germany.
1002-50 Suryavarman I ruled Cambodia.
1003 Rebellion by Ernest and Bruno against Heinrich II failed. Germans
1003-04 Svein's fleet invaded England and pillaged Norwich.
1004 Heinrich II was crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia. Italy
1004-07 Thorvald Erikson explored northeastern colonies.
1005 Heinrich II suppressed an uprising of Frisians. Germans
1005 Germans were defeated near Posen.
1005 Heinrich II appointed ascetic Godehard abbot of Hersfeld. Germans
1005 Skapti Thoroddsson established Iceland's appeals court. Vikings
1006-88 'Abdullah Ansari taught Sufis in Herat.
1006 Heinrich II's German forces invaded Burgundy.
1007 Heinrich II's German army ravaged Flanders.
1007 Heinrich II established the see of Bamberg. Germans
1007-72 Peter Damian wrote about monastic reforms. Italy
1008-26 Doge Otto Orseolo ruled Venice. Italy
1009 Boleslav's Polish army invaded the march east of Saxony. Eastern Europe
1009-15 Danes conquered the English.
1009-28 Ly Cong Uan ruled Vietnam.
c. 1010 Murasaki Shikibu wrote The Tale of Genji.
1010 Gao king Kossoi became a Muslim. West Africa
1010 Barcelona count Ramon Borrell sacked Cordoba. Spain
c. 1010 Thorfinn Karlsefni traded in North America. Vikings
1010-12 Poland's Boleslav gained Lausitz from Heinrich II. Eastern Europe
1011-61 Nasr al-Daula ruled southeastern Anatolia. Buyids
1012 Heinrich II expelled Jews from Mainz. Germans
1012 Simon ben Isaac bribed officials for Jews in Mainz. Germans
1012-44 Rajendra I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1012-96 Kagyu-pa Buddhist Marpa taught Milarepa. Tibetan Buddhism
1013 Mahmud attacked and annexed most of the Punjab. Muslim Invaders
1013 Svein Forkbeard led the Danish conquest of England.
1014 Byzantines defeated the Macedonian army. Byzantine Expansion
1014 Heinrich II was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII.
1015 Saracens led by Mujahid from Spain conquered Sardinia.
1015-19 Heinrich's Germans waged war against Poland and Burgundy.
1016 Normans helped Salerno prince Guaimar fight Saracens. Italy
1016 Anjou count Fulk the Black defeated Blois count Odo II. Franks
1016-28 Olaf Haraldsson ruled Norway. Vikings
1016-35 Knut ruled England.
1016-1100 Naropa taught Marpa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1017 Heinrich II restored Christian Mistislav over pagan Obodrites. Eastern Europe
1017-1137 Ramanuja taught non-dualist devotion to Vishnu. India
1017-73 Zhou Dunyi commented on the Book of Changes. Song Dynasty
1018 Boleslav's Polish forces occupied Kiev. Eastern Europe
1019 Heinrich II confirmed relatives of serfs were not free. Germans
1019-54 Yaroslav ruled Russia.
1020 Heinrich's German forces captured Ghent.
1028-35 Count Berenguer Ramon I ruled Barcelona. Spain
1018-52 Rajadhiraja I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1018-86 Sima Guang wrote a comprehensive history of China. Song Dynasty
1018-92 Nizam al-Mulk wrote Rules for Kings.
1019 Liao army was driven out of Koryo. Korea
1019 Knut claimed the Danish throne. Danes
1019-42 Airlangga ruled Java.
1020-77 Zhang Zai wrote Correcting Youthful Ignorance. Song Dynasty
1022 Pavia synod denounced clerical marriage. Italy
1022-70 Ibn Gabirol taught Neo-Platonic philosophy.
1024 Paper money was introduced in China. Song Dynasty
1024-39 Conrad II ruled Germany.
1025 Cholas invaded Malayu. India
1025 Mahmud's army killed 50,000 Hindus in Kathiawar. Muslim Invaders
1025 Poland's Mieszko II drove out his brother Otto Bezprim. Eastern Europe
1025 Conrad II's German army occupied Basle.
1025-39 Poland suffered civil wars. Eastern Europe
1025-44 Jalal al-Daula governed Baghdad. Buyids
1026 Rebellion by Welf and Ernest against Conrad II failed. Germans
1027 Conrad was crowned Emperor by Pope John XIX.
1027 Knut went to Scandinavia and Rome. Vikings
1028 Knut attacked Norway. Vikings
1028-31 Taira revolt was led by Tadatsune. Japan's Heian Era
1028-34 Romanus III ruled the Byzantine empire.
1028-54 Ly Phat Ma ruled Vietnam.
1030 Chinese printed with movable type. Song Dynasty
1030 Conrad II's German forces attacked Hungary. Eastern Europe
1030 Flemish knights swore to uphold the Peace of God. Western Europe
1030 Norway's Olaf was defeated and killed at Stiklestad. Vikings
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
1031-60 Henri I ruled France. Franks
1032 Conrad II inherited the kingdom of Burgundy. Germans
1032-43 Doge Domenico Flabanico reformed Venice. Italy
1032-76 Duke Robert I ruled Burgundy. Franks
1032-85 Cheng Hao taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1033 Aelfgifu and her son Svein retreated to southern Norway. Vikings
1033-1107 Cheng Yi taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1034 Punjab governor Ahmad Niyaltigin plundered Banaras. India
1034-41 Michael IV ruled the Byzantine empire.
1034-55 Duke Bretislav ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1035-47 Magnus ruled Norway with the Gragas law code. Vikings
1035-65 Ferdinand I ruled Castile. Spain
1035-63 Ramiro I ruled Aragon. Spain
1035-76 Count Ramon Berenguer I ruled Barcelona. Spain
1036 Juddala chief Yahya b. Ibrahim went to Mecca. North Africa
1036 German campaigns subdued the Lyutitzi. Eastern Europe
1037 Conrad besieged Milan and issued Constitutio de Feudis. Italy
1037 Blois Count Odo II was killed invading Lorraine. Franks
1037-1101 Su Shi (Su Dong-po) was a Renaissance man. Neo-Confucian Ethics
1038-73 Badis ruled Berber kingdom of Granada. Umayyad Spain
1038-1227 Tanguts formed the Western Xia kingdom. Song Dynasty
1039 Welsh king Gruffydd ap Llywelyn invaded Mercia. England
1039-56 Heinrich III ruled Germany.
1039-58 Casimir ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1040 Seljuk Turks defeated Ghaznavids at Dandanqan.
1040 Peter Deljan was proclaimed czar in Belgrade. Byzantine Decline
1040 German army was defeated by Bretislav's Bohemians. Eastern Europe
1040 Macbeth attacked and killed Scot king Duncan. England
1040-57 Macbeth ruled Scotland. England
1040-60 Count Geoffrey Martel ruled Anjou. Franks
1040-1105 Solomon Yizchaki (Rashi) taught Talmud at Troyes. Franks
1040-1123 Milarepa taught Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1041 Normans helped Lombards defeat the Greeks. Italy
1041 Heinrich III's German army captured Prague. Eastern Europe
1041 Synod at Montriond extended the Truce of God. Franks
1042 Minh-dao law code was promulgated in Vietnam.
1042 Atisha brought Buddhist reforms from India to Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1042 Civil war broke out in Milan between nobles and pataria. Italy
1042-55 Constantine IX ruled the Byzantine empire.
1042-66 Edward (the Confessor) ruled England.
1042-69 Al-Mutadid ruled Seville. Umayyad Spain
1043 Bhoja and Hindu chiefs conquered Muslim territories. India
1043 100,000 Russians invaded the Byzantine empire.
1043 Heinrich III's German army invaded Hungary. Eastern Europe
1043 Heinrich III proclaimed the Day of Pardon. Germans
1043 Danish forces killed 15,000 Wends in Jomsborg. Vikings
1043 Edward's mother Emma lost her lands for treason. England
1043 Leofric and Godgifu endowed Coventry monastery. England
1043-68 Someshvara I ruled the Chalukyas. India
1044 Fan Zhongyen negotiated a treaty with Western Xia. Song Dynasty
1044 Koryo built a wall from sea to sea. Korea
1044 Heinrich III redivided Lorraine. Germans
1044 Heinrich III and Peter invaded Hungary and defeated Obo. Eastern Europe
1044-77 Anawrahta ruled Burma.
1045 Constantine IX revived Constantinople's university. Byzantine Decline
1045-46 Gregory VI bought the papacy to reform it. Popes
1046 Godwin's son Swegn helped Gruffydd attack South Wales. England
1046-83 Munjong ruled Koryo. Korea
1047 Wangzi led a revolt of Buddhists expecting Maitreya. Song Dynasty
1047 Leo Tornicius led a Macedonian revolt. Byzantine Decline
1047 Truce of God was proclaimed at Caen for Normandy. Western Europe
1047-66 Harald Hardrada ruled Norway. Vikings
1047-75 Svein Estridsson ruled Denmark. Vikings
1047-1101 Vinayaditya ruled Hoysalas. India
1048 Patzinaks crossed the Danube. Byzantine Decline
1048 Barlaam and Ioasaph was translated into Latin.
1048 France's Henri and William of Normandy invaded Anjou. Franks
1049 Swegn murdered his Danish cousin, Earl Beorn. England
1049-54 Pope Leo IX criticized simony and clerical marriage.
1049-1109 Hugh was abbot of Cluny. Franks
1050 Edward made Robert of Jumiéges Canterbury archbishop. England
1050-62 Nine Years War was fought in Japan.
1051 Frank king Henri married princess Anne of Kiev. Franks
1051 England's Edward abolished the heregeld.
1051 Edward made a treaty with Normandy duke William. England
1051 Godwin and his sons Swegn and Tostig fled England.
1052 Godwin returned to claim his estates in England.
1053 Pope Leo IX marched against Normans and was captured.
1054 Eastern and Western churches split. Byzantine Decline
1054 Siward helped Malcolm defeat King Macbeth at Dunsinane. England
1054, 1058 France's Henri and Geoffrey of Anjou invaded Normandy. Franks
1054-72 Ly Nhat Ton ruled Vietnam.
1055 Almoravid Sanhaja recaptured Awdaghost. Africa
1055 Choe Chung began private schools in Koryo. Korea
1055 Tughril-Beg founded the Seljuk regime in Baghdad.
1055 Florence synod confirmed laws against simony. Italy
1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn conquered all of Wales. England
1055-1110 Vijayabahu ruled Lanka. India
1056 Frank Henri I challenged German Heinrich III to combat. Germans
1056 Compostella council forbade priests contact with women. Spain
1056-65 Agnes, Anno, and Adalbert ruled Germany as regents.
1056-80 Isleif was Iceland's first bishop. Vikings
1056-1106 Heinrich IV was king of Germany.
1057 Godiva rode naked through Coventry's marketplace. England
1057-61 Vietnam battled Chinese.
1058-93 Malcolm III ruled Scotland. England
1058-74 Croat king Peter Cresimir expanded his realm. Byzantine Decline
1058-79 Boleslav II ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1058-1126 Al-Ghazali wrote Intentions of the Philosophers.
1059 Lateran council established electoral power of cardinals. Popes
1059-61 Pope Nicholas II issued a decree against simony.
1059-67 Constantine X Ducas ruled the Byzantine empire.
1059-99 Ibrahim ruled the Ghaznavid kingdom in Afghanistan.
1060 Guiscard's Normans took Taranto, Brindisi, and Reggio.
1060-1108 Philip I was king of France. Franks
1061 Scots raided Northumbria. England
1061-73 Pope Alexander II continued church reforms.
1061-92 Vratislav II ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1062 Mercia earl Aelfgar was outlawed for treason and died. England
1063 Northumbrians invaded Gwynedd, killing Gruffydd. England
1063-72 Alp-Arslan ruled the Seljuk empire.
1065 Northumbrian rebels replaced Tostig with Morcar. England
1065 Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan invaded Armenia.
1065-1109 Alfonso VI ruled Leon. Spain
1066.1.6 Harold was crowned king of England.
1066.5 Harold's brother Tostig was defeated by Earl Edwin. England
1066.9.20 Norway's Harald defeated Edwin and Morcar at Fulford. England
1066.9.25 Harold's army defeated Norwegians at Stamford Bridge. England
1066.9.28 William's Normans in about 500 ships landed at Pevensey. England
1066.10.14 William's Normans defeated King Harold's English army. England
1066.12.25 William was anointed king of England by York archbishop.
1066 Normans led by Richard ravaged the Papal State.
1066 Popular Milan preacher Ariald was murdered. Italy
1066-70 William's Normans conquered England.
1066-87 William ruled England.
1067 Seljuk Turks captured Caesarea.
1067-1109 Fulk Rechin ruled Anjou. Franks
1068-71 Guiscard's Normans besieged and took Bari.
1068-76 Someshvara II ruled the Chalukyas. India
1068-85 Shen Zong ruled China with Wang An-shi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1069-91 Al-Mutamid was king of Seville. Umayyad Spain
c. 1070 Vidyakara collected Treasury of Well-Turned Verse. Literature of Medieval India
c. 1070 Somadeva wrote Ocean of the Streams of Story. Literature of Medieval India
1070-71 Su Shi criticized Wang Anshi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1070-89 Lanfranc was archbishop of Canterbury. England
1070-1120 Kulottunga I ruled the Cholas. India
1071 Seljuks defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert.
1071-78 Michael VII ruled the Byzantine empire.
1071-84 Doge Domenico Selvo ruled Venice. Italy
1071-93 Robert the Frisian ruled Flanders. Western Europe
1071-1127 Count Guillaume IX of Poitiers was the first troubadour. Romantic Love
1072 Heinrich IV opposed Atto as archbishop of Milan. Italy
1072 Naval blockade helped Normans capture Palermo.
1072-92 Malik-Shah ruled the Seljuk empire.
1072-1127 Ly Can Duc ruled Vietnam.
1073 Dkon-mchog Rgyal-po founded Sakya monastery in Tibet.
1073 Pope Alexander excommunicated counselors of Heinrich IV.
1073 Guiscard defeated Abelard and Richard, taking Amalfi. Normans
1073-85 Hildebrand as Pope Gregory VII opposed Heinrich IV.
1074 Pope Gregory VII began enforcing bans on simony and marriage.
1074 Heinrich IV's German forces attacked Hungary. Eastern Europe
c. 1075 Adam of Bremen described Scandinavian countries. Vikings
1075 Rome synods forbade investiture by laity. Italy
1075 Pope Gregory VII proclaimed his "Papal Dictates."
1075 Pope Gregory VII was abducted but was rescued by Romans.
1075 Hereford earl Roger rebelled with Waltheof and Ralf. England
1075-88 Saxons frought civil war against Heinrich IV. Germans
1076 Almoravids took Kumbi in Ghana. West Africa
1076 Worms council deposed Gregory VII for treason. Germans
1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Heinrich IV.
1076 Ecclesiastical courts were established in England.
1076-1126 Vikramaditya VI ruled the Chalukyas. India
1077.1 Heinrich IV did penance at Canossa before Pope Gregory VII.
1077 Forchheim diet elected Swabia duke Rudolf king. Germans
1077 Cambrai insurrection led by Ramihrdus was crushed. Germans
1077-95 Ladislas ruled Hungary. Eastern Europe
1078 China produced 114,000 tons of cast iron. Song Dynasty
1078-93 Vsevolod ruled Russia.
1079 Poland's Boleslav II killed Stanislaw and fled to Hungary. Eastern Europe
1079-1102 Wladyslaw I Herman ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1079-1142 Peter Abelard taught theology in Paris.
1080 Desiderius got Guiscard to swear fealty to Pope Gregory.
1080 Heinrich IV was defeated in Thuringia by Rudolph. Germans
1080 Bourgos council banned marriage of priests. Franks
1080 Normandy duke Robert invaded Scotland. England
1081 Hiei monks set fire to a monastery at Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
1081 Guiscard's Normans took Corfu and beseiged Dyrrhachium.
1081 Heinrich IV invaded Italy and was crowned emperor.
1081-1118 Alexius Comnenus ruled the Byzantine empire.
1082 Normans defeated Byzantine Alexius and took Dyrrhachium.
1082-1118 Gizur Isleifsson was Bishop of Iceland. Vikings
1083 Alexius' Byzantines defeated Normans near Larissa.
1083 Heinrich IV's German army occupied Rome. Italy
1084 Pope Clement III crowned Heinrich IV Emperor.
1084 Guiscard's army forced Heinrich IV to retreat from Rome. Italy
1084 Normans pillaged Rome and sold thousands into slavery.
c. 1085 Sefawa king Dunama b. Hummay converted to Islam. West Africa
1085 Robert Guiscard died of typhoid. Normans
1085 Bishop Otto blocked peace efforts at Gerstungen. Germans
1085 Heinrich IV proclaimed the Peace of God. Germans
1085 Toledo was besieged and surrendered to Christians. Spain
1085-1111 Duke Roger Borsa ruled Apulia. Italy
1085 Normans captured Syracuse.
1086 Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain.
1086 Chola king Kulottunga I ordered a land survey. India
1086 Mt. Cassino abbot Desiderius was elected Pope Victor III.
1086 King William ordered the Domesday Survey in England.
1086-1129 Shirakawa ruled Japan as retired emperor priest.
1087 Almoravid general Abu-Bakr b. 'Umar was killed in Tagant. West Africa
1087-1100 William Rufus ruled England.
1087-1134 Robert Curthose ruled Normandy. Western Europe
1088 Lanka king Vijayabahu made peace with the Cholas. India
1088 Ostia bishop Odo was elected Pope Urban II at Tarracina.
1088 The Cid attacked Valencia for Mostain. Spain
1088 Rebellion by Kent earl Odo and his brother Robert failed. England
1088-95 Welsh fought the Normans. England
1088-1172 Hemachandra taught Jainism. India
1089-1125 David ruled Georgia. Eastern Europe
1090 William Rufus invaded eastern Normandy. Western Europe
1091 Alexius and Cumans defeated the Patzinaks. Byzantine Decline
1091 Normans expelled Saracens from Sicily.
1091 William and Robert defeated Henri and divided his lands. Western Europe
1091-1153 Bernard of Clairvaux developed the Cistercian monks.
1092 William II attacked Cumberland and Westmorland. England
1093 Conrad's revolt against his father Heinrich IV failed. Germans
1093 William II appointed Anselm archbishop of Canterbury. England
1093-1103 Magnus III Bareleg ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1093-1111 Count Robert II ruled Flanders.
1094 The Cid's forces took Valencia from the Muslims. Spain
1094 Philip I of France was excommunicated for adultery. Franks
1094-99 The Cid ruled Valencia. Spain
1095 Pope Urban's synod at Piacenza was attended by 34,000.
1095 Countess Matilda and Guelph of Bavaria were divorced. Germans
1095 Heinrich IV decreed the rights of Jews. Germans
1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade to take Jerusalem.
1095 Earl Robert's Northumbrian tax rebellion was defeated. England
1095-1103 Erik Ejegod ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1095-1116 Coloman ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1095-1134 Gijimasu ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1096 Cholas under Kulottunga I invaded Kalinga. India
1096 Guelf made peace with Heinrich IV. German Empire
1096 Crusaders arrived at Constantinople.
1096 Crusaders killed Jews in Germany.
1096 Turks slaughtered 17,000 crusaders. Crusade
1097 Russian princes agreed on succession reform.Eastern Europe
1097 Normans destroyed Paulicians in Greece. Crusade
1097 About 67,000 crusaders have entered Asia. Crusade
1097 Heinrich IV granted Jews their rights in Germany. German Empire
1097 Iceland introduced tithing. Scandinavia
1097-1107 Edgar ruled Scotland. England
1098 Crusaders led by Bohemond captured Antioch.
1098 Egyptians occupied Palestine. Crusade
1098-1179 Hildegard of Bingen wrote mystical works.
1099 Crusaders besiege and pillage Jerusalem, killing 40,000.
1099-1118 Pope Paschal II encouraged crusaders. Jerusalem Kingdom
c. 1100 Song of Roland reached its final written form.
1100-18 Baldwin was king of Jerusalem.
1100-25 Hui Zong ruled China lavishly. Song Dynasty
1100-35 Henry I ruled England.
1101 Lombard army arrives in Constantinople. Jerusalem Kingdom
1102-38 Boleslav III ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1103 Norman Roger II became Count of Sicily.
1103-30 Sigurd I ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1104 Muhammad overthrew his brother Berkyaruk in Iraq. Jerusalem Kingdom
1104 Edessa count Baldwins is captured.
1104 Byzantine army recaptured Cilician cities. Jerusalem Kingdom
1104 King Baldwin captured Acre.
1104 German prince Heinrich revolted against his father Heinrich IV. German Empire
1104-10 Pisa and Lucca were at war. Italian Republics
1104-07 Jurchen invaded Koryo. Korea
1104-34 Alfonso I ruled Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1104-34 Niels ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1105 Antioch's Tancred defeated Aleppo's Ridvan. Jerusalem Kingdom
1106-25 Heinrich V ruled Germany. German Empire
1107-08 Bohemond's 34,000 crusaders besieged Dyrrhachium. Jerusalem Kingdom
1107-24 Alexander I ruled Scotland. England
1108 Taira general Masamori quelled revolt. Japan
1108-37 Louis VI ruled France.
1109 Crusaders led by King Baldwin took Tripoli.
1109-26 Queen Urraca ruled Castille. Spanish Peninsula
1110 Poet Jayangondar described Chola invasion of Kalinga. India
1110 Bertram's forces helped Baldwins take Beirut.
1110 Muhammad succeeded his brother Berkyaruk in Persia. Jerusalem Kingdom
1110 Germany's Heinrich V invaded Italy. German Empire
1111 Emperor Alexius gave Pisans trading in Constantinople. Jerusalem Kingdom
1111-17 Hangzhou prohibited male prostitution. Song Dynasty
1112 Count Ramon Berenguer III annexed Provence. France
1113 20,000 armed Kofukuji monks attacked Enryakuji. Japan
1113 Jerusalem king Baldwin invaded Damascus.
1113 Edessa count Baldwin expelled the Armenians.
1113 Heinrich V suppressed a revolt and married Matilda. German Empire
1113-25 Vladimir Monomakh ruled Kiev. Eastern Europe
1113-50 Suryavarman II ruled Cambodia and annexed Champa.
1113-65 Alaungsithu ruled Burma.
1114 Scot king Alexander and Henry invaded Wales. England
1115 Count Baldwin conquered Armenians in eastern Cilicia.
1116 Flanders count Baldwin VII abolished judicial duels.
1116-31 Stephen II ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1116-55 Mas'ud was Seljuk sultan of Rum. Jerusalem Kingdom
1117-18 Althing of Iceland had a commission revise its laws. Scandinavia
1118-31 Baldwin II was king of Jerusalem.
1118-35 Vikrama Chola ruled Cholas. India
1118-43 John Comnenus ruled the Byzantine empire. Jerusalem Kingdom
1119 Pope Calixtus II recognized Hospitallers of St. John. Jerusalem Kingdom
1119 Cistercian Order was based on the Charter of Love. Bernard of Clairvaux
1119 Castrated Abelard became a monk, Heloise a nun.
1119-24 Pope Calixtus II opposed Emperor Heinrich V. Italian Republics
1119-27 Flanders count Charles protected the weak.
1119-56 Khurasan king Sanjar ruled as Seljuk sultan. Jerusalem Kingdom
1120 Fang La led revolt that captured Hangzhou. Song Dynasty
1120 Ibn Tumart at Marrakesh founded Muwahhidun (Almohad). Spanish Peninsula
1120-32 Genoa and Pisa were at war. Italian Republics
1121 Abelard's Theologia was condemned for heresy.
1122 Ibn Tumart was proclaimed mahdi. North Africa
1122 Two million killed in Chinese rebellion. Song Dynasty
1122 Venetian fleet attacked Byzantine Corfu and Egyptians. Jerusalem Kingdom
1122 Diet at Worms settled investiture controversy. German Empire
1122-1234 Jurchens conquered north China, founded Jin dynasty. Song Dynasty
1123 First Lateran Council condemned marriage of priests. Italian Republics
1124 Starved Tyre submitted to crusaders. Jerusalem Kingdom
1124-53 David ruled Scotland. England
1124-1211 Western Liao ruled East Turkestan. Song Dynasty
1125 John Comnenus made a treaty with the Pisans. Jerusalem Kingdom
1125 Florence destroyed Fiesole. Italian Republics
1126-57 Alfonso VII ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1126-98 Averroes wrote Decisive Treatise.
1127 Borsiard and the Erembald clan murdered Count Charles. Flanders
1127 Conrad III became king of Germany. German Empire
1127-46 Zengi ruled Mosul. Jerusalem Kingdom
1127-62 Gao Zong ruled southern Song China. Song Dynasty
1128 Ethiopians fought Muslim settlers in Shoa.
1128 Pope Honorius II authorized the Templars. Jerusalem Kingdom
1128 Hungarian troops invaded the Greek empire.Eastern Europe
1128-85 Afonso Henriques ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1129 Heloise and nuns were expelled from Argenteuil. Abelard
1129-56 Toba ruled Japan as cloistered emperor.
1130 Bohemond II invaded Cilicia, was defeated and killed. Jerusalem Kingdom
1130 Popes Innocent II and Anacletus were elected. Italian Republics
1130-54 Roger II was king of Sicily.
1130-1200 Zhu Xi taught Neo-Confucian Ethics.
c. 1131 Sana'i wrote The Enclosed Garden of Truth.
1131 Pope Innocent II exempted Cistercians from paying tithes. Italian Republics
1131-43 Fulk was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1132 Chinese used mortars. Song Dynasty
1132 Abelard wrote his "Story of Troubles."
1133 Pope Innocent II crowned Lothar emperor. German Empire
1133-1212 Honen founded Jodo (Pure Land) Buddhism. Japan
1134-50 Navarre under King Garcia IV became independent. Spanish Peninsula
1135 Lothar settled disputes between Denmark and Hungary. German Empire
1135-1204 Maimonides wrote Guide for the Perplexed.
1136 David of Scotland invaded northern England.
1136 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote History of Kings of Britain.
1136-94 Tsaraki ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1137 Byzantine army of John Comnenus campaigned in Cilicia. Crusaders
1137 Lothar III died in the Alps. German Empire
1137 Mahmud of Damascus invaded Tripoli. Crusaders
1137-80 Louis VII ruled France.
1137-1270 Zagwe dynasty ruled Ethiopia.
1139 Byzantine army regained Bithynia and Paphlagonia.Crusaders
1139 Second Lateran Council banished Arnold of Brescia. Italian Republics
1140 Bernard of Clairvaux charged Abelard with heresy.
c. 1140 Poem of the Cid was written.
1140-73 Vladislav II ruled Bohemia.Eastern Europe
1140-93 Renzong ruled Western Xia with Confucian institutions. Song Dynasty
1141 Western Liao defeated Seljuk Turks near Samarkand. Song Dynasty
1141 Hildegard of Bingen had a vision of light.
1141-61 Geza II ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1141-1215 Eisai founded Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Japan
1142 Southern Song agreed to pay Jin tribute. Song Dynasty
1142 Aelred of Rievaulx wrote The Mirror of Charity.
1143 Insurgents declared Rome a republic. Italian Republics
1143-63 Baldwin III was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1143-80 Manuel ruled the Byzantine empire.
1144 Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou became duke of Normandy. France
1145-53 Pope Eugenius III relied on Bernard of Clairvaux.
1146 Almohads from North Africa invaded Spain. Spanish Peninsula
1146-47 Bernard of Clairvaux preached the second crusade.
1146-48 Almohads from North Africa invaded Spain.
1146-70 Uijong ruled Koryo. Korea
1146-73 Boleslav IV ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1146-74 Nur-ad-Din ruled Aleppo and became sultan.
1147 Tusum founded Khyenpa Karmapa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1147 Emperor Manuel made a treaty with Seljuk sultan Mas'ud.
1147 Conrad's crusaders were massacred by a Seljuk army.
1147 Crusaders drove Moors from Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1147 Denmark's king Erik the Lamb retired to a monastery. Scandinavia
1148 Crusaders' attack on Damascus failed.
1149 Nur-ad-Din's forces defeated Raymond of Antioch.
1149-54 Fatamid al-Zafir was Caliph of Egypt. Nur-ad-Din
1150 Lharje founded Cur-lka monastery in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1152 German king Conrad III died. German Empire
1152 Nicholas Breakspear reformed the Norwegian church. Scandinavia
1152-90 Frederick I Barbarossa ruled Germany.
1153 Oghuz tribes captured Seljuk sultan Sanjar. Crusaders
1153-65 Malcolm IV ruled Scotland. England
1153-91 Persian philosopher Suhrawardi was a mystic.
1154-62 Becket was chancellor of England.
1154-66 William I ruled Sicily.
1154-89 Henry II ruled England.
1155 Germany's Frederick Barbarossa invaded Italy. Italian Republics
c. 1155 Thomas wrote the poem Tristran. Tristan
1155-92 Kilij Arslan II ruled as Seljuk sultan.Crusaders
1156 Kalachuri king Bijjala took Kalyana from Chalukyas. India
1157 Baldwin III broke his treaty with Nur-ad-Din.
1157-82 Valdemar ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1157-88 Fernando II ruled Leon. Spanish Peninsula
1158 Baldwin III allied with Emperor Manuel.
1158 Pope Adrian mediated treaty between William and Manuel.
1158 Emperor Frederick besieged and captured Milan. Italian Republics
1158 German historian Otto of Freising died. Germany
1158-1214 Alfonso VIII ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1159 Popes Victor IV and Alexander III were elected. Italian Republics
1159 John of Salisbury wrote Policraticus.
1159-81 Alexander III was the anti-imperialist Pope. Italian Republics
1160 Normans were driven out of North Africa.
1162-70 Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury. England
1162-96 Alfonso II united Catalonia with his kingdom of Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1163-74 Amalric was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1163-79 Rajadhiraja II ruled Cholas. India
1163-84 Abu Ya’qub Yusuf ruled Almohad empire. Ibn Tufayl North Africa
1165 Hiei monks burned down Hosso fortress in Kyoto. Japan
1165 Cathars were condemned as heretics.
1165-1214 William the Lion ruled Scotland. England
1166-89 William II ruled Sicily.
1167 Shirkuh and his nephew Saladin invaded Egypt. Crusaders
1167 Cathars were burned at Vézelay.
1167 Frederick invaded Italy again and marched on Rome. Italian Republics
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
1169 Saladin became the master of Egypt. Crusaders
1169, 1170 Genoa and Pisa allied with Byzantines. Italian Republics
c. 1170 Toltec Tula destroyed.
1170-81 Taira Kiyomori ruled Japan as regent.
1170-97 Koryo suffered civil wars. Korea
1171 Nubians attacked Egypt.
1171 Byzantine emperor Manuel ordered Venetians arrested.
1171-1211 Florence and Pisa had a defensive and commercial treaty. Italian Republics
1171 England's Henry II invaded Ireland.
1173 Ghuzz Turks made Muhammad Ghuri governor of Ghazni. India
1173 Egypt's Turan-Shah attacked Nubians.
1173 Amalric's army campaigned for Byzantines in Cilicia. Crusaders
1173-96 Bela III ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1173-1220 Ballala II ruled Hoysalas. India
1174 Frederick invaded Italy for the fifth time. Italian Republics
1174-85 Leper Baldwin IV ruled Jerusalem. Crusading Kings
1174-1211 Narapatisithu ruled Burma.
1176 Byzantines led by Manuel defeated by Turks at Konya.
1176 Lombards defeated Germans' imperial army at Legnano. Italian Republics
1176 Chrétien de Troyes wrote his second romance Cliges.
1176-1212 Vsévolod III was Russia's Grand Prince.Eastern Europe
1177 Champa attacked Angkor. Cambodia
1177 Emperor Frederick and Pope Alexander III made a treaty. Italian Republics
1177 England's Henry II and France's Louis VII made a treaty.
1177-80 Florence suffered a civil war. Italian Republics
1177-94 Casimir II ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1178 Lakshmanasena began ruling Bengal. India
1178 Muhammad Ghuri attacked Gujurat. India
1178-1216 Kulottunga III ruled Cholas, ravaged Pandyas. India
1178-1241 Snorri Sturluson influenced Iceland.
1179 Third Lateran Council prohibited abuses, damned Cathars.
1180-82 Jerusalem's Baldwin IV and Saladin agreed on a truce.
1180-1185 Minamoto defeated Taira clan in Gempei civil war. Japan
1180-1223 Philip II ruled France.
1181-1226 Francis of Assisi helped the poor.
1182 Waldensians were excommunicated in Lyons. Albigensian Crusade
1183 Yoritomi established bakufu at Kamakura. Japan
1183 Saladin captured Aleppo.
1184-1202 Sverrir ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1185 Philip II doubled the royal domain of France.
1185 Russian prince Igor was defeated by the Kumans.Eastern Europe
c. 1185 Andreas Capellanus wrote On Love (De Amore). Romantic Love
1185-1211 Sancho I ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1186 Muhammad Ghuri captured Khusrav Malik at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1187 Muslims led by Saladin captured Jerusalem.
1187-1219 Leon II ruled Armenia. Crusading Kings
1187-1233 Bohemond IV ruled Antioch. Crusading Kings
1188 Farid al-Din 'Attar wrote Conference of the Birds.
1188-1230 Alfonso IX ruled Leon. Spanish Peninsula
1189 Third crusade arrives in Syria. Crusading Kings
1189-99 Richard I was king of England.
1190 Cambodia invaded Champa.
1190 Buddhist monk Chapata returned to Burma.
1190 Order of Teutonic Knights was founded at Acre. Crusading Kings
1190 Genoa replaced their commune with a podesta. Italian Republics
1190-97 Heinrich VI ruled Germany.
1191 Richard I married Berengaria and captured Cyprus.
1191 Besieged Acre capitulated to crusaders. Crusading Kings
1191 Dominic sold all his possessions to help the starving.
1191-98 Pope Celestine III persuaded Tancred to free Constance. Italian Republics
1192 Richard I and Saladin signed a truce.
1192-99 Yoritomi ruled Japan as shogun.
1192 120,000 Muslims demolished Ajmer temples. Crusading Kings
1192 Civil war followed Saladin's death.
1193 Hoysala king Ballala II proclaimed independence. India
1193 Austria's Leopold imprisoned Richard I.
1194 Zen prohibited in Japan.
1194 Khorezm-Shah Tokush replaced Seljuk sultan Tughrul III. Crusading Kings
1194 Emperor Heinrich VI was crowned king of Sicily.
1194 Richard I fought Philip for Normandy and Aquitane.
1194-1206 Count Baldwin IX united Flanders and Hainault.
1194-1234 Sancho VII ruled Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1195 Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucian school banned in China.
1195 Alexius III blinded Byzantine emperor Isaac II. Crusading Kings
1196 Al-Mansur won a victory over Christians at Alarcos. Spanish Peninsula
1196-1210 Sverker II ruled Sweden. Scandinavia
1196-1213 Pedro II ruled Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1197 Aybak's Muslim army invaded Gujurat, killing 50,000. Muslim Invaders
1197 Italian communes formed the Tuscan League. Italian Republics
1197-1230 Ottokar I ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1197-1276 Madhva taught dualist Vedanta philosophy. Hindu
1198-1216 Innocent III was Pope and urged the fourth crusade. Italy
1198-1200 Peasants and slaves revolted in Koryo. Korea
1198-1221 Go-Toba served as cloistered emperor of Japan.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
c. 1200 Nibelungenlied was written for performance in Austria.
1200 Pope Innocent III put France under interdict.
1200 Philip II granted University of Paris a charter. France
1200 Jean Bodel wrote The Play of Saint Nicholas. Theater
1200 England's John made a truce at Le Goulet with France.
1200 English church required marriage banns be announced. England
1201 England's John protected Jewish rights in a charter.
1202 Koryo army mutinied. Korea
1202 Aybak besieged Chandella king Paramardi at Kalanjara. India
1202 Venetian navy with crusaders assaulted Zara. Crusades
1202 Francis fighting for Assisi against Perugia was captured.
1202-04 England's John made war and lost Normandy to France.
1202-27 Leszek I ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1202-41 Valdemar II ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1203 Soso chief Sumaguru Kante sacked Kumbi. Africa
1203 Crusaders conquered Constantinople. Crusades
1203-20 Champa was ruled by Cambodia.
1204 Baldwin IX was elected Emperor in Constantinople. Crusades
1205 Bulgarian czar Kalojan invaded Thrace, captured Baldwin. Crusades
1205 Francis of Assisi had a vision to serve God.
1205-35 Andrew II ruled Hungary. Eastern Europe
1205-64 Daniel governed Volhynia. Eastern Europe
1206 Jurchens Jin army defeated fleeing Song forces. Song Dynasty
1206 Temujin proclaimed Genghis Khan of Mongol empire.
1206 Muhammad Ghuri murdered at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1206 600 Cathar perfecti met at Mirepoix.
1206 Dominic began preaching.
1207 Florence went to war with Siena. Italy
1207-13 Stephen Langton was Archbishop of Canterbury in exile. England
1207-73 Jalal al-Din Rumi wrote Masnavi tales and Discourses.
1208 Waldensian Durand of Huesca founded Poor Catholics. Albigensian Crusade
1208 Pope Innocent III imposed an interdict on England.
1208-13 Norwich bishop John de Grey was justiciar of Ireland. England
1209 Francis wrote his first rule for his eleven companions. Albigensian Crusade
1209-49 Albigensian crusade attacked Cathars.
1210 Otto IV invaded Frederick II's Sicilian kingdom.
c. 1210 Wolfram von Eschenbach completed his poem Parzival.
c. 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg wrote German poem Tristan.
1210 140 Cathar perfecti were burned at Minerve.
1210 King John and William Marshall invaded Ireland. England
1211-18 Simon de Montfort attacked Cathars in Toulouse.
1211-22 Toulouse count Raymond VI defended Cathars.
1211-23 Afonso II ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1212 Christian army defeated Almohads. North Africa
1212 Kamo Chomei wrote "An Account of My Hut." Japan
1212 French and German children went on a crusade. Crusades
1212 Friedrich II was elected king of Germany at Frankfurt.
1213 France's Philip II invaded Flanders.
1213 French fleet was destroyed at Damme. France
1213-76 Jaime ruled Aragon.
1214 England's John invaded Aquitane.
1214 Philip II defeated England's John and Germany's Otto IV. France
1214-92 Roger Bacon wrote on science and morals.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council was attended by 412 bishops. Italy
1215.6.15 King John put his seal on the Magna Carta.
1215-18 Snorri Sturluson was law-speaker for Iceland.
1215-1313 Tekla-Haymanot founded Asbo monastery. Ethiopia
1216 Iltutmish captured his rival Yildiz in the Punjab. India
1216 England's king John died; his son Henry was 9.
1216-27 Pope Honorius III proclaimed another Albigensian Crusade.
1217 Dominican charter was confirmed in Rome.
1217 France's prince Louis agreed to peace with England.
1217-52 Fernando III ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1217-63 Haakon IV ruled Norway.
1218 Crusaders from Acre invaded Egypt.
1218 Legate Ugolino mediated peace between Genoa and Pisa. Italy
1218-37 Yuri governed Kiev. Eastern Europe
1218-41 John Asen II ruled Bulgarian empire. Crusades
1219 Crusaders conquered starving Damietta.
1219 Rule for Poor Ladies was confirmed by Pope Honorius. Francis of Assisi
1219 Francis of Assisi went on crusade and preached against war.
1219 Danish Brothers of the Sword invaded Estonia. Scandinavia
1220 Pope Honorius crowned Frederick II Emperor.
1220 Dominican preachers renounced property.
1220 Alfonso IX of Leon founded the University of Salamanca. Spanish Peninsula
1220-34 Narasimha II ruled Hoysala. India
1221 Go-Toba banished after failed revolt. Japan
1221 Mongols led by Genghis Khan invaded India and Persia.
1221 Robert of Courtenay became Emperor at Constantinople.
1221 Dominic died, and Dominicans had sixty friaries.
1222 Andrew II's Golden Bull acknowledged Hungarians' rights. Eastern Europe
c. 1222 Snorri Sturluson wrote his Prose Edda.
1222-31 Snorri Sturluson was law-speaker for Iceland.
1222-50 Erik III was king of Sweden. Scandinavia
1222-54 John Vatatzes was emperor of Nicaea. Crusades
1222-82 Nichiren taught Buddhist chanting. Japan
1223 Earl William Marshal of Pembroke invaded Wales. England
1223-26 Louis VIII ruled France.
1223-46 Sancho II ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1224 Friedrich II founded a university at Naples for lawyers.
1224 France's Louis VIII invaded Poitou.
1224 Franciscans first arrived in England. Francis of Assisi
1224-42 Hojo Yasutoki ruled Japan as regent for the shogun.
1225 Tran dynasty founded in Vietnam.
1225-64 Li Zong ruled southern Song China.
1225-74 Thomas Aquinas wrote on theology.
1226 Frederick II gave Teutonic Knights special privileges.
1226 Second Lombard League was formed. Italy
1226-34 Blanche of Castile ruled France as regent.
1227 Genghis Khan was killed besieging Xingzhongfu. Mongol Empire
1227-41 Gregory IX was Pope. Italy
1227-72 Henry III ruled England. Henry III 1227-1250
1228 Muslims drove the Almohads out of Cordoba. Spanish Peninsula
1229 Frederick II made a treaty with al-Kamil for Jerusalem.
1229-36 Baghdad Caliph recognized Iltutmish as Delhi sultan. India
1229-41 Ogodei ruled East Asian Mongol empire.
1229-42 Khitan prince Yelu Quzai administered Mongol empire.
1230 Teutonic knights crusade into Prussia began. German Empire
1230 San Germano treaty lifted Frederick II's excommunication.
c. 1230 Snorri Sturluson wrote Egil's Saga.
1230-53 Wenceslas ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1231 Elizabeth of Hungary died and was heralded as a saint. Eastern Europe
1231 Frederick II's Constitutions of Melfi dominated Sicily.
1231-32 Mongol army invaded Koryo. Korea
1232 Joei Formulary established feudal law in Japan.
1232-33 Dominicans were given leading role in the Inquisition. Albigensian Crusade
1232-45 Maurice fitz Gerald was Justiciar of Ireland. England
1233 German Inquisitor Conrad of Marburg was killed. German Empire
1233 Two Inquisitors were murdered in Cordes. Dominicans
1234 Chahadadeva captured Narwar from Muslims. India
1234 Pope Gregory IX granted Teutonic knights Prussian state. German Empire
1234 Five Books of the Decretals were promulgated. Italy
1234 Louis IX married Margaret of Provence and began to rule. France
1234-53 Count Theobald IV of Champagne was king of Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1234-63 Someshvara ruled Hoysalas. India
1235 Sundiata defeated and killed Sumaguru, founded Mali. West Africa
1235 Nasir ad-Din Tusi wrote The Nasiriean Ethics.
1235 Sturla Sighvatsson was Norwegian king's envoy to Iceland. Scandinavia
c. 1235 Guillaume de Lorris wrote Romance of the Rose.
1235-53 Robert Grosseteste was bishop of Lincoln. England
1235-70 Bela IV ruled Hungary.
1236 Mongols issued paper money.
1236 Friedrich II invaded Italy and burned Vicenza.
1236 Folkwin and fifty Sword-Brothers died attacking Lithuania. Eastern Europe
1236-83 Poet Wen Tianxiang executed by Kublai Khan. Mongol Empire
1237 Friedrich II's imperial army defeated the Lombard League.
1237 Birger Magnusson led the Swedish invasion of Finland. Scandinavia
1237-71 Michael II Angelus ruled Epirus in Albania. Crusades
1237-73 Muhammad I ruled Granada.
1238 Thais defeated Khmers at Sukothai. Thailand
1238 Inquisition was authorized in Castille, Leon, and Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1239 Mongol army led by Ogodei's son Koden invaded Tibet.
1239 Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Friedrich II.
1239 Pope Gregory IX ordered the Talmud confiscated. Italy
1239 16 bishops burned 183 Cathars at Montwimer.
1239-1317 Thai leader Mangrai founded Chiengmai. Thailand
1240 Alexander led Novgorod in victory over invading Swedes. Eastern Europe
1240 Siena established a ruling council. Italy
1240 Excommunicated Raymond Trencavel invaded Languedoc. Cathars
1240-42 Teutonic Order crusade against Russia ended in defeat. Eastern Europe
1241 Mongols invaded and devastated Poland. Eastern Europe
1241, 1245 Henry III's armies attacked the north Welsh coast.
1241-53 Svantopelk of Pomerania waged war against Germans. German Empire
1242 Louis IX had the Talmud burned at Paris. France
1242-50 Erik Plow-penny ruled Denmark.Scandinavia
1243 Mongol army defeated Seljuk sultan Kai-Khusrau. Crusades
1243 Jews of Belitz near Berlin were burned to death. German Empire
1243 Louis IX and Henry III agreed on a truce for five years. France
1243-54 Innocent IV was Pope. Italy
1243-79 Boleslaw V ruled much of Poland.
1243-95 Jayavarman VIII ruled Cambodia.
1244 Tibetan Sakya Panchen initiated Godan in Mongolia.
1244 Besieged Cathars at Montségur surrendered.
1244-78 Countess Margaretha II ruled Flanders.
1245 Mongols invaded India.
1245 Albertus Magnus began teaching Thomas Aquinas.
c. 1245 Laxdaela Saga was written.
1246 Inquisitors began imprisoning heretics for life. Dominicans
1246-79 Rajendra III ruled Cholas. India
1247 500 Miura warriors committed suicide. Japan
c. 1247 Hojo Shigetoki wrote "Family Instructions." Japan
1248 Iyesus-Mo'a founded monastic school in Amhara. Japan
1248 Almohad caliph al-Sa'id was killed. Spanish Peninsula
1248 Friedrich II's imperial army was defeated at Parma.
1248 Fernando III forced 300,000 Muslims to leave Seville. Spanish Peninsula
1248 Henry III appointed Simon de Montfort seneschal of Gascony.
1248-79 Afonso III ruled Portugal.
1249 Crusade led by Louis IX captured Damietta.
1250 Frederick II died of dysentery.
1250-75 Birger’s son Valdemar I ruled Sweden.
1251 Muslim general Balban defeated Chahadadeva. Muslim Invaders
1252 Mongols invaded Tibet.
1252 Florence issued its gold florin.
1252 Pope Innocent IV authorized the use of torture. Catholic
1252-58 Ghibelline Brancaleone was podesta of Rome.
1252-63 Alexander Nevsky was Grand Prince of Russia.
1252-63 Mindaugus was the first king of Lithuania.
1252-84 Alfonso X the Learned ruled Castile.
1253 Kublai Khan's forces conquered Nanchao. Mongol Empire
1253 Clare died; the Poor Ladies had 111 nunneries. Franciscans
1253-54 Indian Muslim Raihan replaced Balban at Delhi. India
1253-57 Mongols sacked major cities of Koryo. Korea
1253-63 Mindaugus was the first king of Lithuania.
1253-78 Ottokar II ruled Bohemia.
1253-1325 Amir Khusrau wrote Persian poetry. Muslim Invaders
1254 60,000 crusaders advanced in Prussia. Teutonic Knights
1254 Introduction to the Everlasting Gospel published. Spirituals
1254 Florence defeated Pisa and reformed its state.
1254 Pope Innocent IV made Sicily and Calabria fiefs. Papal
1254 Louis IX began reforming France.
1254 Henry III gave Gascony to his son Edward.
1254-58 Theodore II Lascaris governed Nicaea. Byzantine
1254-70 Louis IX ruled France.
1255 Egypt’s Aybek made 10-year truce with Franks. Crusaders
1255 Pope Alexander IV revived the Inquisition. Catholic
1255 Civil war broke out in Wales. Henry III
1255-70 Wali ruled Mali empire. West Africa
1256 Mongols led by Hulagu invaded Turkestan and Persia.
1256 War began between Venetians and Genoese. Italian City States
1256-87 Narathihapate misruled Burma.
1257 Mongols pillaged Hanoi. Vietnam
1257 Earl Richard of Cornwall was elected emperor. Empire
1257 Denmark allied with Sweden and Norway.
1257 Sorbonne founded college for poor students. Louis IX
1257-74 Bonaventure led the Franciscans.
1257-77 Constantine Tich ruled Bulgaria. Byzantine
1258 Mongol army sacked Baghdad. Middle East
1258 Sa'di published The Rose Garden.
1258 War began between Venetians and Genoese. Venice
1258 Louis IX banned weapons and war in France.
1258-66 Manfred was king of Sicily.
1259 Mongols raided Poland again.
1259 Bonaventure wrote Journey of the Mind to God.
1259 Louis IX abolished judicial duels in France.
1259 Louis IX made a treaty with Henry III.
1259 Bracton wrote On the Laws and Customs. Henry III
1259-82 Michael Paleologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
1259-86 Erik V ruled Denmark.
1260 Mongols captured Damascus.
1260 Flagellation became a popular trend in Europe. Italian City States
1260-94 Kublai Khan ruled Mongol empire.
1260 Egyptians defeated Mongols at ‘Ain Jalut. Middle East
1260 Flagellant movement began in Italy. Florence
1260.9.3 Siena’s army defeated Florence.
1261 Byzantine empire replaced Latin rule.
1261 Louis IX prohibited festivals and tournaments.
1261 Muslims of Murcia revolted against Castilian rule. Castile
1261 Louis IX prohibited festivals and tournaments.
1261 Henry III opposed Parliament’s Provisions.
1261-64 Pope Urban IV financed war. Papal
1261-77 Baybars ruled Egypt and raided Palestine. Egyptian Invasions
1263 Earl Simon de Montfort took over London. Henry III
1263 Iceland lost its independence to Norway.
1263-80 Magnus VI ruled Norway.
1264 Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa contra Gentiles.
1264 Simon’s barons defeated Henry III and Edward.
1264 Ireland held its first parliament.
1264-86 Erik V ruled Denmark and debased coins.
1265 Alfonso X invaded the Vega of Granada.
1265.8.4 Simon de Montfort was defeated and killed. Henry III
c. 1265 Jacobus de Voragine wrote The Golden Legend. Saints
1265-82 Mongol Il-khan Abagha ruled Persia.
1265-87 Balban ruled Delhi sultanate. India
1266.2.26 Charles of Anjou took Sicily from Manfred.
1266-96 Floris V ruled Holland and Zeeland.
1267 Vienna confirmed canonical laws against Jews. Austria
1267 Assembly promulgated Statute of Marlborough. Henry III
1267-80 Mangu Temir ruled Russia.
1267-94 Jan I ruled Brabant.
1268.10.29 Konradin was beheaded as a traitor. Naples
1268-92 Kertanagara ruled Java.
1268-1310 Maravarman Kulashekhara ruled Pandyas. India
1269 Bohemia’s Ottokar II annexed Carinthia, Carniola.
1270 Yekunno-Amlak claimed Solomonid dynasty in Ethiopia.
1270 Louis IX was killed in disastrous crusade to Tunis.
1270 Henry III taxed property for a crusade.
1270-85 Philippe III ruled France.
1271-76 Gregory X mediated Guelf-Ghibelline conflict. Rome
1272 Nubian King Dawud captured 'Aydhab.
1272-90 Ladislas IV was king of Hungary.
1272-91 Rudolf of Hapsburg was king of Germany.
1272-1307 Edward I ruled England.
1273-91 Rudolf of Hapsburg ruled Germany. Austria
1273-1302 Muhammad II ruled Granada.
1274, 1281 Mongols, Chinese, and Koreans invaded Kyushu. Japan
1274 Magnus VI established national law in Norway.
1274 Council of Lyons failed to unify Christians. Crusaders
1274 Bonaventure and Aquinas died.
1274 French armies occupied Navarre. Philippe III
1274 Ramon Llull had a vision of what to write.
1275 Jean de Meun extended Romance of the Rose.
1275, 1285 Westminster statutes improved common law. Edward I
1275-90 Magnus Ladulas ruled Sweden.
1275-91 Marco Polo served Kublai Khan in China. Mongol Empire
1275-1308 Chungnyol ruled Koryo. Korea
1276 Mongols captured Song capital at Linan.
1276.11.26 Rudolf of Hapsburg and Ottokar II made peace. Bohemia Austria
1276-85 Pedro III ruled Aragon.
1277-80 Pope Nicholas III tried to control northern Italy. Milan
1277, 1283 Mongol army defeated Burmese. Burma
1277-90 Ladislaus IV was king of Hungary.
1278 200 Cathars were burned in Verona. Catholic
1278 Edward I had Jews arrested in England.
1278.8.26 Rudolf defeated and killed Ottokar II. Bohemia Austria
1278-92 John Pecham was Archbishop of Canterbury. Edward I
1278-92 Roger Bacon was imprisoned.
1278-1305 Wenceslaus II was king of Bohemia.
1278-1305 Count Guy of Dampierre ruled Flanders.
1279 Pandyas annexed territories of Cholas and Hoysalas. India
1279-88 Leszek II ruled Poland.
1279-90 Kalavun was sultan of Egypt. Egyptian Invasions
1279-96 Premysl II ruled Greater Poland.
1279-98 Ramkamhaeng ruled Thais at Sukothai. Thailand
1279-1325 Dinis ruled Portugal.
1279-1368 Mongols ruled China as Yuan dynasty.
1280 Swedish law established hereditary nobility. Sweden
c. 1280 Jewish Kabbalist Moses de Leon wrote the Zohar.
c. 1280 Njal’s Saga was written.
1280-92 George I Terter ruled Bulgaria. Byzantine
1280-99 Erik II reigned over Norway.
1281 Philippe III began tallages on the Jews.
1281-85 Pope Martin IV crusaded against Aragon. Papal
1282 Merchant guilds seized power in Florence.
1282.4 2,000 French were killed during Sicilian vespers.
1282 Aragon’s Pedro III conquered Sicily.
1282-1321 Stephen Milutin ruled Serbia. Balkan
1282-1328 Andronicus II ruled the Byzantine empire.
1283 Philippe de Beaumanoir wrote on law. Edward I
c. 1283 Adam de la Halle wrote Robin and Marion. French Theater
1283-1350 Yoshida Kenko wrote "Essays in Idleness." Japan
1284 Genoa’s navy destroyed Pisa’s fleet.
1284-95 Sancho IV ruled Castile.
1285 Mongols invaded India.
1285 Iran Mongols invaded southern Tibet.
1285 Kublai Khan's son Togan defeated by Vietnam.
1285 Ifat king 'Umar Walasma defeated and annexed Shoa. Ethiopia
1285 Sakura usurped Mali throne. West Africa
1285 London suffered from air pollution. Edward I
1285-91 Alfonso III ruled Aragon.
1285-1314 Philippe IV ruled France.
1286 Rudolf ordered persecution of Jews. Austria
1286-1319 Erik VI Menved ruled Denmark.
1287 Aragon subjugated Majorca and Minorca.
1288 Genoese took over Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1288 Ramon Llull wrote his novel Felix.
1289 Grand Canal built from Hangzhou to Beijing. Mongol Empire
1289 Kalavun's Egyptian army destroyed Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1289 Egyptian Muslims murdered all Poor Clares in Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1289, 1293 Denmark and Norway fought.
1289-1311 Doge Gradenigo governed Venice.
1290 Chinese army burned Drigung temple in Tibet.
1290 Khalji Jalal-ud-din Firuz became sultan in Delhi. India
1290 Nubian King Shamamun captured garrison at Dunkula.
1290 King Dinis founded the University of Lisbon. Portugal
1290 Edward I expelled all Jews from England.
1290 English law ended the subinfeudation of land. Edward I
1290 Edward I proclaimed the end of private warfare.
1291 Mamluk army defeated Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa. Crusaders
1291-98 Adolf of Nassau was king of Germany.
1291-1308 Albrecht I ruled Austria.
1291-1313 Tokhta was the last shamanist to rule Russia.
1291-1327 Jaime II ruled Aragon.
1292-95 Third Finnish crusade converted Karelians. Sweden
c. 1293 Marco Polo visited south India.
1294-98 England’s Edward I spent £750,000 on war.
1294-99 Venice and Genoa were at war.
1294-1303 Pope Boniface tried to increase papal power.
1295 Malayu submitted to Thailand.
1295 Swedish law banned selling slaves. Sweden
1295 Dante completed The New Life.
1295-1316 Grand Duke Viten ruled Lithuania.
1296.2.24 Boniface VIII forbade taxing. Papal
1296-1316 'Ala-ud-din ruled as sultan in Delhi. India
1296-1333 Wladyslaw Lokietek tried to rule Poland.
1297 Guy issued the Great Charter of Ghent. Flanders
1297 French led by Charles of Valois invaded Flanders.
1297 William Wallace led a revolt in Scotland.
1298 Genoese navy defeated the Venetians. Venice
1298-1308 Albrecht I was king of Germany.
1298-1337 Frederic III ruled Sicily.
1299 Mongols invaded India.
1299.5 Matteo Visconti mediated Venice-Genoa peace.
1299 Ghazan's Mongol army invaded Syria.
1299-1319 Haakon V ruled Norway.
1299-1326 Osman Ghazi founded Ottoman dynasty.
1300.5 France’s Philippe IV annexed Flanders.
1300 Wang wrote Romance of Western Chamber. Chinese Theater
1300 Jaime II founded the University of Lérida. Aragon
1300 France had 20 million people. Philippe IV
1300 England had 5 million people. Edward I

Copyright © 2002, 2009-18 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1817

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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