BECK index

Volume 17: AMERICAN Democracy & Slavery 1817-1844

American Democracy & Slavery 1817-1844 has been published as a book.
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Brazil, Argentina & Chile 1817-44

Brazil’s Revolution 1817-22
Brazil’s Independence 1823-44
Argentine Revolution 1817-44
Paraguay 1817-44
Chilean Revolution 1817-44

Venezuela, Colombia & Peru 1817-44

Bolívar and Venezuela 1817-23
Bolívar and Colombia 1817-25
Peru’s Revolution and Bolívar 1819-25
Bolívar and Northern Conflicts 1826-30
Peru 1828-44
Venezuela & New Granada (Colombia) 1830-44
Bolivia and Ecuador 1829-44
British Guiana 1817-44

Caribbean & Central America 1817-44

Haiti, Santo Domingo & West Indies
Puerto Rico and Cuba
Central America & Confederation 1817-34
Central America 1835-44

Mexico and Democracy 1817-44

Mexican Independence & Iturbide 1817-23
Mexico of Victoria and Guerrero 1823-31
Mexico and Santa Anna 1832-44
Mexican California
New Mexico
Texas Revolution in Mexico 1817-36

US Era of Monroe & J. Q. Adams 1817-29

Monroe Era of Good Feeling 1817-18
US Banking Crisis and Depression 1818-19
Missouri-Maine Compromise 1819-21
Monroe’s Foreign Policy 1822-23
United States Elections in 1824
United States under John Q. Adams 1825-27
United States Elections in 1828

Native Tribes, Removal & the West

Jackson, Creeks & Seminoles in Florida 1817-21
Cherokees and Laws 1817-29
Evarts & Opposition to Cherokee Removal
Cherokees & Removal West 1830-43
Choctaws and Chickasaws
Creeks and Removal West 1825-44
Black Hawk War
Seminole Wars
Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho & Kiowa
Texas Revolution in Mexico 1817-36
Texas Republic 1836-44
Americans in New Mexico & Oregon

Jacksonian Democracy 1829-37

Jackson’s Democratic Presidency in 1829
Jacksonian Democracy 1830-31
Jackson and the US Bank
Jackson, Tariff & Nullification in 1832
Jacksonian Democracy & Whigs in 1833-34
Jacksonian Democrats & Whigs in 1835
Jacksonian Democracy in 1836-37

US Depression, Van Buren & Tyler 1837-44

Van Buren and the Panic of 1837
Van Buren and Depression 1838-39
Elections in 1840 and Harrison
Whig Government and Tyler in 1841
Tyler Administration in 1842
Tyler Administration 1843-44
Umited States Elections in 1844
De Tocqueville’s Democracy in America

Canada's Struggle for Democracy 1817-44

Canada under British Rule 1817-29
Canada and Mackenzie 1830-36
Canadian Rebellion and Reforms 1837-39
Canadian Union 1840-44
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia & New Brunswick

Slavery and Abolitionists 1817-44

Slavery Increases in the United States
Slave Revolts: Vesey, Turner, ships & Cuba
Frederick Douglass & Slave Narratives
Abolitionists Lundy & Walker 1817-29
Garrison and The Liberator 1829-32
American Anti-Slavery Society 1833-34
Militant Abolitionists 1835-36
Abolitionists, Peace & Women 1837-40
Abolitionist Politics 1839-44

Women Reforming America 1817-44

Educating American Women
Catherine Beecher on Educating Women
Frances Wright and Free Inquiry
Dorothea Dix Helping the Insane
Lydia Maria Child to 1831
Childs and Abolition 1832-44
Abolitionists Mott and Grimké
Margaret Fuller
Fuller and The Dial

American Philosophy & Religion 1817-44

American Peace Societies
Unitarians and Channing
New Harmony, Brook Farm & Hopedale
Bancroft on the Human Spirit
Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon
Joseph Smith and the Mormon Church 1830-38
Smith, Brigham Young and Mormons 1839-44

Emerson’s Transcendentalism

Emerson’s Education and Nature
Emerson’s Lectures and The Dial
Emerson on War, Peace & Reform
Emerson on History & Self-Reliance
Emerson on Compensation & Spiritual Laws
Emerson on the Over-Soul, Circles & Art
Emerson from 1841 to 1844

Literature of Irving, Cooper & Whittier

Washington Irving’s Essays & Stories
Washington Irving’s Stories & Histories
James Fenimore Cooper & his Early Novels
Cooper and His Writing 1827-38
Cooper’s Novels 1839-44
John Greenleaf Whittier

Summary & Evaluating America 1817-44

South America 1817-44
Central America and Mexico 1817-44
United States 1817-1828
Jackson, Native Tribes & the West
Jacksonian Democracy
United States 1837-44 & Canada
Slavery and Reformers 1817-44
American Philosophy and Literature 1817-44
Evaluating America 1817-44


Chronology of America to 1817
World Chronology



      In this “Ethics of Civilization” series the volumes on America include the western hemisphere with the Latin American and Caribbean countries, the United States of America, and the British colonies in Canada. In the chapters on the United States the word “American” may be used to refer to the people of that nation which is the only one with America in its name.
      Between 1817 and 1844 there were no major wars between nations, and much progress was made toward democracy and economic development despite the terrible scourge of slavery. Most Latin American countries became independent of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and became constitutional republics with some using the US Constitution as a role model. Central America and parts of South America even experimented with confederation at times, and many of the Latin American nations abolished slavery without having a disastrous war. South Americans benefited from the leadership of Bolívar and San Martín even though they were primarily generals. Bernardo O’Higgins provided leadership in Chile. Mexico in its conflicting politics often overthrew their leaders and put to death Iturbide and Guerrero, who had abolished slavery. The British abolished slavery in their West Indies colonies.
      The United States had recently fought the War of 1812 against the British, and the conflicts with native tribes would continue with removal of peoples from the United States to its territory west of the Mississippi River. The United States was deeply divided between northern free states and southern slave states as slavery had been enshrined in the constitutional compromise made in 1787. President Monroe with the advice of John Quincy Adams supported the Latin American republics. Most abolitionists in the North practiced the nonviolent method taught by Jesus while southern slaveholders used arguments from the Bible to try to justify their capitalist exploitation of Africans as property. Andrew Jackson increased the power of the federal government in the name of the common people. Yet his arbitrary removal of native tribes to provide more land for settlers was part of his imperialism that also took Florida from Spain. A banking crisis led to a depression that began in 1837, and President Van Buren was not re-elected. Abolitionists were considered too radical for most politicians, and they usually supported the rights of those called “Indians.” The tribes considered more “civilized” suffered the most in their forced migrations from the South where cotton plantations needed fresh soil. Unfortunately American imperialists were moving into Texas with slaves and were leading the nation toward the conquest of half of Mexico that would follow the 1844 election. William Mackenzie, Papineau, and others struggled for democratic reforms in Canada.
      Many outstanding women such as the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott, Catherine Beecher, Frances Wright, Dorothea Dix, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Fuller were educating themselves and others and bringing about reform in an era when women could not even vote. William Ellery Channing developed the Unitarian faith that included social reform, and Ralph Waldo Emerson with hundreds of lectures and enlightening writing led the Transcendentalist movement. Joseph Smith offered his version of a biblical Mormon faith that attracted followers and some persecution. Radical abolitionists led by William Lloyd Garrison and many others were attacked by pro-slavery mobs. American literature got a boost with popular writing by Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper, both of whom spent years living in Europe.

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