BECK index

George Washington

by Sanderson Beck

Introduction

George Washington to 1764

George Washington to 1754
Washington Starts a War 1754-56
Washington on Military Duty in 1757
Washington & Virginia Defense 1758-64

Washington & Revolution 1765-74

George Washington 1765-69
George Washington 1770-74

Washington & Revolutionary War in 1775

Washington & Revolutionary War in 1775
Washington Takes Command in June 1775
Washington Disciplines the Army in 1775

American War for Independence in 1776

Washington & Revolutionary War in 1776
Declaring Independence in July 1776
Fighting for Independence in Later 1776

Washington & Revolutionary War 1777-79

Washington & War for Independence in 1777
Washington & Indians in 1777-79
Washington & War for Independence in 1778
Washington & War for Independence 1779

Washington & Revolutionary War 1780-82

Washington & Indians in 1780-82
Washington & War for Independence 1780
Washington & War for Independence in 1781
War for Independence Ends 1782-83

George Washington in 1783-85

Washington’s Circular to States on 8 June 1783
Washington’s Proposed Indian Policy in 1783
Washington’s Retirement Speeches 1783
George Washington in 1784-85

Washington & New Government 1786-88

Washington & Shays’ Rebellion in 1786-87
US & Constitutional Convention in 1787
United States Constitution in 1788

President Washington in 1789

Washington Becomes President in 1789
President Washington in Later 1789
Washington & the Frontier in 1789

President Washington in 1790

Washington’s Message & Hamilton on Debt in 1790
Washington’s Second Message in December 1790
Washington & the Frontier in 1790

Washington & Hamilton in 1791

Washington & Hamilton’s Bank in 1791
Washington’s Message to Congress in 1791
Hamilton’s Report & Rights in 1791

President Washington in 1792

Washington & Re-election in 1792
Washington’s Annual Message in November 1792
Washington & the Frontier 1791-92

Washington’s Federalism 1793-94

Washington & Politics in 1793
Washington & Politics in 1794
American Frontier 1793-95

Washington, Jay Treaty & Taxes

US-British Jay Treaty Negotiated 1794-96
Whiskey Tax Rebellion 1791-95

Washington & Peace 1795-96

Washington & Peace in 1795
Washington & Peace in 1796

Washington & Speeches 1796-97

Washington’s Farewell Address September 1796
Washington’s Message on 7 December 1796
Washington in Retirement 1797-99

Summary & Evaluation

Washington & War for Independence 1775-83
Washington & New Government 1783-88
President Washington in 1789-90
President Washington in 1791-92
President Washington in 1793-94
President Washington in 1795-97
Evaluating George Washington

Introduction

      The first three volumes on George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson in this new series on Evaluating US Presidents are being published online in June 2024. The first three volumes of a previous series that covers from George Washington to Calvin Coolidge are out of print as books, though they are still available on my website san.beck.org. My writing increased as I was writing about Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover, and I realized that I wanted to write at length on the other US Presidents as well. I especially felt that I had not been fair to the founding fathers who were some of our best Presidents. While writing about the extraordinary life and accomplishments of Herbert Hoover, I realized that I wanted to write more complete biographies that included what the presidents did before and after their terms in office that are related to how they did as Presidents.
      Now my top six US Presidents are Herbert Hoover, Woodrow Wilson, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Adams, and Theodore Roosevelt. The first really progressive Presidents were Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, though Washington, Adams, and Jefferson had some progressive policies. Hoover is number one because his skill at organizing the feeding people who would have starved in the first World War. Historians have noted that Hoover and those who helped him saved more lives than anyone else has done in the history of the world. He also served well in the cabinets of Wilson, Harding, and Coolidge. Hoover also helped millions who were starving in Russia in the early 1920s. In one term as President he worked hard to respond to the depression caused by capitalist exploitation, and he worked with many people to reduce the problems with methods that would be adopted by Franklin Roosevelt. Wilson did everything he could to show the world a way to prevent future wars after the devasting World War in 1914-18. Unfortunately the Republican Party chose to oppose his policies on the League of Nations so that they could regain the presidency. Jefferson and John Adams avoided a major war, but Madison did not. Washington in his “Farewell Address” warned the nation against getting involved in “entangling alliances,” and that advice is still very relevant today. I also have ranked Abraham Lincoln lowest, whom most scholars rank number one because he had a major responsibility for the Civil War that could have been avoided. That war became the worst four years in the history of the United States as about 750,000 people died, and many were disabled.
      I have included the 2021 list compiled by the television network C-SPAN based on rankings in ten categories of “leadership characteristics” by 142 historians and professional observers. Their rankings are also shown next to mine for each president. My rankings are based on ethical values as to whether the presidential decisions and policies were beneficial or harmful. William Henry Harrison was President for only one month, and he had very little influence for good or evil. On my list the names above his in my opinion did more good than harm while those below him on balance had a negative influence on the nation and the world.
      I recommend that readers begin with the “Summary and Evaluation” chapter to get the executive synopsis. Then one can get much more detailed information from the chapters. These books include many quotations from the writings and speeches of these Presidents. I have modernized the spelling and punctuation in order to make it easier for readers to understand the meaning. Yet I have left the old-fashioned capitalization of many words in order to respect their emphasis. I also use what I call “phrase-form” which has a meaningful phrase on each line, and new sentences always begin on a new line. Ancient writings were often written this way such as the Wisdom of Solomon that was written about 2,000 years ago. In doing my research I have found that there are many biographies that give many details that are not necessarily related to the presidency. Yet they rarely have long quotations. There are many books often in multiple volumes that contain the writings of the person, and they do not usually have the narratives like the biographies. My aim has been to let the person speak for oneself in their own words as much as possible with longer quotations while placing these within the context of the historical narrative.

Sanderson Beck’s List    C-SPAN#

  1. Herbert Hoover              36
  2. Woodrow Wilson          13
  3. Thomas Jefferson            7
  4. George Washington       2
  5. John Adams                   15
  6. Theodore Roosevelt       4
  7. James Monroe                12
  8. John Quincy Adams      17
  9. Ulysses S. Grant             20
  10. Rutherford B. Hayes      33
  11. Grover Cleveland          25
  12. Jimmy Carter                 26
  13. John F. Kennedy            8
  14. Franklin D. Roosevelt    3
  15. Dwight D. Eisenhower   5
  16. William Howard Taft     23
  17. Chester A. Arthur          30
  18. Millard Fillmore             38
  19. Zachary Taylor              35
  20. James Buchanan            44
  21. William J. Clinton          19
  22. Barack Obama               10
  23. Calvin Coolidge             24
  24. Benjamin Harrison         32
  25. Gerald R. Ford                28
  26. James A. Garfield           27
  27. William H. Harrison      40
  28. Franklin Pierce               42
  29. John Tyler                      39
  30. James Madison              16
  31. Andrew Johnson            43
  32. Andrew Jackson            22
  33. Martin Van Buren          34
  34. George H. W. Bush        21
  35. Warren G. Harding        37
  36. William McKinley          14
  37. Ronald Reagan              9
  38. Donald Trump               41
  39. Lyndon B. Johnson        11
  40. Richard M. Nixon          31
  41. George W. Bush             29
  42. Harry S. Truman            6
  43. James K. Polk                 18
  44. Abraham Lincoln           1
  45. Jefferson Davis             

 

C-SPAN List  2021

Abraham Lincoln                     1
George Washington                  2
Franklin D. Roosevelt               3
Theodore Roosevelt                  4
Dwight D. Eisenhower             5
Harry S. Truman                      6
Thomas Jefferson                      7
John F. Kennedy                       8
Ronald Reagan                         9
Barack Obama                          10
Lyndon B. Johnson                   11
James Monroe                          12
Woodrow Wilson                     13
William McKinley                    14
John Adams                             15
James Madison                         16
John Quincy Adams                 17
James K. Polk                           18
William J. Clinton                     19
Ulysses S. Grant                       20
George H. W. Bush                   21
Andrew Jackson                       22
William Howard Taft               23
Calvin Coolidge                       24
Grover Cleveland                     25
Jimmy Carter                            26
James A. Garfield                     27
Gerald R. Ford                          28
George W. Bush                       29
Chester A. Arthur                     30
Richard M. Nixon                     31
Benjamin Harrison                   32
Rutherford B. Hayes                 33
Martin Van Buren                     34
Zachary Taylor                         35
Herbert Hoover                         36
Warren G. Harding                  37
Millard Fillmore                        38
John Tyler                                 39
William Henry Harrison           40
Donald J. Trump                      41
Franklin Pierce                         42
Andrew Johnson                      43
James Buchanan                       44

 

Herbert Hoover

Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Jefferson

George Washington

John Adams

Uniting Humanity by Sanderson Beck

History of Peace Volume 1
History of Peace Volume 2

ETHICS OF CIVILIZATION Index
World Chronology

BECK index