BECK index

Volume 17: UNITED STATES Democracy & Slavery 1801-1844

UNITED STATES Democracy & Slavery 1801-1844 has been published as a book.
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Jeffersonian Democracy 1801-1809

Jefferson Before His Presidency
Jefferson Inauguration & Peace Policy 1801
Jefferson Administration 1801-02
America’s Naval War in North Africa
Louisiana Purchase & Exploration
Jefferson & Indian Issues
Jefferson Administration in 1803
Jefferson Administration in 1804
Jefferson Administration 1805-06
Burr Conspiracy & Trial
Jefferson & the Embargo 1807-09

Madison & the War of 1812

Madison Administration in 1809
Madison Administration in 1810-11
Madison Takes US into War in 1812
American-British War in 1813
American-British War in 1814
American-British War 1814-15
Madison Administration 1816-17

US Era of Monroe & J. Q. Adams 1817-29

Monroe Era of Good Feeling 1817-18
General Jackson & Florida 1817-22
US Banking Crisis & Depression 1818-19
Missouri-Maine Compromise 1819-21
Monroe’s Foreign Policy 1822-23
United States Elections in 1824
United States under John Q. Adams 1825-27
United States Elections in 1828

Native Tribes, Removal & the West

Jackson, Creeks & Seminoles in Florida 1817-21
Cherokees & Laws 1817-29
Evarts & Opposition to Cherokee Removal
Cherokees & Removal West 1830-43
Choctaws & Chickasaws
Creeks & Removal West 1825-44
Black Hawk War
Second Seminole War 1835-43
Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho & Kiowa
Texas Revolution in Mexico 1817-36
Texas Republic 1836-44
Americans in New Mexico & Oregon

Jacksonian Democracy 1829-37

Jackson’s Democratic Presidency in 1829
Jacksonian Democracy 1830-31
Jackson & the US Bank
Jackson, Tariff & Nullification in 1832
Jacksonian Democracy & Whigs in 1833-34
Jacksonian Democrats & Whigs in 1835
Jacksonian Democracy in 1836-37

US Depression, Van Buren & Tyler 1837-44

Van Buren & the Panic of 1837
Van Buren & Depression 1838-39
Elections in 1840 & Harrison
Whig Government & Tyler in 1841
Tyler Administration in 1842
Tyler Administration 1843-44
Umited States Elections in 1844
De Tocqueville’s Democracy in America

US Slavery & Abolitionists 1801-44

Slavery Increases in the United States
Slave Revolts: Vesey, Turner & on Ships
Frederick Douglass & Slave Narratives
Abolitionists Lundy & Walker 1817-29
Garrison & The Liberator 1829-32
American Anti-Slavery Society 1833-34
Militant Abolitionists 1835-36
Abolitionists, Peace & Women 1837-40
Abolitionist Politics 1839-44

Women Reforming America 1801-44

Educating American Women
Catherine Beecher on Educating Women
Frances Wright & Free Inquiry
Dorothea Dix Helping the Insane
Lydia Maria Child to 1831
Childs & Abolition 1832-44
Abolitionists Mott & Grimké
Margaret Fuller
Fuller & The Dial

American Philosophy & Religion 1801-44

American Peace Societies
Unitarians & Channing
New Harmony, Brook Farm & Hopedale
Bancroft on the Human Spirit
Joseph Smith & the Book of Mormon
Joseph Smith & the Mormon Church 1830-38
Smith, Brigham Young & Mormons 1839-44

Emerson’s Transcendentalism

Emerson’s Education & Nature
Emerson’s Lectures & The Dial
Emerson on War, Peace & Reform
Emerson on History & Self-Reliance
Emerson on Compensation & Spiritual Laws
Emerson on the Over-Soul, Circles & Art
Emerson from 1841 to 1844

Literature of Irving, Cooper & Whittier

Washington Irving’s Essays & Stories
Washington Irving’s Stories & Histories
James Fenimore Cooper & his Early Novels
Cooper & His Writing 1827-38
Cooper’s Novels 1839-44
John Greenleaf Whittier

Summary & Evaluating America 1801-44

Jefferson’s Republic & Madison’s War 1801-17
United States 1817-1828
Jackson, Native Tribes & the West
Jacksonian Democracy
United States 1837-44
Slavery & Reformers 1801-44
American Philosophy & Literature 1801-44
Evaluating the United States 1801-44


United States History & Politics
Native Americans
American Slavery & Abolitionist
Women Reforming America
American Philosophy & Religion
American Literature

Chronology of America to 1817
World Chronology



      In this “Ethics of Civilization” series I have now separated the volumes on Latin America & Canada from the volumes on the English colonies that became the United States in North America. This work follows Volume 13 American Revolution to 1800 and begins with an electoral revolution that replaced the Federalist administrations of George Washington and John Adams with the Democratic Republicans Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Like Washington they were slaveowners from Virginia but were devoted to democratic liberties. The United States of America became the only nation to call itself “America” and thus the terms “America,” “American,” and “Americans” can refer to citizens of the United States.
      Although Thomas Jefferson did not free his own slaves, he had opposed extending slavery in the Northwest Territory or adding any slave states after 1800; but he was unable to get slavery abolished. He managed conflicts with the Barbary pirates of North Africa, and he avoided war against England by imposing economic sanctions that merchants did not like. His purchase of the Louisiana Territory doubled the size of the United States, and he sent Lewis and Clark to explore the land and its culture. His friend James Madison succeeded him as President, but he got involved in a war against England that devastated the new capital of Washington after the Americans had attacked Canada’s capital at York. Some Americans wanted to take over Canada, but that was not to be. Eventually Secretary of State Daniel Webster worked out a peaceful treaty with the British and Canada.
      President James Monroe with the advice of John Quincy Adams established the doctrine that warned European powers not to interfere in the western hemisphere. This policy supported the Latin American republics that were struggling for independence from European colonialism.
      General Andrew Jackson became famous for fighting Indians and defeating the British at New Orleans during the War of 1812. He won the popular vote in 1824, but Henry Clay helped John Quincy Adams take the presidency in the House of Representatives. Jackson was the first to suggest electing the President by the popular vote of the nation rather than by the electoral college, and he was easily elected in 1828 and re-elected in 1832. Jackson increased the power of the federal government in the name of the common people. Although he believed he was saving the Indian nations from extermination in the South by moving them west of the Mississippi, he could have defended their rights to their native land instead of implementing an oppressive policy. The Cherokees especially had developed agriculture and were called one of the “five civilized” Indian nations; but gold had been discovered in their territory, and the white Americans wanted the land. The tribes considered more “civilized” suffered the most in their forced migrations from the South where cotton plantations needed fresh soil. Jackson‘s support for the common man also initiated the “spoils system” by appointing Jacksonian Democrats in his administration. He opposed the national bank, and a banking crisis led to a depression that began in 1837. His Vice President Martin Van Buren succeeded him, had to deal with the economic depression, and was not re-elected.
      The new Whig Party elected the successful General William Henry Harrison in 1840, but he refused to wear an overcoat during the longest inaugural address and died of pneumonia after only one month as President. John Tyler of Virginia became President, vetoed bills, and eventually began appointing Democrats and more southerners. The Jacksonian James K. Polk of Tennessee would be elected in 1844 with imperialistic policies to expand the United States into Texas and Oregon.
      The United States was deeply divided between northern free states and southern slave states as slavery had been protected in the constitutional compromise made in 1787. Henry Clay was a slaveowner from Kentucky, but he helped work out compromises between the free states and the slave states involving the admission of Missouri and Maine in 1820 and later the free state of California in 1850. John Quincy Adams after his Presidency was elected to Congress, and for years he promoted the abolition of slavery. The abolitionists were led by William Lloyd Garrison, the Quaker Benjamin Lundy, the ex-slave Frederick Douglass, and many outstanding women such as the Quaker Lucretia Mott, Lydia Maria Child, and the Grimké sisters. The revelations of Joseph Smith started a new Christian religion in America based on his version of a biblical faith and his Book of Mormon. Their growing community attracted followers and some persecution that was partly because of polygamy, and they moved to the West. William Ellery Channing developed the Unitarian faith that included social reform and influenced Ralph Waldo Emerson. His many lectures and enlightening writing developed the spiritual philosophy of Transcendentalism. Emerson led the Transcendentalist movement that was supported by Margaret Fuller and others who also opposed wars and slavery.
      Most abolitionists in the North practiced the nonviolent method of non-resistance taught by Jesus while southern slaveholders used arguments from the Bible to try to justify their exploitation of Africans as property. Abolitionists were considered too radical for most politicians, and they also usually supported the rights of those called “Indians.” Americans were moving into Texas with slaves and were leading the nation toward the conquest of half of Mexico that would follow the 1844 election.
      Catherine Beecher and others worked to educate women. Frances Wright promoted free thought. Dorothea Dix helped initiate extraordinary reforms to correct the dismal treatment of the insane. Women’s voices were being heard even when they were not allowed to vote. Radical abolitionists led by William Lloyd Garrison and many others were attacked by pro-slavery mobs. The poet John Greenleaf Whittier was also an abolitionist. The emerging American culture was described by the novels and historical writings of Washington Irving and the novels of James Fenimore Cooper, both of whom spent years living in Europe.

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