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Volume 15: EUROPE & REVOLUTION 1789-1830


France’s Revolution 1789-95

French Revolution in 1789
Declaration of Rights
French Revolution 1790-91
French Revolution and War in 1792
French Revolution January-September 1793
French Terror October 1793 to July 1794
French White Terror and a Directorate 1794-95
Condorcet’s Philosophy and Babeuf’s Equality

France & Napoleon’s Rise & Fall 1796-1815

French Directorate and Napoleon 1796-97
France’s Second Directorate 1797-98
Fall of France’s Directorate in 1799
France under Consul Napoleon 1800-1804
France’s Napoleonic Empire at War 1805-07
France’s Napoleonic Empire at War 1808-10
Napoleon’s Empire and Russia 1811-12
France and Napoleon’s Decline in 1813
France and Napoleon’s Decline 1814-15
Germaine de Staël
Madame de Staël’s novels Delphine and Corinne
Germaine de Staël’s Later Years

France of Louis XVIII & Charles X 1814-30

France of Louis XVIII 1814-24
France of Charles X 1824-29
France’s Revolution of 1830
Socialism of Saint-Simon
Fourier’s Social Harmony
Constant’s Liberalism and Adolphe
Chateaubriand’s Romanticism

Britain’s Reaction to France 1789-1799

Britain Debating Revolution 1789-92
Paine and The Rights of Man
Paine’s Age of Reason
Wollstonecraft on the Rights of Women
Godwin on Political Justice
Britain at War Against France 1793-95
Britain at War Against France 1796-99
Ireland’s Rebellion in 1798 and Union

Britain: War and Recovery 1800-30

Britain and War 1800-05
Britain and War 1806-10
Britain and War 1811-15
Bentham’s Utilitarian Ethics
Malthus, Ricardo and James Mill
Ireland and Scotland 1800-30
Britain under the Tories 1815-19
Britain under the Tories 1820-30
Owen’s Economic Reforms
Thompson and Owenism

Romantic Era of English Literature 1789-1830

Burns’ Poetry of Scotland
Blake’s Visionary Poetry
Coleridge’s Spiritual Writing
Byron the Romantic Poet to 1816
Byron in Exile and His Manfred
Byron’s Cain and Don Juan
Shelley the Radical
Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound and Later Work
Austen’s Realistic Novels
Scott’s Historical Novels

Germans, Austria & Swiss 1789-1830

Prussia and Germans at War 1792-1815
Prussia and German States 1815-30
Austrian Empire during Revolution 1789-99
Austria and Napoleonic War 1800-14
Austria and Metternich’s Diplomacy 1814-18
Austria and Metternich’s Diplomacy 1819-30
Hungary under Imperial Austria
Swiss Cantons during the Revolution 1789-99
Swiss Cantons in Wars and After 1800-30

German Idealists and Romantics 1789-1830

Kant on Morals and Peace
Fichte’s Political Idealism
Fröbel and Herbart on Education
Hegel’s Dialectical Idealism
Schiller on Aesthetics and Ethics
Schiller’s Wallenstein and Mary Stuart
Schiller’s Maid of Orleans and Wilhelm Tell
Kleist’s Plays
Goethe’s Torquato Tasso
Goethe’s Later Novels
Goethe’s Faust

Spain, Portugal and Italy 1789-1830

Spain’s Decline and Wars 1789-1807
Spain’s War of Independence 1808-14
Spain under Fernando VII 1814-30
Portugal and War 1789-1815
Portugal 1816-30
Italy and the French Invasion 1789-99
Northern Italy under Napoleon 1800-14
Southern Italy under Napoleon 1800-14
Italy’s Restoration 1815-30

Netherlands and Scandinavia 1789-1830

Netherlands and Revolution 1789-99
Netherlands under the French 1800-14
Netherlands United under Willem 1814-30
Denmark-Norway’s Reforms & War 1789-1814
Norway’s Union with Sweden 1814-30
Sweden and Reforms 1789-1808
Sweden and Norway 1809-30

Poland, Russia & Greek Revolution 1789-1830

Poland Liberated & Invaded 1788-97
Poland Divided 1798-1830
Russian Empire 1789-1801
Russia under Aleksandr 1801-14
Russia of Aleksandr & Nikolay 1815-30
Greek War of Independence

Summary and Evaluating Europe 1789-1830

French Revolution 1789-95
France and Napoleon’s Wars 1796-1815
France’s Monarchical Restoration 1815-30
Britain during Revolution 1789-99
Britain during War and After 1800-30
Romantic English Literature
Germans and Central Europe 1789-1830
German Idealism and Romanticism
Southern Europe 1789-1830
Northern Europe 1789-1830
Eastern Europe 1789-1830
Evaluating Europe 1789-1830



      The eruption of the French Revolution in 1789 marked a new era in European history by challenging and replacing the old regime of monarchs and aristocrats of despotic power and privileges. Marred by more terror and violence in comparison to the American Revolution but also influenced by it, they asserted the rights of citizens and democratic government. The zeal of revolutionaries and conflicts with the monarchical powers of Europe led to a series of wars that fostered an extraordinary military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, who helped spread the revolution by aggressive military conquests. Experiments with republican ideals, constitutions, and reformed laws began changing the history of other European nations. Yet Napoleon’s exertion of imperial power eventually turned those nations against the invading French armies, and their alliance brought about his downfall and the restoration of the Bourbon King Louis XVIII. Nonetheless some reforms survived, and the desire for democratic revolutions would revive and did so in France in 1830. Socialist ideas were developed by Fourier and Saint Simon. Tom Paine promoted human rights and reason in religion. Germaine de Staël and Mary Wollstonecraft in England showed the intellectual power women can have.
      Britain already had a Parliamentary monarchy and an extensive empire with a powerful navy. The benefits of their industrial revolution and trade were used to support other nations in the struggle against Napoleon’s French Empire. The conservative Tory Party maintained political control and prevented reform attempts by utilitarians such as Bentham, James Mill, and Ricardo. Yet Robert Owen demonstrated how economic improvements could improve the life of workers. In this romantic era the poetry of Blake, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and many others inspired while the novels of Jane Austen and Walter Scott entertained and educated.
      Under the influence and domination of the French the Germans and Italians experimented with confederation and republics as Austrian imperialism was curtailed for a while but came back again in northern Italy. The Holy Roman Empire finally expired, but Austria maintained an empire over Hungary and central Europe. After French imperialism was thwarted, Metternich and powerful kings created a Concert of Nations that would maintain monarchs and prevent major wars for a century. The Swiss continued their democratic ways, and Pestalozzi advanced children’s education that was also furthered by Fröbel and Herbart. Kant, Fichte, and Hegel promoted idealistic philosophy while Schiller and Goethe fostered romantic literature and theater.
      While Spain was losing its colonial empire, they fought back against French imperialism and succeeded with the help of the Portuguese and British. The Low Countries were finally freed of Austrian imperialism and developed their economies. During the wars Denmark lost control over Norway to Sweden which lost Finland to the Russian Empire. Tsar Alexander helped lead the effort against Napoleon after surviving the French invasion, and he promoted spirituality and peace. The Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire was supported especially by the English and Russia, and by 1830 the Greeks had an independent state.

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