BECK index

Mideast & Africa
Chronological Index of Events

to 1950

World Chronology to 1830
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 13,000 Cereals were harvested in Nile valley. Egypt
c. 12,000 Dog were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 10,000 Goats were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8500 Goats' milk was drunk in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8000 Women planted seeds in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8000 Jericho had brick houses for 2,000 people. Israel
c. 7700 Sheep were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 7000 Emmer wheat was domesticated in Kurdistan. Sumer
c. 6500 Pottery was widespread in the Near East. Sumer
c. 6400 Sumerians invented the wheel. Sumer
c. 6000 Irrigation used the Euphrates River. Sumer
c. 6000 Plow was used in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 6000 Catal Huyuk had 5,000 people. Sumer
c. 5500 Wheat and barley were cultivated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle were domesticated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Copper was smelted in Persia.
c. 5400 Eridu was first Sumerian city. Sumer
c. 5000 Wars over water were fought in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 5000 Dikes and canals were built in Egypt.
c. 4500 Boats sailed on the Euphrates. Sumer
c. 3800 Uruk had 10,000 people. Sumer
c. 3500 Sumerians developed government by priests. Sumer
c. 3500 Wheeled vehicles were drawn by animals in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3400 Pictographic writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3100 Menes, first king of Egypt, conquered south. Old Kingdom
c. 3000 Cuneiform writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3000 Hieroglyphics were used in Egypt. Egypt
c. 3000 Uruk had 50,000 people. Sumer
c. 2890 Hetepsekhemui founded 2nd dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2800 Sickle invented in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Paper invented in Egypt. Egypt
c. 2700 Mebaragesi ruled Kish in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Djoser founded Old Kingdom, built first pyramid in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2700 Physician Imhotep designed pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2613 Snefru founded 4th dynasty, great pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2600 Oxen were used with plows in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2600 Gilgamesh ruled Uruk. Sumer
c. 2580 Khufu built largest pyramid. Old Kingdom
c. 2550 74 attendants were buried with a king at Ur. Sumer
c. 2525 Menkaure ruled Egypt 12 years. Old Kingdom
c. 2510 Kish king Mesalim arbitrated Umma-Lagash dispute. Sumer
c. 2500 Ziqqurats were built in Ur, Uruk, Eridu, and Nippur. Sumer
c. 2500 Sumerian schools taught cuneiform script. Sumer
c. 2500 Libraries were established at Shuruppak and Eresh. Sumer
c. 2500 Epic of Gilgamesh was written in Sumer.
c. 2500 Ur-Nanshe built canals at Lagash. Sumer
c. 2500 Copper and bronze were used in Indus valley. Sumer
c. 2500 Iron was smelted in Near East. Sumer
c. 2480 Queen Khentkaues founded 5th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2450 Wisdom of Ptah-hotep appeared in Egypt. Early Egyptian Literature
c. 2450 Lagash King Eannatum warred on Elamites and Mari. Sumer
c. 2410 Lagash King Urukagina reformed priesthood. Sumer
2414-2390 Lugalzagesi ruled Umma, plundered Lagash. Sumer
2390 Kish King Sargon defeated Lugalzagesi.
2370 Sargon's wars established Akkadian empire.
c. 2345 Teti founded 6th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2290 Naram-Sin and Elamites made treaty. Sargon
2275-2185 Pepi II ruled Egypt. Old Kingdom
2274 Naram-Sin died after ruling Akkadian empire. Sargon
c. 2250 Elamite King Puzur-Inshushinak claimed empire. Sargon
2249 Akkadian King Shar-kali-sharri died in revolution. Sargon
2197- 2178 Gudea governed Lagash and rebuilt temples. Sumerian Revival
2185-2040 Egypt had civil wars. Old Kingdom
2176 Uruk Governor Utu-hegal revolted against Guti. Sumerian Revival
2169 Ur-Nammu proclaimed King of Sumer at Ur.
c. 2160 Law code was promulgated by Ur-Nammu. Sumerian Revival
2150-2103 Shulgi ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2133 Mentuhotep I founded 11th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2103-2094 Amar-Sin ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
c. 2100 "Instructions for Merikare" was written in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2094-2086 Shu-Sin ruled disintegrating Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2083 Eshnunna became independent. Sumerian Revival
2073 Ishbi-Irra established Isin dynasty. Sumerian Revival
c. 2060 Third dynasty of Ur ended. Sumerian Revival
c. 2050 King Bilalama formulated Eshnunna law code. Sumerian Revival
2040 Middle Kingdom began in Egypt.
2009-1997 Mentuhotep III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1991 Amenemhet I founded 12th dynasty in Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1971-1926 Sesostris I ruled Egypt and invaded Nubia. Middle Kingdom
1990-1980 Lipit-Ishtar ruled Isin with law code.
1980 Larsa King Gungunum attacked Isin.
1950 Babylonian dynasty was founded by Amorite Samu'abum.
1917-1893 Enlil-bani ruled Isin.
c. 1900 Hittites settled in Anatolia.
1890 Elamite Kudur-Mabuk took over Larsa.
1878-1840 Sesostris III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1869-1837 Shamshi-Adad ruled first Assyrian empire.
1850 Larsa king Rim-Sin defeated Babylonians.
1848-1806 Hammurabi ruled Babylon with law code.
1844-1799 Amenemhet III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1810 Hammurabi conquered Mesopotamia.
1806-1768 Samsu-iluna ruled shrinking Babylonian empire.
1702-1682 Ammisaduqa ruled Babylon.
c. 1700 Hittite King Hattusilis I founded Hattusas.
1674 Hyksos took Memphis and ruled Egypt for a century.
c. 1650 Hittite King Mursilis captured Babylon.
1626-1157 Kassite dynasty was founded by Agum II.
c. 1600 Babylonian hymn to Ishtar was sung.
c. 1600 Egyptian Book of the Dead was sold on papyrus.
c. 1600 Ipuwer wrote "The Admonitions of a Prophet." Hyksos
c. 1570 Ahmose expelled Hyksos and founded 18th dynasty.
c. 1550 Hurrians established at Alalakh.
1546-1525 Amenhotep I ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1525-1512 Thutmose I expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
1512-1504 Thutmose II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1504-1482 Hatshepsut ruled as regent in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1500 Horses moved from Egypt to Sahara. New Kingdom
1490 Kassite King Burnaburiash I made peace with Assyria.
1490-1436 Thutmose III expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
1480 Hurrian King Idrimi ruled at Alalakh.
1450-1425 Amenhotep II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1425-1417 Thutmose IV ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1417-1380 Amenhotep III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1400 Mitanni-Hittite treaty invoked Aryan gods.
1380-1363 Akhenaten changed Egyptian religion. New Kingdom
1380 Suppiluliumas became Hittite king.
c. 1370 Hittite Suppiluliumas plundered Wassukkanni.
c. 1360 Mitanni King Tushratta was murdered. Hittites
1352 Tutankhamen died at 19 in Egypt. New Kingdom
1348-1320 Horemheb ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1320 Muwatallis became Hittite king.
1304-1237 Ramses II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1300 Egyptians fought Hittites at Kadesh. New Kingdom
c. 1284 Ramses II and Hattusilis III made a treaty. New Kingdom
c. 1275 Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt.
1274-1245 Assyrian Shalmaneser I destroyed Mitannians.
c. 1265 Tudhaliyas IV became Hittite king.
1244-1208 Tukulti-Ninurta I ruled Assyria.
c. 1240 Joshua and Hebrews invaded Canaan.
1221 Libyan invasion was defeated by Egypt's Merneptah. New Kingdom
c. 1200 Sea raiders destroyed Hittite empire.
c. 1200 "The Instruction of Amenemope" was in Egypt. Egyptian Literature
1198-1166 Ramses III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1179-1133 Ashur-dan ruled Assyria.
1157 Elamite King Shutruk-nahhunte captured Babylon. Assyrian Empire
c. 1170 Worker strike occurred in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1141 Philistines defeated Israelites. Conquest of Canaan
c. 1140 Elamite King Kutir-nahhunte died. Assyrian Empire
1133-1116 Ashur-resh-ishi ruled Assyria.
1124-1104 Nebuchadrezzar I ruled Babylon at Isin. Assyrian Empire
1115-1077 Tiglath-pileser I ruled Assyria.
1074-1057 Ashur-bel-kala ruled Assyria.
1050-1032 Ashurnasirpal I ruled Assyria.
c. 1025 Samuel anointed Saul King of Judah.
c. 1012 David was anointed King of Judah.
c. 1005-961 David ruled Israel.
967-935 Tiglath-pileser II ruled Assyria.
c. 961-927 Solomon ruled Israel.
945 Shoshenk I founded 22nd dynasty in Egypt.
934-912 Ashur-dan II ruled Assyria.
927-907 Jeroboam I ruled Israel.
926 Shoshenk I invaded Israel, plundered Jerusalem.
926-910 Rehoboam ruled Judah.
911-891 Adad-nirari II ruled Assyria.
908-868 Asa ruled Judah.
906-883 Baasha ruled Israel.
890-884 Tukulti-Ninurta II ruled Assyria.
883-859 Ashurnasirpal II ruled Assyria.
882-871 Omri ruled Israel.
878 Assyria's Ashurnasirpal II conquered Phoenicia.
871-852 Ahab ruled Israel.
868-847 Jehoshaphat ruled Judah.
c. 860 Elijah led prophet school at Mt. Carmel. Israel
c. 860 Ahab defeated Syrian King Benhadad. Israel
858-844 Aram ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
858-824 Shalmaneser III ruled Assyria.
853 Ahab and Syria battled Assyria's Shalmaneser III. Israel
851 Moab rebelled against Israel's King Ahaziah.
851 Elijah died and was replaced by Elisha. Israel
851-845 Jehoram ruled Israel.
850 Marduk-zakir-shumi made King of Babylon. Assyrian Empire
849 Shalmaneser III attacked Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 845 Syrian King Benhadad besieged Samaria. Israel
845-840 Queen Athaliah ruled Judah; Edom revolted.
845-818 Jehu ruled Israel.
840-801 Jehoash ruled Judah.
836 Civil wars began in Egypt during reign of Takelot II.
823-811 Shamsi-Adad V ruled Assyria.
818-802 Jehoahaz ruled Israel.
814 Carthage was founded in north Africa by Phoenicians. North Africa
c. 810 Sammuramat (Semiramis) was regent in Assyria.
810-785 Menua ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
806 Assyrian King Adad-nirari III invaded Syria.
802-787 Jehoash ruled Israel.
801-787 Amaziah ruled Judah.
c. 790 Israel's King Jehoash defeated Judah's King Amaziah.
787-747 Jeroboam II ruled Israel.
787-736 Uzziah ruled Judah.
785-753 Argishti ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
783 Assyrian King Adad-nirari III died.
c. 760 Amos prophesied in Israel and Judah.
753-735 Sarduri II ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 750 Hosea prophesied in Israel.
c. 750 Scythians drove Cimmerians from Caucasus mountains. Assyrian Empire
747-738 Menahem ruled Israel.
745-727 Tiglath-pileser III ruled Assyria.
744 65,000 Iranians were displaced. Assyrian Empire
c. 742-697 Isaiah and Micah prophesied in Israel and Judah.
741-725 Ahaz ruled Judah allied with Assyria.
736 Assyria'sTiglath-pileser III defeated Urartu's Sarduri II.
731-723 Hoshea ruled Israel.
730 Kushite King Piankhi took Memphis. Egypt
725-722 Assyrian King Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria.
725-697 Hezekiah ruled Judah.
722 Assyrians captured Israel
721-705 Sargon II ruled Assyria.
c. 720 Marduk-apal-iddina II (Merodach-baladan) ruled Babylon. Assyrian Empire
720 Bocchoris succeeded Tefnahkte in Egyptian delta.
716 Kushite Shabaka invaded Egypt. Nubia
714 Assyria's Sargon II attacked Urartu.
704-681 Sennacherib ruled Assyria.
701 Egypt and Judah rebelled against Assyria.
696-642 Manasseh ruled Judah.
694 Sennacherib attacked Elam and destroyed Babylon. Assyrian Empire
690-664 Kushite Taharqa ruled Egypt.
687-652 Gyges ruled Lydia. Assyrian Empire
681-669 Esarhaddon ruled Assyria.
677 Sidon revolt was put down by Assyria.
671 Assyria's Esarhaddon drove Kushites out of Memphis. Egypt Nubia
c669-627 Ashurbanipal ruled Assyria.
664 Kushite Tanutamen invaded Egypt. Nubia
664 Elam attacked Babylon. Assyrian Empire
656 Psamtik's Saite dynasty united Egypt.
653 Medes attack on Nineveh was defeated. Assyrian Empire
653-625 Scythians subjugated Medes. Assyrian Empire
651 Babylon's Shamash-shum-ukin revolted from Assyria.
c. 650 Lydia minted first coins. Assyrian Empire
649 Assyria's Ashurbanipal took over Babylon.
639 Assyria's Ashurbanipal destroyed Susa in Elam.
639-609 Josiah ruled Judah.
c. 630 Zephaniah prophesied in Judah.
c. 628-551 Zarathushtra taught new religion in Persia.
c. 627-580 Jeremiah prophesied in Judah.
626-605 Nabopolassar ruled Babylon.
623-612 Sin-shar-ishkun ruled Assyria.
c. 620 Nahum prophesied in Judah.
616 Medes attacked Nineveh. Persian Empire
612 Medes and Babylonians captured Nineveh. Persian Empire
612-609 Ashur-uballit II ruled Assyria.
610 Egypt’s Necho invaded Philistines.
c. 610-560 Alyattes ruled Lydia. Babylonian Empire
609 Assyrian army surrendered to Babylonians.
609 Pharaoh Necho ordered canal from Nile to Red Sea. Egypt
605 Babylon defeated Egypt at Carchemish.
605-562 Nebuchadrezzar II ruled Babylonian Empire.
c. 600 Habakkuk prophesied in Judah.
597 Jehoiachin surrendered Jerusalem to Babylon. Judah
597-588 Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem for Babylon. Judah
595-589 Psamtik II ruled Egypt.
593 Psamtik II's Egyptians with Greeks invaded Nubia. Egypt
593-563 Ezekiel prophesied in Babylon.
593-568 Aspelta ruled Kushites at Meroe. Nubia
586 Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar captured Jerusalem.
586-573 Babylonians besieged Tyre.
585 Nebuchadrezzar mediated Mede-Lydian truce. Babylonian Empire
585-550 Astyages ruled Medes. Persian Empire
568 Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar invaded Egypt.
562-560 Amel-Marduk ruled Babylon.
560-556 Neriglissar ruled Babylon.
c. 560-546 Croesus ruled Lydia. Persian Empire
559-529 Cyrus II ruled Persian Empire.
556-539 Nabonidus ruled Babylon.
553 Nabonidus recaptured Harran from Persians. Babylonian Empire
550 Cyrus II took over Median empire. Persian Empire
549 Persian Empire took over Armenia from Medes.
544 Lydia's Croesus attacked Persians and lost empire.
c. 540 Second Isaiah prophesied in Babylon.
539-538 Persia's Cyrus conquered and destroyed Babylon.
537 Cyrus made Cambyses King of Babylon. Persian Empire
537 50,000 Jews moved from Babylon to Israel.
529-522 Cambyses II ruled Persian Empire.
525 Persian king Cambyses conquered Egypt.
521 Darius had Oroites executed in Sardis. Persian Empire
520 Haggai prophesied in Israel. Jews
520-486 Darius ruled Persian Empire.
519 Darius invaded Scythians. Persian Empire
518 Darius reconquered Egypt. Persian Empire
516 Jerusalem temple was rebuilt by Jews.
513 Hindush satrapy added to Persian Empire.
c. 512 Darius invaded European Scythians. Persian Empire
508 Carthage made a treaty with Rome. North Africa
500 Ionian cities revolted against Persia.
499 Ionians burned Sardis. Persia
498 Cypress was defeated by Persians.
494 Persians defeated Greek fleet off Miletus.
486-465 Xerxes ruled Persian empire.
482 Persia defeated Babylonian revolt by satrap Zopyrus. Persian-Greek Wars
480 Persians killed 1000 Greeks at Thermopylae.
480 Athens was evacuated; Persians were defeated at Salamis.
479 Greeks defeated Persians at Plataea and Mycale.
479 Ionians revolted from Persia.
465 Egypt revolted against Persia.
464-424 Artaxerxes I ruled Persian empire.
459 Athenians captured Memphis in Egypt.
458 Ezra led 1,600 Jews from Persia to Jerusalem.
454 Persia reconquered Egypt.
449 Athens and Persia made Treaty of Callias.
445-433 Nehemiah governed in Jerusalem for Persia. Jews
424-404 Darius II ruled Persian empire.
413 Persia put down Pissouthnes revolt in Sardis.
412 Sparta-Persia treaty of Miletus.
410 Persia destroyed Jewish temple at Elephantine. Egypt
406 Hannibal died besieging Acragas. 498
404 Egypt revolted from the Persian empire.
404-359 Artaxerxes II ruled Persian empire.
c. 400 Ruth, Joel, Malichi, Jonah, and Esther were written. Jews in the Persian Empire
396 Egypt aided Sparta in war on Persia.
396 Himilco abandoned Syracuse. North Africa
394 Persian navy defeated Spartan navy off Cnidus.
386 Greeks and Persia made Peace of Antalcidas.
380 Persia defeated Egypt and Euagoras.
377-353 Mausolus ruled Caria. Persia
379 Syracuse defeated Carthage again. North Africa
367 Ariobarzanes revolted from Persia.
367 Persia recognized independence of Messenia.
362 Ariobarzanes was crucified by Persia in satrap revolt.
361 Agesilaus helped Egypt's revolt against Persia.
345-343 Persia with Greeks conquered Egypt.
338 Carthage made another treaty with Rome. North Africa
336-330 Darius III ruled Persian empire.
334 Alexander’s army defeated Persia at Granicus.
333 Darius fled from Macedonians at Issus. Persia
332 Alexander's army conquered Phoenicia, Judea, and Egypt.
331 Alexandria was founded in Egypt. Alexander
331 Macedonians defeated Persians at Gaugamela. Persia
330 Alexander’s Macedonians destroyed Persepolis. Persia
328-308 Nastasen ruled Kushites using Meroitic script. Africa
327 Alexander’s army conquered Sogdiana.
324 Alexander and 80 officers wed Persians. Persia
323-283 Ptolemy I Soter ruled Egypt.
264-241 Carthage fought first Punic war against Rome. North Africa
230 Seleucus II invaded Parthia. Persia
218-201 Carthage fought 2nd Punic war against Rome. North Africa
203-187 Nubians controlled Thebes. Africa
c. 180 Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach was written. Judea
149-146 Carthage fought 3rd Punic war against Rome. North Africa
120-63 Mithridates VI ruled Pontus. Parthian Empire
103-76 Alexander Janneus ruled Judea.
23 Roman army led by Petronius plundered Napata. Nubia
20 Rome made peace with the Parthians. Parthian Empire

c. 50 Ethiopian dynasty was founded at Axum.
c. 75 Periplus of the Erythraean Sea was written by an Alexandrian. Ethiopia
165-67 Plague spread from Parthia to Rome.
166 Roman army destroyed Seleucia and Ctesiphon. Parthian Empire
198 Roman army plundered Ctesiphon. Parthian Empire
213-24 Artaban IV rules as the last Parthian king.
216-74 Mani founded Manichaean religion in Persia.
224 Persian Ardashir founded Sasanian dynasty.
226-40 Ardashir ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
231-33 Emperor Alexander Severus fought Persia. Sasanian Persia
240 Mani proclaimed himself a prophet.
240-70 Shapur I ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
243 Romans drove the Persians out of Syria. Sasanian Persia
255 Persian King Shapur banished Mani.
259 Persians defeated, captured Emperor Valerian. Sasanian Persia
259 Palmyran King Odenathus destroyed Nahardea. Sasanian Persia
262 Syrian and Roman forces defeated the Persians. Sasanian Persia
274-93 Bahram II ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
282 Persia lost Ctesiphon Seleucia to the Romans. Sasanian Persia
291 Persian Bahram II killed Manichaean leader Sisin.
293-302 Narseh ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
296 Diocletian persecuted Manichaeans in Africa.
303 Hormizd II executed Manichaean leader Innai.
309-79 Shapur II ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
341 Sasanian Shapur II made treaty with Armenia.
c. 350 Ethiopian King Ezana adopted Christianity.
c. 350 Ethiopians conquered Kush.
383-88 Shapur III ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
399-420 Yazdgard I ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
421-38 Bahram V ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
438-57 Yazdgard II ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
455 Persia forbade Sabbath celebration. Sasanian Persia
459-84 Peroz ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
484-88 Balash ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
488-531 Kavadh I ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
c. 490 Mazdak taught socialist sharing in Persia. Sasanian Persia
499 Kavadh regained throne from Zamasp. Sasanian Persia
503 Kavadh invaded Armenia. Sasanian Persia
505 Kavadh agreed to a truce with Celer. Sasanian Persia
525 Abyssinian army conquered Yemen. Sasanian Persia
531-79 Khusrau I ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
533 Khusrau I made peace with the Roman empire. Sasanian Persia
540 Khusrau I led an army that attacked Syria. Sasanian Persia
543 Theodora sent Monophysite Julian to Nubia.
549-57 Persia battled the Roman empire. Sasanian Persia
554 Persians and Turks destroyed the Hephthalites. Sasanian Persia
557 Rome and Persia made a five-year truce. Sasanian Persia
562 Khusrau I and Justinian signed a 50-year treaty. Sasanian Persia
570 Muhammad was born in Mecca.
572 Persians drove Abyssinians out of Yemen. Sasanian Persia
574 Persians captured Antioch and 292,000 prisoners. Sasanian Persia
579-90 Hormizd IV ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
590-628 Khusrau II ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
595 Muhammad married Khadijah.
605 Persians over-ran Syria, Palestine, & Phoenicia. Sasanian Persia
608 Persian army invaded Cappadocia. Sasanian Persia
610 Muhammad began reciting the Qur'an.
614 Persians captured Jerusalem. Sasanian Persia
619 Persians invaded Egypt, conquered Alexandria. Sasanian Persia
622 Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina.
624 Muhammad and his men attacked a Quraysh caravan.
627 Bani Nadir Jews joined the fight against Muhammad.
628 Khusrau II’s son deposed & killed him. Sasanian Persia North Africa
629 Muhammad made a pilgrimage to Mecca.
630 Muhammad began a campaign against Byzantine Syrians.
631 Muhammad announced war against idolaters.
632.6.8 Muhammad died in Mecca.
632-34 Muhammad was succeeded by Abu Bakr. Islamic Wars
634 Khalid with 40,000 Muslims took Damascus. Islamic Wars
634 'Umar was elected second Caliph. Islamic Wars
637 Muslims defeated Persian army; Basra was founded. Islamic Wars
637 Jerusalem capitulated to 'Umar's terms. Islamic Wars
638.8.21 Antioch bought safety for 300,000 gold coins. Islamic Wars
639 Famine and pestilence followed the conquest of Syria. Islamic Wars
640 'Amr led the Muslim invasion of Egypt. Islamic Wars
641 Muslims defeated the Sassanian empire. Islamic Wars
641 Nubian Mukurra was attacked by Arabs.
642, 645 Muslims conquered Alexandria. Islamic Wars North Africa
644 Caliph 'Umar was assassinated while praying. Islamic Wars
644-56 Caliph 'Uthman appointed Umayyad relatives.
647 Arabs took Caesarea in Cappadocia. 'Uthman and 'Ali
647 'Abd-Allah Ibn Sa'd led invasion of North Africa. 'Uthman and 'Ali
650 Caliph 'Uthman lost the prophet's ring in a stream.
651 Persian king Yazdgard was killed at Marv. Islamic Wars
651 Nubians made a treaty with Muslims.
654 Arab fleet captured Rhodes. 'Uthman and 'Ali
655 Muslim navy made Cyprus pay tribute. 'Uthman and 'Ali
656.6.17 Caliph 'Uthman was assassinated by a conspiracy.
656-61 'Ali was the fourth Caliph amid civil war.
660 Arabs were repelled from India. Islamic Wars
660 Mu'awiya was proclaimed Caliph at Jerusalem. 'Uthman and 'Ali
661 'Ali was the third consecutive Caliph murdered.
661-750 Umayyad Caliphate spread Islam.
664-73 Ziyad Ibn Abihi of Ta'if governed Basra. Umayyad Caliphate
670 Arabs led by ‘Uqba invaded Berbers in Tunisia. North Africa
672 Caliph Mu'awiya's navy captured Rhodes. Umayyad Caliphate
674 Muslims attacked Constantinople. Umayyad Caliphate
674 Caliph Mu'awiya's navy captured Crete. Umayyad Caliphate
674-78 Muslims besieged Constantinople. Umayyad Caliphate
680 Caliph Mu'awiya was succeeded by his son Yazid. Umayyad Caliphate
680.10.10 'Ali's son Husain and supporters were massacred. Umayyad Caliphate
683 Kabul revolted and defeated a Muslim army. Umayyad Caliphate
683 Muslims destroyed Medina and attacked Mecca. Umayyad Caliphate
685 Caliph Marwan was succeeded by his son 'Abd-al-Malik. Umayyad Caliphate
685-704 Caliph's brother 'Abd al-Aziz governed Egypt. Umayyad Caliphate
685-705 'Abd-al-Malik ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
687 Muslim revolutionary Mukhtar was killed at Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
691 'Abd-al-Malik led an attack on Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
692 Muslims defeated the Byzantine army at Sebastopolis. Umayyad Caliphate
692 Syrian forces led by al-Hajjaj captured Mecca. Umayyad Caliphate
694-714 Al-Hajjaj governed Sasanian provinces. Umayyad Caliphate
695 Zabul and Kabul defeated Arabs. Umayyad Caliphate
697 Merkurios became Nubian king and strengthened church.
699 Muslim army returned to ravage Zabulistan. Umayyad Caliphate
c 700-67 Abu-Hanifah of Iraq was a liberal jurist. Umayyad Caliphate
705-15 Al-Walid ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
709 Musa ibn Nusayr conquered Tangier. North Africa
711 Tariq's Muslims defeated Roderick's army. North Africa
711-18 Muslims took over most of Spain. North Africa
717-20 Caliph 'Umar ruled Islam more justly. Umayyad Caliphate
717-801 Sufi Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya of Basra lived and taught.
720-24 Caliph Yazid II reversed 'Umar's reforms. Umayyad Caliphate
721 Muslims were defeated at Toulouse. Umayyad Caliphate
724-43 Hisham ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
725 Muslims raiding in Burgundy sacked Autun. Umayyad Caliphate
726-40 Muslim armies invaded Asia Minor annually. Umayyad Caliphate
728 Early Sufi al-Hasan died.
740 Husain's grandson Zayd Ibn 'Ali led a revolt in Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
744-50 Civil wars ended the Umayyad Caliphate. Umayyad Caliphate
749 'Abbasids proclaimed Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
750-945 'Abbasid Caliphate ruled most of Islam.
751 Muslim paper mill was founded at Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
754-75 Caliph Al-Mansur ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
756-88 Umayyad Rahman Ibn Mu'awiya ruled Spain at Cordoba.
756-1031 Umayyads ruled Muslim Spain.
758 Arabs and Persians sacked Canton. 'Abbasid Caliphate
762 Islamic capital at Baghdad was begun. 'Abbasid Caliphate
767 'Abd al-Rahman made a 20-year truce with Asturias. Umayyad Spain
772 Al-Fazari in Baghdad called Ghana the land of gold. West Africa
775-85 Caliph Al-Mahdi ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
776 Early Sufi Abu Hashim died.
777 Early Sufi Ibrahim Ibn Adham died.
781-857 Harith Muhasibi was a theologian of the Shafi'i school.
783 Persian prophet Salik Ibn Abdul Quddus was crucified. 'Abbasid Caliphate
786-809 Caliph Harun al-Rashid ruled from wealthy Baghdad. 'Abbasid Caliphate
788-974 Idrisid dynasty ruled Morocco. 'Abbasid Caliphate
794 Walid ibn Tarif in Jazira led a Khariji rebellion. 'Abbasid Caliphate
795 Islamic jurist Malik ibn Anas died. 'Abbasid Caliphate
796-822 Al-Hakam I ruled Muslim Spain.
796-859 Dhu al-Nun Misri was an ascetic Sufi.
797 'Abbasids and Byzantines exchanged prisoners.
802 Harun divided his empire between his two sons. 'Abbasid Caliphate
803 Harun al-Rashid had his best friend Ja'far killed. 'Abbasid Caliphate
805 Rafi Ibn Layth led a rebellion in Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
805 Muslim navy plundered Cyprus. 'Abbasid Caliphate
806 Muslims led by Harun al-Rashid captured Tyana. 'Abbasid Caliphate
807 Muslim navy plundered Rhodes. 'Abbasid Caliphate
813-33 Caliph Al-Ma'mun ruled from Marv and Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
820 Islamic jurist al-Shafi'i died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
822-52 ‘Abd al-Rahman II ruled Muslim Spain.
825-961 Muslims ruled Crete. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
827 Al Ma'mun declared the Qur'an a creation. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
829-37 Toledo revolted. Umayyad Spain
831 Aghlabids occupied most of Sicily. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
833-42 Caliph Al-Mu'tasim acquired an army of Turkish slaves. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
836 Al-Mu'tasim had a new capital built at Samarra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
836 Nubians made a treaty with the Baghdad Caliph.
840 Muslims destroyed independent Capua. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
841 Muslims captured Bari. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
842-47 Caliph Al-Wathiq enforced his liberal views. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
844 Vikings raided Gijon, La Coruña, and Seville. Umayyad Spain
846 Muslim army from Cordoba sacked Leon. Umayyad Spain
847-61 Caliph al-Mutawakkil reasserted Sunni orthodoxy. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
c. 850 Thousand Legends was translated into Arabic. 1001 Nights
852-86 Muhammad I ruled Muslim Spain. Umayyad Spain
858-922 Persian Sufi al-Hallaj lived.
863 Utamish, first Turkish vizier, was assassinated. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
865-925 Al-Razi taught Platonic philosophy and medicine.
867 Muslims besieged Dubrovnik.‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
868-905 Tulunids ruled Egypt and Syria. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
869 Al-Jahiz, author of Book of Proof, died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-91 Al-Muwaffaq ruled for his brother Caliph al-Mutamid. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-950 Al-Farabi combined Platonic philosophy and Islam.
871 Ex-slaves destroyed Basra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
874 Persian Sufi Bayazid Bistami died.
876 Ya'qub was defeated trying to take Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
878 Muslims conquered Syracuse. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
882-942 Saadia ben Joseph taught Judaic philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
883 Muslims defeated Byzantines at Tarsus. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
892-902 Caliph al-Mu'tadid regained territories from the Tulunids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
892-907 Isma'il ruled the Samanid state.
893-974 Yahya ibn 'Adi taught Jacobite Christian philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
902-08 Caliph al-Muktafi made peace with Saminids and Saffarids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
907 Sufi Abu'l-Husayn an-Nuri died.
908-32 Caliph al-Muktadir ruled a disintegrating Muslim empire. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
909 Fatimids and Berbers conquered Qairawan.
910 Sufi scholar Junayd of Baghdad died.
913 Al-Tabari wrote Muslim history up to this year. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
915 Fatimids built their capital at Mahdiyya.
936-1030 Miskawayh wrote history and taught philosophy.
945 Buyid brothers took power in Baghdad.
961-76 Al-Hakam II ruled from flourishing Cordoba. Umayyad Spain
962 Nubians occupied southern Egypt.
968 Fatimids and Berbers took over Egypt.
974 Qarmatians invaded Egypt but were defeated. Fatimids
977 Sebuk-Tegin founded the Ghaznavid empire.
980-1010 Firdausi wrote The Book of Kings (Shah-nameh).
980-1037 Avicenna developed Aristotelian philosophy.
985 Muslims led by al-Mansur burned Barcelona. Umayyad Spain
988 Muslims led by al-Mansur destroyed Leon. Umayyad Spain
990 Soninke of Ghana captured Awdaghost. West Africa
991-1031 Caliph al-Qadir codified Sunni doctrine. Buyids
994-1064 Ibn Hazm wrote wise books.
998-1030 Mahmud expanded the militaristic Ghaznavid empire.
999 Fatimids and Byzantines agreed to a ten-year truce.
1006-88 'Abdullah Ansari taught Sufis in Herat.
1010 Gao king Kossoi became a Muslim. West Africa
1011-61 Nasr al-Daula ruled southeastern Anatolia. Buyids
1018-92 Nizam al-Mulk wrote Rules for Kings.
1022-70 Ibn Gabirol taught Neo-Platonic philosophy.
1025-44 Jalal al-Daula governed Baghdad. Samanids
1036 Juddala chief Yahya b. Ibrahim went to Mecca. North Africa
1038-73 Badis ruled Berber kingdom of Granada. Umayyad Spain
1040 Seljuk Turks defeated Ghaznavids at Dandanqan.
1042-69 Al-Mutadid ruled Seville. Umayyad Spain
1053 Almoravids led by ibn ‘Umar took Sijilmasa. North Africa
1055 Tughril-Beg founded the Seljuk regime in Baghdad.
1058-1126 Al-Ghazali wrote Intentions of the Philosophers.
1059-99 Ibrahim ruled the Ghaznavid kingdom in Afghanistan.
1063-72 Alp-Arslan ruled the Seljuk empire.
1065 Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan invaded Armenia.
1067 Seljuk Turks captured Caesarea.
1069-91 Al-Mutamid was king of Seville. Umayyad Spain
1071 Seljuks defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert.
1072-92 Malik-Shah ruled the Seljuk empire.
1076 Almoravids took Kumbi in Ghana. West Africa
c. 1085 Sefawa king Dunama b. Hummay converted to Islam. West Africa
1086 Almoravids from North Africa invaded Spain.
1087 Almoravid general Abu-Bakr b. 'Umar was killed in Tagant. West Africa
1091 Nizam al Mulk appointed al-Ghazali to teach.
1095-1134 Gijimasu ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1097 About 67,000 crusaders have entered Asia. Crusades
1099.7 Franks conquered Jerusalem. Crusades
1104 Muhammad Tapar overthrew his brother in Iraq. Crusades
1105-18 Muhammad Tapar ruled Seljuk empire. Crusades
1116-55 Mas‘ud was Seljuk sultan of Rum. Crusades
1119-56 Khurasan’s King Sanjar ruled as Seljuk sultan. Crusades
1122 Ibn Tumart was proclaimed mahdi. North Africa
1126-98 Averroes wrote Decisive Treatise.
1127-46 Zengi ruled Mosul. Crusades
1128 Ethiopians fought Muslim settlers in Shoa.
c. 1131 Sana'i wrote The Enclosed Garden of Truth.
1136-94 Tsaraki ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1137 Mahmud of Damascus invaded Lebanon. Crusades
1137-1270 Zagwe dynasty ruled Ethiopia.
1146-48 Almohads from North Africa invaded Spain.
1146-74 Nur-ad-Din ruled Aleppo and became sultan.
1149 Nur-ad-Din's forces defeated Raymond of Antioch.
1149-54 Fatamid al-Zafir was Caliph of Egypt. Nur-ad-Din
1153-91 Persian philosopher Suhrawardi was a mystic.
1155-92 Kilij Arslan II ruled as Seljuk sultan. Crusades
1157 Baldwin III broke his treaty with Nur-ad-Din.
1163-84 Abu Ya’qub Yusuf ruled Almohad empire. Ibn Tufayl North Africa
1165-1240 Ibn 'Arabi wrote poetry and philosophy.
1167 Shirkuh and his nephew Saladin invaded Egypt. Crusades
1169 Saladin became the master of Egypt. Crusades
1171 Nubians attacked Egypt.
1173 Egypt's Turan-Shah attacked Nubians.
1176 Turks defeated Byzantines and Manuel at Konya. Crusades
1183 Saladin captured Aleppo. Crusades
1187.10.2 Muslims led by Saladin captured Jerusalem. Crusades
1188 Farid al-Din 'Attar wrote Conference of the Birds.
1193 Saladin died in Damascus. Crusades
1194 Khorezm-Shah Tokush replaced Tughrul III. Crusades
1203 Soso chief Sumaguru Kante sacked Kumbi. West Africa
1207-73 Jalal al-Din Rumi wrote Masnavi tales and Discourses.
1212 Christian army defeated Almohads. North Africa
1215-1313 Tekla-Haymanot founded Asbo monastery. Ethiopia
1221 Mongols’ Genghis Khan invaded India & Persia. Crusades
1229 Friedrich II made Jerusalem treaty with al-Kamil. Crusades
1235 Sundiata defeated and killed Sumaguru, founded Mali. West Africa
1235 Nasir ad-Din Tusi wrote The Nasiriean Ethics.
1252-1334 Shaikh Safi al-Din founded Safavi religious order. Persia
1255-70 Wali ruled Mali empire. West Africa
1258 Mongol army sacked Baghdad. Crusades
1258 Sa'di published The Rose Garden.
1265-82 Mongol Il-khan Abagha ruled Persia. Crusades
1270 Yekunno-Amlak claimed Solomonid dynasty in Ethiopia.
1272 Nubian King Dawud captured 'Aydhab.
1279-90 Kalavun was sultan of Egypt. Crusades
1285 Ifat King 'Umar Walasma defeated and annexed Shoa. Ethiopia
1285 Sakura usurped Mali throne. West Africa
1289 Kalavun’s Egyptian army destroyed Tripoli. Crusades
1290 Nubian King Shamamun captured garrison at Dunkula.
1291 Mamluks destroyed Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa. Crusades
1295-1304 Ghazan founded Mongols' Il-khan dynasty. Crusades
1299 Ghazan's Mongol army invaded Syria. Crusades
1299-1326 Osman Ghazi founded Ottoman dynasty.
1304-16 Khudabanda ruled Mongols' Il-khan empire. Persia
1310-41 Al-Nasir Muhammad ruled Egypt.
1312-37 Mansa Musa ruled Mali. West Africa
1314-44 Amda-Siyon ruled Ethiopia.
1316-35 Abu Sa'id ruled declining Il-khan empire. Persia
1317 Sanbu made Dongola church a mosque. Egypt
1324 Mansa Musa spent gold in Cairo, went to Mecca. West Africa
1324-60 Orkhan ruled Ottoman empire.
1329 Mossi pillaged Timbuktu. West Africa
1332 Ethiopia beat Ifat, Dawaro, Sharka, Bali, Adal.
1332-1406 Ibn Khaldun wrote on philosophy of history.
1340 'Ubayd-i-Zakani wrote "Ethics of the Aristocracy." Persia
1340 Hasan-i Buzurg founded Jalayarid dynasty. Persia
1341-60 Sulayman ruled Mali. West Africa
1344-72 Saifa Harud ruled Ethiopia.
1347 Abu'l-Hasan conquered Tunis.
1349-85 Yaji ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1352 Ethiopian Christian Ewostatewos died.
1353 Ibn Battuta visited Mali. West Africa
1359-89 Hammu Musa II ruled Tlemcen. Algeria
1360-74 Mari-Djata II ruled Mali. West Africa
1361-89 Murad I ruled Ottoman empire.
1364 Turks defeated Serbians and Hungarians. Ottoman
1365 Cypriots, Venetians, Genoese took Alexandria. Egypt
1373-1403 Muslim Sa'ad-ad-din ruled Zeila. Ethiopia
1375 Timur invaded Mughalistan.
1382-99 Barquq ruled Egypt.
1382-1411 Dawit ruled Ethiopia.
1386 Timur invaded Persia.
1389 Turks defeated Serbians at Kosovo. Ottoman
1389-1402 Bayezid I ruled Ottoman empire.
1390 Ewostatewos men founded Eritrean monastery. Ethiopia
1390-1410 Kananeji ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1393 Timur conquered the Muzaffarids.
1394-1434 Abu Faris ruled Ifriqiya in Tunis.
1396 Turks defeated Hungarian Sigismund's crusade. Ottoman
1398-99 Timur invaded India, massacred Hindus.
1401 Timur conquered Baghdad.
1402 Timur defeated Ottomans at Ankara.
1405.2.18 Timur died on his way to China.
1409-47 Shah Rukh ruled the Timurid empire.
1412-33 Shah Muhammad ruled Baghdad. Timurids
1413-21 Mehmed I ruled Ottoman empire.
1414-29 Yeshaq ruled Ethiopia.
1419 Qara Yusuf invaded Georgia and Shirvan. Timurids
1420 Songhai ruler Muhammad Da'o raided Mali. West Africa
1421-38 Dauda ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1421-51 Murad II ruled Ottoman empire.
1422-38 Barsbay ruled Egypt.
1423-30 Turks fought Venetians for Salonika. Ottoman
1432-45 Ahmad Badlay ruled Adal. Ethiopia
1433 Tuareg chief Akilu-ag-Malwal occupied Timbuktu. West Africa
1434-68 Zara Ya'qob ruled Ethiopia.
1435-88 Hafsid Abu ‘Amr ‘Uthman ruled Maghrib. Algeria
1439 Serbia was annexed to Ottoman empire.
1444.11 Turks defeated Christians at Varna. Ottoman
1446 Portuguese explorers arrived in western Malinke. West Africa
1448 Turks defeated Hunyadi at Kosovo. Ottoman
1450 Ethiopian Zara Ya'qob called Christian council.
1450 Macina became independent of Mali. West Africa
1451-69 Abu Sa'id ruled the Timurid empire.
1451-81 Mehmed II ruled Ottoman empire.
1453 Turks conquered Constantinople. Ottoman
1454 Mehmed II granted Venice freedom of trade. Ottoman
1463 Turks invaded Bosnia. Ottoman
1464-92 Sonni 'Ali ruled Songhay. West Africa
1467-96 Qait Bay ruled Egypt.
1469-1506 Husayn Baiqara ruled the Timurid empire. Persian Empire
1471 Portuguese attacked Tangier. West Africa
1481-1514 Denianke Fulani fought a war against Mali. West Africa
1482 Portuguese built El Mina fortress. West Africa
1485-91 Mamluk Egypt and Ottomans at war.
1493-1528 Muhammad Ture ruled Songhay.
1498 Vasco da Gama reached Mozambique, Mombasa. East Africa
1500 Cabral discovered South America, Sofala. East Africa
1501-16 Qansuh al-Ghuri ruled Egypt.
1501-24 Isma’il founded Safavid dynasty in Persia.
1503 Isma’il defeated the Aq Qunyulu at Hamadan. Safavid Persia
1508-40 Lebna Dengel ruled Ethiopia.
1510 Isma’il defeated Uzbeks at Marv. Safavid Persia
1510 Spanish Hapsburgs occupied Tripoli. Egypt
1511 Babur and Safavids took Samarqand, Bukhara.
1511-20 Selim ruled Ottoman empire.
1514 Selim's Turks invaded Persia. Ottoman
1516 Sultan Selim banned trade imports from Persia.
1517.1 Ottomans defeated Mamluks near Cairo. Egypt
1518 Slaves shipped from Guinea coast to America. Algeria
1520-66 Sulayman ruled Ottoman empire.
1524-76 Tahmasp ruled Persia.
1525-38 Sulayman Pasha governed Egypt for Ottomans.
1526 Ottomans defeated Hungarians at Mohacs.
1529 Ottoman army's siege of Vienna failed.
1534 Turk Khayr al-Din captured Tunis. Ottoman Egypt
1534 Ottomans took Baghdad from Persia.
1540 Turks raided the east coast of Africa. East Africa
1540-59 Galawdewos ruled Ethiopia.
1547 Turks made treaty with Hungary, France, Venice. Ottoman
1549-82 Dawud ruled Songhay. Central Sudan
1555 Ottomans, Persians made treaty at Amasya.
1563 Poet Fasli died. Ottoman
1563-97 Sarsa Dengel ruled Ethiopia.
1565-79 Sokollu was Ottoman vizier.
1571 Portuguese invaded Zambezi lowlands. East Africa
1571 Spain, Venice defeated Turkish fleet at Lepanto. Ottoman
1572 Turks built a new fleet. Ottoman
1576-77 Shah Isma’il II promoted Sunni faith. Safavid Persia
1578 Ottoman empire took Fez from Portuguese.
1578-87 Muhammad Khudabanda ruled Persia.
1578-90 Turks made war against Persia. Ottoman
1578-1603 Al-Mansur ruled Morocco.
1587-1629 Shah 'Abbas ruled Safavid Persia.
1589 Janissaries rebelled over debased coins. Ottoman
1593-1606 Ottomans made war against Hungary.
1594 Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania revolted. Ottoman
1595 Persia purchased firearms from Moscow.
1595-1603 Mehmed III ruled Ottoman empire.
1596-1610 Asia Minor peasants rebelled against Ottomans.
1603-17 Ahmed I ruled the Ottoman empire.
1607-32 Susenyos ruled Ethiopia, became a Catholic.
1612 Ottomans ceded territories to Persia.
1615 Mulla Sadra had a spiritual vision. Safavid Persia
1616 English East India Company traded in Persia.
1618-22 Osman II ruled Ottomans, invaded Ukraine.
1622 British, Persia pushed Portuguese out of Hormuz.
1623 Dutch East India Co. began trading in Persia.
1624 Persians conquered Baghdad. Ottoman
1629-42 Shah Safi ruled Persia.
1632-40 Murad IV tried to reform Ottoman empire.
1632-67 Fasiladas ruled Ethiopia, expelled Jesuits.
1636 Zaydi Shi'a threw Ottomans out of Yemen.
1638 Ottoman empire regained Baghdad. Persian
1640-48 Ibrahim ruled the Ottoman empire.
1641 Portuguese claimed western Madagascar. Southern Africa
1641-61 Garcia II ruled the Kongo. Southern Africa
1642-66 Shah ‘Abbas II ruled Persia.
1645 Turks invaded Crete. Ottoman
1647 Fiqari and Qasimi vendetta began in Egypt.
1648-87 Mehmet IV was Ottoman sultan.
1650 Portuguese were ejected from Muscat. Persia
1651 English built Fort St. James on Gambia River. Gold Coast
1652 Dutch established a station at Table Bay. Southern Africa
1656-61 Vizier Koprulu Mehmed reformed Ottomans.
1658 Abaza Hasan Pasha revolted in Anatolia. Ottoman
1659 French established Saint-Louis on Senegal River. Gold Coast
1660 Dutch ended ban on exporting firearms to Africa. Gold Coast
1662 Ahmad Bey was assassinated in Egypt.
1663 Ottomans invaded Hungary and Transylvania.
1666-94 Sulayman I ruled Safavid Persian empire.
1667-82 Yohannes ruled Ethiopia.
1669 Turks conquered Candia on Crete. Ottomans
1670 Portuguese failed to conquer Kongo. Central Africa
1670 Allada king sent an envoy to Paris. Oyo
1672 Turks invaded Poland, captured Kaminiec. Ottoman
1672-1727 Mawlay Isma'il ruled Morocco.
1673 Nasir al-Din invaded Futa Toro, Wolof, Kayor. West Africa
1680-82 Oyo went to war against Aja of Allada, Dahomey. Gold Coast
1681 English began trading at Whydah. Gold Coast
1683 Turks besieged Vienna but were defeated. Ottoman
1688 Ottoman empire lost Belgrade to Habsburg army.
1695 Food prices caused a famine in Egypt.
1696 Russia's Peter captured Azov with his new fleet. Ottoman
1696-99 Omani fleet besieged Mombasa. East Africa
1699 Turks lost territory in the Karlowitz treaty. Ottoman
1700.10.14 He-Hasid led 1,000 Jews to Jerusalem. Palestine
1701 Zidan rebelled and took Tlemcen but lost. Morocco
1702 Dutch cattlemen first clashed with Xhosa.
1703 Europeans declared Whydah port neutral. Nigeria
1703-30 Ahmed III ruled the Ottoman empire.
1703-31 Mohamma Sharefa dan Dadi ruled Kano. Bornu and Hausaland
1704-06 Beatriz Kimpa Vita claimed she was Anthony. Angola
1705 French missionaries left Ethiopia.
1705-40 Husain ibn ‘Ali led revolt in Tunisia.
1708 Sultan Isma‘il punished dissident scholars in Fez. Morocco
1708 Europeans provoked a trade war with Allada. Oyo and Nigeria
1708-40 Agaja Trudo ruled Dahomey.
1709 Afghans revolted from Persian rule in Qandahar.
1709-15 Mir Vais governed Afghanistan. Persia
1711 Great Sedition erupted in Egypt.
1711 Ahmad Qaramanli began dynasty in Tripoli.
1712 Portuguese declared war on Whydah. Oyo and Nigeria
1713 Smallpox epidemic was brought to the Cape. Southern Africa
1714 French occupied the island of Mauritius. East Africa
1714 Portuguese founded an ivory market at Zumbo.
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman Empire
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman
1716 Joao II reclaimed the Kongo throne.
1717 Sunni Abdalis and Sunnis plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717 Asante fought Ayem Kotoku; Osei Tutu died.
1717 Sunni Abdalis revolted and plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717-27 French fought war in Wolof. West Africa
1718 Turks lost territory in the Passarowitz treaty. Ottoman Empire
1718-30 Damad Ibrahim was vizier during tulip era. Ottoman
1721-62 Sudan’s Badi IV fought wars against Ethiopia.
1722 Mahmud's Afghans defeated the Persian army.
1723 Ottomans invaded Persia through Georgia.
1724 Russians and Turks partitioned Transcaucasia. Ottoman Empire
1725-29 Ashraf ruled Afghans, fought Persians and Turks.
1727 Muteferrika printed books in Turkish. Ottoman Empire
1728-29 Portuguese reoccupied Mombasa. East Africa
1728-66 Queen Mentuab ruled Ethiopia as regent.
1729-1811 Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti united Qadiri factions. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1730 Agaja agreed to pay Oyo annual tribute. Dahomey
1730 Akwapim rebelled against Akwamu. Gold Coast
1730-50 Ayina Yella ruled Sulimana. West Africa
1730-54 Mahmud I ruled the Ottoman empire.
1731 Ibrahim Muteferrika urged military reform. Ottoman Empire
1732 Asante invaded Gonja.
1732 Turks ceded Tabriz to Kerman, retained Georgia. Ottoman Empire
1732-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey.
c. 1733-60 Omukama Isansa ruled Bunyoro empire. Africa’s Lakes Region
1734 Russians invaded the Crimea and captured Azov. Ottoman Empire
1735 Nadir and 80,000 Persians defeated Ottomans.
1736-47 Nadir Shah Afshar ruled the Persian empire.
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1739 Oyo invaded Dahomey. Niger Coast
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1740 Ottoman Empire renewed friendship treaty with France.
1740 French renewed trade capitulations with Syria.
1740 Khoisan were forbidden to herd livestock. Southern Africa
1740-56 'Ali Bey I ruled Tunisia.
1740-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey. Niger Coast
1741-69 Babari ruled Gobir and fought wars. Bornu and Hausaland
1742-44 Opoku Ware's Asante armies invaded neighbors.
1744 Al-Wahhab allied with Muhammad ibn Saud.
1744 Muscat-Oman became independent. Persian Gulf
1744 Ahmad founded al-Busa‘idi dynasty of Oman. East Africa
1744-1829 Dagohoy Rebellion survived on Bohol Island. Philippines
1745 Aoki Konyo produced Dutch-Japanese dictionary.
1746, 1784 Qianlong persecuted Christians.
1746-48 Takeda, Namiki, Miyoshi produced three plays.
1746-55 'Ali ibn Athman ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1747 Futa Jallon confederation formed with Sambegu. West Africa
1747-49 Sichuan people defeated Qing forces. Qianlong
1747-67 Afghan Abdali invaded India 8 times.
1747-73 Ahmad Shah Durrani ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1748 Bereaved Qianlong punished officials.
1748-54 Ahmad Shah was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1749 Zhang Guangsi was executed for abusing Miao. Qianlong
1750 Cassava was brought from Brazil to Mozambique.
1750 Yongjo reduced military cloth tax. Korea
1750-64 Kusi Obodum ruled Asante without executions.
1751 English led by Clive captured Arcot.
1751-71 Ryk Tulbagh governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1751-85 Muhammad al-Amin ruled Bagirmi. Bornu and Hausaland
1751-1844 Alcalde-mayors in Philippines could do business.
1754-74 Gaha led the military in Oyo.
1754-93 ‘Ali Qaramanli ruled Tripoli.
1754-1817 Usman dan Fodio led jihad in West Africa. Bornu and Hausaland
1754-59 Alamgir II was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1756 Siraj attacked Calcutta, captured Fort William. English
1756-73 Mas‘ud ibn Nasir ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1757 English and Clive defeated Siraj at Plassey.
1757-63 Vizier Raghib Mehmed governed Ottoman empire.
1757-79 Karim Khan ruled Persia.
1757-90 Mawlay Muhammad ruled Morocco.
1758 English took Saint-Louis from the French. West Africa
1758 Portuguese expelled the Jesuits from Africa.
1759-82 'Ali Bey II ruled Tunisia.
1764-72 Coutinho governed Angola for Portuguese.
1764-77 Osei Kwadwo ruled Asante, fighting wars.
1765 Holo made liberal treaty with Portuguese.
1765-77 Lago governed Mozambique.
1766-90 Ngolo Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1768 'Ali Bey replaced the viceroy of Egypt.
1768-74 fought war against Russia.Ottoman empire
1769 'Ali Bey claimed Hijaz for Egypt.
1769-1855 War-lords ruled Ethiopia.
1770-89 Abiodun ruled Oyo and exported slaves.
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1771 Egyptians invaded Ottoman Syria.
1771 Trekboers crossed the Gamtoos River. Southern Africa
1773-93 Timur Shah ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1774-77 Portuguese waged war against Ovimbundu.
1774-89 Abdul Hamid ruled the Ottoman Empire.
1774-89 Kpengla ruled Dahomey.
1775 Egypt's Abu'l Dhahab invaded Syria.
1775 English took 8,000 slaves from Wolof. West Africa
1775-1808 Chief Asfa Wossen ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1775-1844 Ahmadu taught at Jenne and led a jihad. Segu
1776-1804 Al-Jazzar governed Sidon and Damascus. Palestine
1778 Xhosa chief Gcaleka died. Southern Africa
1780 Economic crisis began in Egypt.
1780-1830 Angola exported more than 750,000 slaves.
1781 British Captain Shirley took forts from the Dutch. Gold Coast
1781-1807 Al-Wali ruled Kano, ended cattle sacrifices. Bornu and Hausaland
1782 Ignatius Sancho published Letters in London. Slavery
1782-1814 Hamuda Bey ruled Tunisia.
1783 Russia's Catherine II annexed the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1783-1814 Ahmad ibn Sa’id al-Mazrui ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1785 Plague killed one-sixth of Egyptians.
1786 Ottomans sent troops to control Egypt.
1787 Turks declared war on Austria and Russia. Ottoman Empire
1787 Yusuf wrote Shaking the Peasants' Heads. Egypt
1787 British opened Sierra Leone to ex-slaves.
1787 Cugoano wrote book against slavery.
1789 Temne’s King Jimmy burned slave-traders’ town. Gold Coast
1789 Ndlambe attacked Gqunukhwebe by Fish River. Southern Africa
1789 Equiano published Narrative of his life. Slavery
1789-1807 Selim III tried to reform the Ottoman empire.
1790-1808 Monzon Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1792 Ex-slaves from Nova Scotia built Freetown. Sierra Leone
1792-1822 Mawlay Sulayman ruled Morocco.
1794 Agha Muhammad Khan founded Qajar dynasty.
1795 Al-Azhar scholars led uprising in Egypt.
1795-1803 British governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1795-1816 Wolde Selassie ruled eastern Ethiopia.
1795-1832 Yusuf Qaramanli ruled in Tripoli.
1796 'Abd al-Qadir invaded Wolof. West Africa
1797-1830 Yuhi Gahindiro ruled Rwanda.
1797-1834 Fath 'Ali Khan ruled Persia.
1798 Napoleon led French invasion of Egypt.
1799 Napoleon attacked al-'Arish, Jaffa, and Acre. Egypt
1799 Turks allied with Russia and England. Ottoman empire
1799 Blacks revolted in Sierra Leone.
1800.2 Napoleon invaded Syria.
1800 British began publishing Cape Gazette.
1801 Wahhabis defeated Muscatis and took Bahrain.
1801 British forced the French out of Egypt.
1801-24 Osei Bonsu was Asantehene. Asante
1802 Wahhabis captured Karbala in Iraq.
1803 Wahhabis destroyed mausoleums in Mecca.
1803 British evacuated Egypt.
1804 Usman dan Fodio led emigration from Degel. Bornu and Hausaland
1804-56 Imam Saud ben Sultan ruled Oman. Persian Gulf
1805 Wahhabis stopped Ottoman caravans to Mecca.
1805 Tripoli made a treaty with the United States.
1805-48 Muhammad ‘Ali was viceroy (wali) of Egypt.
1806 Asante invaded Fante and defeated their army.
1806-56 Sayyid Sa'id al-Busa'idi ruled Oman. Arabs
1807.3.6 British deported Batavian troops from Cape.
1807 Janissaries mutinied and deposed Selim III. Ottoman empire
1807 British abolished the slave trade.
1807 Sierra Leone treaty dispossessed Temne rulers.
1808 Usman established a caliphate at Sokoto. Dahomey
1808 United States prohibited the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1808 British made Sierra Leone a colony.
1808-27 Da Monzon ruled the Segu empire.
1808-39 Mahmud II ruled the Ottoman empire.
1809 British defeated Saudis' Omani allies.
1809 British required Khoisan to carry a pass.
1810 Wahhabis banned commerce with Syria and Iraq.
1810 Lebanese drove Ottomans out of Syria.
1810 British took Mauritius and Réunion from French.
1810-28 Radama I ruled Madagascar.
1811 24 Mamluk beys in Egypt were massacred.
1811-18 Egyptians invaded Hijaz and Wahhabis. Arabia
1812 Russians restored Moldavia, Wallachia to Turks. Ottoman empire
1812 Law allowed Khoisan children to be "apprenticed." South Africa
1812 Graham ordered men to kill Kaffirs. South Africa
1813 Persia ceded territory to Russia.
1813 Egypt's army captured Mecca and Medina. Arabia
1813 Sweden prohibited slave trade. Sierra Leone
1813 Cape Town Free School for poor began.South Africa
1813.8 Quit-rent system made land-owning hereditary. South Africa
1813-47 King Sahle Selassie ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1814 Dutch abolished the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1814-24 Mahmud Bey ruled Tunisia.
1815 Egypt began manufacturing guns.
1815 European treaty banned piracy and slavery. Tripoli
1815 United States declared war on Algeria.
1815 Bezuidenhout led Boer rebellion against British. South Africa
1816 British made North Africans end piracy. Tripoli
1816 Mahmud Bey abolished slavery in Tunisia.
1816 Morocco’s Sulayman freed captured Christians.
1816 British made a treaty with Asante.
1816 British exported timber from Sierra Leone.
1817 Omanis attacked the Mazrui at Pate. East Africa
1817 British took 2,060 cattle from Ndlambe.
1817-37 Muhammad Bello was Sokoto caliph. Bornu and Hausaland
1818 France banned the slave trade again. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1818 Asante went to war against Gyaman.
1818 Zwide had Zulus' Dingiswayo assassinated.
1818.9 Egyptians captured al-Diriya. Arabia
1818-28 Shaka ruled the Zulus autocratically.
1819 US Congress funded returning slaves to Liberia.
1819 England financed families coming to the Cape. British
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa to attack a town. South Africa
1819 Zulus defeated the Ndwandwe.
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa attack on Grahamstown. South Africa
1819 England financed poor families coming to Cape. South Africa
1819-37 Al-Kanemi governed Bornu with Arab advisors. Bornu and Hausaland
1820 Egypt ordered foreign merchants to pay debts.
1820 Isma'il captured 20,000 slaves from Sudan. Egypt
1821-27 Greeks rebelled against Ottoman Empire.
1822 Tlokwa defeated the Mfengu. Zulus
1822-27 Egyptian army invaded Greece.
1822-30 Jehudi Ashmun governed Liberia colony.
1822-59 Mawlay 'Abdul-Rahman ruled Morocco.
1822-70 Moshweshwe ruled Sotho wisely.
1823 Lower Egypt rebelled against conscription.
1823 Brotherhood founder al-Darqawi died in Morocco.
1823 Dahomey revolted against the Oyo.
1823-34 Turki ruled the Saudi kingdom. Arabia
1824 Rebellion in Upper Egypt was quelled.
1824 Asante army killed 178 British.
1824 Colonial Council founded Liberia.
1824 British W. F. Owen intervened at Mombasa. East Africa
1825 'Umar Saidu went on pilgrimage to Mecca. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1825 Ngwane defeated Hlubi, killing Mpangazita. Southern Africans
1825 Matiwane’s Ngwane defeated Hlubi. Zulus
1825-34 Mzilikazi's Ndebele ravaged the Transvaal. Zulus
1825-65 British navy captured 1,287 slave ships. Sierra Leone
1826.4 Captain Grant took over Banjul Island. Gambia
1826.6 Ottoman sultan Mahmud II abolished Janissaries.
1826 Asante army invaded Fante.
1826 Zulu army of 40,000 destroyed the Ndwandwe.
1827 Europeans destroyed Tunisian, Algerian fleets.
1827 Shaka demanded Zulus mourn his mother.
1827.6 Egyptian army captured Athens.
1827.10 Europeans destroyed Egyptian-Turkish navy.
1827-29 Russians and Turks fought a war. Ottoman Reforms
1828 Persia lost fertile land to Russia.
1828 Cape Ordinance 50 guaranteed equal rights. South Africa
1928.9.24 Shaka was killed by his half-brothers. Zulus
1828-40 Dingane ruled the Zulus.
1828-61 Ranavalona I ruled Madagascar.
1829 British gave Kat River Valley to Khoikhoi.
1830 Greece became independent. Ottoman Reforms
1830 French led by Bourmont invaded Algeria.
1830-53 Mutara II ruled Rwanda, used war. Africa’s Lakes Region
1831 French took control of Oran and Constantine.
1831 Moshweshwe made peace with the Tlokwa. Sotho
1831-33 Ibrahim's Egyptian army invaded Syria.
1831-43 Maclean governed Gold Coast for British.
1832 Egyptians took Acre, Damascus, Konya.
1832 Asantehene Osei Yaw attacked Juaben. Asante
1832 Ndebele defeated Dingane's Zulu invasion.
1833 England and France got Egypt to make peace. Ottoman Reforms
1833 Methodists came to evangelize Fante. Asante
1833 Zulus killed Portuguese Governor Ribeiro.
1833, 1839 Sa’id made treaties with USA and Britain. East Africa
1834 Liberia held first general elections.
1834 Portuguese monopoly on ivory was abolished.
1834 British emancipated all slaves in their colonies.
1834 British repealed vagrancy law in Cape.
1834 Cook founded Wesleyan Mission at Warmbad. South West Africa
1834-48 Muhammad Shah ruled Persia.
1835 Madagascar banned preaching Christianity.
1835 Ngoni went to Zambia, Tanzania & Malawi. Southern Africa
1835 Gardiner began teaching Zulus religion.
1835 Gcaleka’s Chief Hintsa was lured and killed. Zulus
1835-41 15,000 Boers trekked into Zulu country.
1835-47 'Abdul-Qadir resisted French in Algeria.
1836 Portugul abolished the slave trade. Mozambique
1836.10 Boers fought off Ndebele at Vegkop.
1836-62 Kimweri ye Nyumbai ruled Shambaa. East Africa
1837 Medical school was built at Cairo. Egypt
1837 Al-Sanusi founded Sanusiya tariqa in Mecca. Tripoli
1837 Sa'id deported Mazrui leaders from Mombasa. East Africa
1837 Boers, Griqua, and Rolong defeated the Ndebele. Southern Africans
1837-40 Egyptians defeated Ottomans in Syria. Palestine
1837-55 Ahmad Bey ruled Tunisia.
1838.2 Dingane treacherously slaughtered 71 Boers. Zulus
1838.2 Zulus massacred Voortrekkers twice. Boers
1838 Liberia Commonwealth got a constitution.
1838.12 Boers with rifles killed about 3,000 Zulus.
1839 Egyptians defeated Ottoman troops in Syria. Ottoman
1839 Judah Alkalai wrote Pleasant Paths textbook. Zionism
1839 French began signing treaties with Gabon chiefs. Equatorial Africa
1839 British withdrew from Natal. Southern Africans
1839.12 British withdrew from Natal. Zulus
1839-61 Abdul Mejid reformed the Ottoman empire.
1840.2 Mpande defeated Dingane in Zulu civil war.
1840 Ottomans took Syria back from the Egyptians.
1840 Sayyid Sa'id moved from Muscat to Zanzibar. East Africa
1840 Luanda founded trading port at Mossamedes. Angola
1840 Pereiras of Macanga began Zambezi wars. Mozambique
1840.9 British drove Egyptian army out of Lebanon.
1840-72 Mpande ruled the Zulus.
1840-88 Turk Namik Kemal wrote plays and editorials. Ottoman Reforms
1841 Druze and Maronites first clashed in Lebanon.
1841 Crowther led missionary expedition up Niger.
1841 48 Europeans died in Niger River expedition. Sierra Leone
1841 Mulatto J. J. Roberts became governor of Liberia.
1841-47 General Bugeaud led French war in Algeria.
1842.10 Mocke proclaimed Orange River republic. South Africa
1842-53 Dahomey fought a war with the Egba.
1842-59 Sultan ‘Ali ibn Bello was Sokoto Caliph. Bornu and Hausaland
1843.6 British made Gambia a separate colony.
1843 Judah Alkalai wrote The Offering of Judah. Zionism
1843 Avi Hirsch Kalischer published An Honest Faith. Zionism
1843 'Abdul-Qadir fled to Morocco. Algeria
1843 Sotho territory defined in treaty with Napier. Southern Africans
1843 Zulu's King Mpande made a treaty with British.
1843 Napier, Moshweshwe & Kok made treaty. Zulus British
1843-65 Faisal ibn Turki ruled the Saudi kingdom. Arabia
1844.5.23 The Bab proclaimed spiritual mission at Shiraz. Bábis
1844 'Umar Saidu resolved civil war in Futa Jallon.
1844 Fante Bond outlawed human sacrifices, panyarring. Asante
1844 Madagascar put foreigners under their law.
1844.5.23 Báb proclaimed his spiritual mission at Shiraz.
1844.8.13 French defeated ‘Abdul-Qadir at Isly. Morocco
1844-53 Johann Krapf explored Kenya. East Africa
1845 Missionaries established a school at Freetown. Sierra Leone
1845-75 Shepstone governed natives in Natal. South Africa
1846 Tunisia abolished slavery. North Africa
1846 Missionaries met at Abeokuta. Oyo and Nigeria
1846 Kanemi dynasty ended in Bornu.
1846-7 British killed 500 Ndlambe in Xhosa war.
1847.7.26 Liberia became a constitutional republic.
1848 Catholic press began in Syria and Lebanon.
1848 Algeria abolished slavery. Tripoli
1848 English law began dispossessing slave traders. Sierra Leone
1848 Cape annexed land between Orange and Vaal. South Africa
1848-54 'Abbas was viceroy of Egypt.
1848-56 Roberts was first president of Liberia.
1848-96 Nasir al-Din Shah ruled Persia.
1849 Livingstone helped discover Lake Ngami. Africa’s Lakes Region
1849 Cape Town protest stopped convict labor. South Africa
1849 Hut tax on Zulu chiefs began. South Africa
1850 Brazil banned importation of slaves. Nigeria Sierra Leone
1850 British treaty with Eyo banned human sacrifice. Oyo and Nigeria
1850 British bought Danish forts for £10,000. Sierra Leone
1850 War broke out between Kasanje and Portuguese.
1850 War broke out between Kasanje and Portuguese. Southern Africans
1850 Natal land speculator Byrne went bankrupt. South Africa
1850.7.9 The Báb was executed at Tabriz.
1851 Ottoman empire revised penal code.
1851 Livingstone visited the Kololos. Southern Africa
1851 Sotho defeated Warden's army at Viervoet.
1851.12 British bombarded Lagos to make Akitoye king. Nigeria
1851-54 Bu Baghla led Grand Kabyla rebellion in Algeria.
1851-64 Sekeletu ruled the Kololo. Southern Africa
1852-59 Gambia’s Gov. O’Connor gave land to Africans.
1853 Beecroft deposed King Pepple of Bonny. Nigeria
1853 Colenso became Natal's first Anglican bishop. South Africa
1853-56 Russia loses Crimean War to other powers. Ottoman Reforms
1853-64 Tax on Asante was unpopular and failed.
1853-67 Tewodros II ruled Ethiopia.
1853-78 Mindon Min ruled Burma.
1853-95 Kigeri IV ruled Rwanda, drafted men. Africa’s Lakes Region
1854 Turks defeated Russians in the Danube region. Ottoman Reforms
1854 Tunisia sent 4,000 troops to Crimean War.
1854 ‘Umar demanded tribute from France for trade. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1854 Jonker Afrikaner attacked the Topnaars. South West Africa
1854 Cape colony adopted a liberal constitution. South Africa
1854 Boers founded the Orange Free State.
1854-63 Muhammad Sa'id was viceroy of Egypt.
1854-80 Benin suffered a civil war. Nigeria
1855 Creole William Drape founded weekly New Era. Sierra Leone
1855 Tewodros II crowned emperor of Ethiopia.
1855-59 Muhammad II Bey ruled Tunisia.
1856 Bahá’u’lláh advised Bábis not to use violence.
1856 Hay persuaded Morocco to ban monopolies.
1856 Governor O’Connor banned sale of gunpowder. Gambia
1856 Blyden wrote A Voice from Bleeding Africa. Liberia
1856 Cetshwayo defeated Mbuyazi in Zulu civil war.
1856 Xhosa destroyed their own cattle and grain. South Africa
1856-64 Tukulors and Masina fought a war.
1856-71 M. Pretorius led South African Republic.
1856-84 Mutesa ruled Buganda, bought guns. Africa’s Lakes Region
1857 British made Persia renounce Afghanistan.
1857 Laird began steamer business on the Niger.
1857 Blyden wrote Vindication of the Negro Race. Liberia
1857 Dr. Livingstone wrote Missionary Travels. Africa’s Lakes Region
1858 Governor Pine allowed a council to be elected. Asante
1858 Burton and Speke explored lakes region. Africa’s Lakes Region
1858 Boers attacked Sotho, accepted treaty.
1858-89 Glele ruled Dahomey.
1859 'Umar Saidu returned to Futa with 40,000. Dahomey
1859-66 Governor D’Arcy taxed Gambians.
1859-73 Muhammad IV ruled Morocco, increased trade.
1859-82 Muhammad III as-Adiq Bey ruled Tunisia.
1860 Indentured laborers from India came to Natal. South Africa
1860-64 Masai fought against their neighbors. East Africa
1860-95 Kigeri Rwabugiri ruled Rwanda.
1861 British annexed Lagos as a colony. Nigeria
1861 Radama II opened Madagascar to foreigners.
1861-76 Abdul Aziz ruled the Ottoman empire.
1862 Moses Hess wrote Rome and Jerusalem. Zionism
1862 Crowther became bishop of Niger.
1862.10.10 United States signed treaty with Liberia.
1862-73 Khaznadar borrowed money for Tunisia.
1863.6 Christian Afrikaner attacked Otjimbingwe. South West Africa
1863 Bahá’u’lláh founded the Bahá’í religion.
1863 Napoleon III visited Algeria.
1863 Muhammad IV gave privileges to merchants. Morocco
1863 Tewodros II began imprisoning missionaries. Ethiopia
1863-79 Isma'il Pasha was viceroy of Egypt.
1864-88 Brand was president of Orange Free State. South Africa
1864-90 Ahmadu Seku Tall ruled Segu empire. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1864-95 Rainilaiarivony governed Madagascar.
1865 Young Ottoman Society was formed.
1865 Palestine Exploration Fund began.
1865 British destroyed the Egba army. Oyo and Nigeria
1865 Livingstone wrote Expedition to the Zambesi. Africa’s Lakes Region
1865 Natal denied vote to Africans. South Africa
1866.2 British centralized 4 colonies in West Africa. Gambia
1866 Syrian Protestant College began in Beirut.
1866 British began using breech-loading rifles. Africa’s Lakes Region
1866-89 King Menelik II ruled Shoa.
1867 Sultan Abdul Aziz visited Paris and London. Ottoman Reforms
1867 Bahá’u’lláh sent letters to world leaders.
1867 Dutch and British traded forts on Gold Coast.
1867 British led by General Napier invaded Ethiopia.
1867 Diamonds were discovered in Griqualand West. South Africa
1868.4.13 Tewodros II, defeated by British, shot himself. Ethiopia
1868 Tunisia made treaty giving Italy privileges.
1868 Horton wrote West African Countries. British
1868 Muir changed famine relief policy. India
1869 Baghdad’s first newspaper, Al-Zawra’, began. Iraq
1869 Tahtawi wrote Paths of Egyptian Hearts. Egypt
1869 Suez Canal opened. Egypt
1869 Int’l Financial Commission reduced Tunisia debt.
1869 O Progresso was Mozambique’s first newspaper.
1869-99 Kabarega ruled Bunyoro empire. Buganda
1870 Crémieux founded Alliance Israelite Universelle. Zionism
1870 Egypt claimed Somali coast at Bulhar & Berbera.
1870 Wambu led 30,000 Ovimbundu soldiers. Angola
1870 Msiri and Tippu Tip formed an alliance. Angola
1870 Chief Lobengula granted Tati mining concession. Southern Africa
1870-88 Sayyid Barghash ibn Sa’id ruled Zanzibar. East Africa
1871 French took over Kayor. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1871 Fante chiefs agreed to Mankesim Constitution. Asante
1871 Ibadan got first Muslim ruler, Momoh Latosisa. Nigeria
1871 Liberia borrowed £100,000 from Europeans.
1871.10 Stanley found Livingstone by Lake Tanganyika. Africa’s Lakes Region
1871, 1889 Nasir al-Din Shah visited Europe. Persia 1876-1905
1872 Blyden founded weekly newspaper in Freetown. Liberia
1872-89 Emperor Yohannes IV ruled Ethiopia.
1873 Kemal’s play Vatan was performed at Istanbul. Ottoman Reforms
1873 Khayr al-Din replaced Khaznadar in Tunisia.
1873 Christians began Grebo Reunited Kingdom. Liberia
1873 Griqualand West became a British colony. Southern Africa
1873 Shepstone crowned Cetshwayo Zulu king.
1873-74 Asante in war were defeated by British.
1873-75 Epidemic destroyed half of Zulu cattle.
1873-77 Khayr ad-Din reformed Tunisia.
1873-94 Mawlay Hasan ruled Morocco.
1874 Horton wrote Diseases of Tropical Climate. Sierra Leone
1874.7 British established Gold Coast colony.
1874-77 Stanley crossed Africa from east to west.
1874-83 Mensa Bonsu ruled Asante at Kumasi.
1874-89 King Mbandzeni ruled Swaziland. South Africa
1874-1908 King Tofa ruled Porto Novo. Dahomey
1875 Ottoman debt reached £200,000,000.
1875 Revolts erupted in Herzegovina, Bosnia, Bulgaria. Ottoman Reforms
1875 Disraeli bought Suez Canal for British.
1875 Greboes, Kru, De, and Bass defeated Liberians.
1875 Ethiopians destroyed invading Egyptian army.
1875 Egyptians occupied Harar. Somaliland
1875 Sayyid Barghash visited Queen Victoria. East Africa
1875.10 Kumasi army attacked Juaben. Asante
1875.10.23 Ethiopia’s Yohannes declared war on Egypt.
1875.11 Cameron finished first trip across Africa. Congo
1875-76 Ethiopians destroyed invading Egyptian army.
1876.5.2 Bulgarians in Serbia rebelled against Ottomans.
1876.5.30 Serbia went to war against Ottomans.
1876.6.2 Abdul Aziz slit his wrist and died. Ottomans
1876 George Eliot published Daniel Deronda. Zionism
1876 Egypt’s debt reached £98,000,000.
1876 British court to enforce pass laws began. South Africa
1876.9 Leopold II hosted Geographical Conference.
1876-1909 Abdulhamid II ruled Ottoman empire. Young Turks
1876-1913 Shaikh Qasim ibn Muhammad ruled Qatar. Arabia
1876-1924 Ziya Gokalp advocated Turkish nationalism. Ottoman War Losses
1877.2 Pedi’s Sekhukhune recognized Transvaal law. South Africa
1877.4.12 British annexed Transvaal. South Africa
1877.4.24 Russia invaded Ottoman empire.
1877 Ibadan started war against Egbas and Ijebus. Oyo and Nigeria
1877 True Whigs won elections in Liberia.
1877 Shoa took over Wollo, Begember, and Gojjam. Menelik II
1877 Christian missionaries reached Ujiji. Buganda
1877 Madagascar freed African slaves.
1877 British killed 3,500 in last Xhosa war. South Africa
1878.3.20 Menelik II agreed to pay tribute to Ethiopia.
1878.6.10 Albanians formed the Prizen League. Ottoman Empire
1878 Young Ottomans were banned or punished.
1878 Samory Ture founded Wassoulou empire. Futa Jallon and Tukulor Guinea and Ivory Coast
1878 France made Gabon a colony. French Congo
1878 British took land from Ngqika and Gcaleka. South Africa
1878.12 Leopold II hired Stanley for 5 years.
1879.1.11 British were defeated by Zulus at Isandlwana. South Africa
1879 Goldie started United African Company. Oyo and Nigeria
1879 Du Toit brothers founded Afrikaner Bond. South Africa
1879 Fabri published Does Germany Need Colonies? South West Africa
1879-1908 Swiss engineer Alfred Ilg advised Menelik II.
1880.1 Europeans completed station at Vivi River. Congo
1880.3.12 Rhodes and Rudd began De Beers Mining Co.
1880 Griqualand West got 4 seats in Cape Parliament. South Africa
1880.7.20 Afghanistan signed a treaty with England.
1880.8 Namas and Hereros began a war over cattle. South West Africa
1880-90 Gouveia governed Manica. Mozambique
1881.3 Madagascar promulgated law code.
1881.4 30,000 French invaded Tunisia from Algeria.
1881.6 Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah proclaimed himself Mahdi. Sudan
1881.6 Stanley built Manyanga station.
1881 Futa Jallon became a French protectorate.
1882 Zulu’s Chief Cetshwayo visited England. South Africa
1882.7 British invaded Egypt.
1882.9 Leo Pinsker published Auto-emancipation. Zionism
1882-86 Cambon governed Tunisia for French.
1882-1948 British dominated Egypt.
1883.6.8 French protectorate began in Tunisia.
1883 Moloney published West African Fisheries. Oyo and Nigeria
1883 Italians occupied part of Eritrea.
1883 Armed Mandlakazi defeated Cetshwayo. South Africa
1883-1900 Paul Kruger was president of Transvaal. South Africa
1883-1907 Evelyn Baring (Cromer) governed Egypt.
1884.5.18 Bismarck sent Nachtigal to Cameroun and Togo.
1884 British persuaded Egypt to leave north Somalia.
1884 Mombasa’s Mbarak surrendered to Zanzibar. East Africa
1884 Gouveia suppressed Massingire rebellion. Mozambique
1884 Jabavu began Xhosa newspaper. South Africa
1884.11 Peters, Pfeil, and Jühlke went to Zanzibar. East Africa
1884.11.15 West Africa conference began in Berlin. Congo
1884-92 President Johnson removed Republicans. Liberia
1885.1.25 Mahdi army killed Charles Gordon at Khartoum. Sudan
1885.2 Bismarck claimed East Africa for Germany.
1885.2.12 Peters founded German East Africa Company.
1885.2.25 Berlin Act recognized the Congo Free State.
1885.3.30 Russians attacked Afghans at Panjdeh.
1885.5.30 Mathews signed 25 treaties with Chagga chiefs. East Africa
1885.6 Jühlke made 8 treaties in Bondei region. East Africa
1885 Muhammad ‘Abduh visited Tunis.
1885 French claimed protectorate around Djibouti. Somaliland
1885 French took over Madagascar’s foreign relations.
1885 Bechuanaland became British protectorate. Southern Africa South Africa
1885 Gold was discovered in eastern Transvaal. South Africa
1885.10.21 Germans made treaty with Kamaherero. South West Africa
1886 French annexed Kayor. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1886 Tukulor empire was divided into four parts.
1886 Amadou Bamba founded Muridiyya Order. French West Africa
1886 British chartered Goldie’s Royal Niger Company.
1886 Italy obtained east coast of Somalia.
1886 Tippu became a governor in the Belgian Congo. Buganda
1886 Missionary Arnot settled in Katanga. Congo
1886 British recognized South African Republic.
1886.10 British and Germans divided East Africa.
1886.10 François Croillard founded a mission at Sefula. Southern Africa
1886-91 Moloney governed Lagos for England. Nigeria
1886-94 Alfredo de Aguiar published Clamor Africano. Mozambique
1886-97 Brazza was governor-general of Gabon. French Congo
1887.1.6 Abdullahi of Oromo attacked Shoa and lost. Ethiopia
1887.5.12 Tukulor empire became a French protectorate.
1887 Al-Rashid captured Riyadh. Arabia
1887 Blyden wrote Christianity, Islam, and the Negro. Liberia
1887.7.20 British claimed part of Somalia coast.
1887-89 Mahdi army of Sudan invaded Abyssinia.
1888.1.18 Mahdists from Sudan invaded Gojjam. Ethiopia
1888.2.11 Moffat signed treaty with Lobengula. Southern Africa
1888.3 Prempeh became Asantehene. Asante
1888.3 Ethiopians attacked Italians and retreated.
1888 Railway connected Istanbul to Vienna. Ottoman Empire
1888 Persia gave Caspian fisheries to Russia.
1888 Lagos governor made treaty with Oyo king.
1888.9 Afghans defeated revolt in Turkestan.
1888.9 British, Muslims & Christians defeated Mwanga.
1888.10.30 Lobengula traded mineral rights to Rudd. Southern Africa
1888.11 Shoa declared war on Ethiopia.
1888.12 Antonelli delivered 10,000 rifles to Shoa. Ethiopia
1888-1911 Amoaka Atta II ruled Akim Abuakwa. Asante
1889.3.9 Mahdists defeated and killed Yohannes IV. Ethiopia
1889.5.2 Menelik II signed ambiguous treaty with Italy. Eritrea
1889.5 Stanley helped Emin escape from Germans.
1889 Reindorf published History of the Gold Coast. Asante
1889 Gambia became a British Crown Colony.
1889 Gungunhana moved Ngoni to Limpopo Valley. Mozambique
1889 Rhodes began British South African Company.
1889.9 Lobengula killed Lotje and his relatives. Southern Africa
1889.11.3 Matewos crowned Menelik II emperor of Ethiopia.
1889.11 Leopold II hosted anti-slavery conference.
1889-1913 Menelik II was Emperor of Ethiopia.
1890.1.1 Italy claimed Eritrea as its Red Sea Colony. Ethiopia
1890.1 Ndunduma expelled Portuguese force.
1890.2 Peters got Mwanga to sign treaty with Germany. Buganda
1890.3 Portuguese invaded Viye, defeated Ndunduma.
1890.3 Shah gave Major Talbot tobacco monopoly. Persia
1890.5 Samory made treaty with British. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1890 Armenian Revolutionary Federation began.
1890 Brussels Convention protected European arms. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1890 Belgium loaned Leopold II £1,000,000.
1890 British Company built station at Dagoretti. East Africa
1890 Germans fortified Lake Nyasa.
1890 Portuguese invaded Viye, beat Ovimbundu.
1890.7 G. W. Williams wrote open letter to Leopold II.
1890.8 Portugal made treaty with England.
1890.12 Lugard took over Buganda for IBEA Company.
1890-96 Rhodes was prime minister of Cape Colony.
1891.5.9 British made Zambezia a protectorate. Southern Africa
1891 Russians sent rifles to Ethiopia’s Menelik II.
1891 Stanley published In Darkest Africa.
1891 Mozambique Company was chartered.
1891 British made Nyasaland a protectorate. Southern Africa
1891.12.20 Msiri in Katanga was killed by a Belgian. Congo
1891-92 Persian boycott ended tobacco concession.
1891-97 Governor-General Cambon reformed Algeria.
1892.1 French invaded Mandinka empire. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1892.5.19 British defeated Ijebu at River Yemoji. Nigeria
1892.5.29 Bahá’u’lláh died, succeeded by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
1892 Jamal al-Din met with Abdulhamid II. Persia
1892 Sultan of Zanzibar leased Mogadishu to Italy. Somaliland
1892 Anglo-Belgian India Rubber Company began. Congo
1892 Zambezia Company began. Mozambique
1892 Rhodesia Herald began publishing. Rhodes
1892-94 Belgian-Arab traders war killed many thousands. Congo
1893.1.24 Lugard’s Ingleza defeated Fransa and Mwanga. Buganda
1893.2 Emperor Menelik II declared Ethiopia independent.
1893 Ivory Coast became a French colony.
1893 British drove Lobengula out of Bulawayo. Southern Africa
1893 British made NW and NE Rhodesia protectorates. Rhodes
1893.7 Lobengula sent raiders into Shona. Southern Africa
1893-94 Congo Free State won war in the east Congo.
1894.6.2 Ethiopia took in Mengesha, Ras Alula, Tigray.
1894.6 British declared Uganda a protectorate.
1894 Lugard made treaty with Nikki before French. Nigeria
1894 Al-Hassan studied with Sufi Salih in Mecca. Somaliland
1894 Ronga chiefs rebelled against Portuguese tax. Mozambique
1894 Gandhi founded the Natal Indian Congress.
1894 Spence led Australian Workers’ Union (AWU).
1894 South Australia gave women the vote.
1894.8 Moor attacked Nana and Itsekiri trading empire. Nigeria
1894.12.29 Brass soldiers destroyed British port at Akassa. Nigeria
1894-96 250,000 Armenians were killed.
1894-1900 Cardew governed Sierra Leone for British.
1895.1.15 Italians defeated Mengesha. Ethiopia
1895.3 Prempeh sent Asante embassy to London.
1895.6.6 Federation of French West Africa began. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1895 28,000 Jews were a majority in Jerusalem. Palestine
1895 First pneumatic car tire was produced. Congo
1895 French took upper Ubangi from Belgians.
1895.7.1 British proclaimed East Africa Protectorate.
1895.7.4 Batetela mutiny in Kasai was punished. Congo
1895.10.1 Madagascar accepted French protectorate.
1895.11 Masai attacked caravan, killed many Kikuyu. East Africa
1895.12.29 Jameson raid against Kruger in Transvaal failed. Southern Africa
1896.1.5 British army led by Scott sacked Kumasi.
1896.2.14 Herzl published The Jewish State.
1896.3.1 Ethiopian army defeated Italians at Adwa.
1896.3.20 Ndebele began killing whites. Southern Africa
1896.5.1 Rida assassinated Nasir al-Din Shah. Persia
1896.6.6 British killed 300 Ndebele. Southern Africa
1896.6 Herzl met with Sultan Abdulhamid II.
1896 French invaded Futa Jallon.
1896 British made treaties with ten tribes.
1896 French began Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway. Ethiopia
1896 Natal denied vote to Indians. South Africa
1896.7.18 Herzl met with Edmund de Rothschild.
1896.8.31 Sierra Leone became a British protectorate.
1896-98 Kitchener’s Egyptian army defeated Sudan.
1896-1915 Emir Mubarak ruled Kuwait. Arabia
1897.1 Crete revolted against Ottoman empire. Young Turks
1897.3 Menelik II sent Giyorgis to govern Kaffa.
1897.4.5 Hamud freed slaves in Zanzibar and Pemba. East Africa
1897.5.14 Menelik II and British agreed on Ethiopian border.
1897.6 Waziris rebelled against Afghanistan.
1897 Ottoman empire declared war on Greece. Young Turks
1897 ‘Abduh published Theology of Unity. Egypt
1897 Lagos workers struck for higher pay. Nigeria
1897 Samuel Johnson wrote History of the Yorubas. Nigeria
1897 Aborigines Rights Protection Society began. Sierra Leone
1897 Cape detained for 3 months without trial. South Africa
1897 Natal annexed Zululand. South Africa
1897 Rhodes negotiated peace with Ndebele chiefs.
1897.8 First Zionist Congress met at Basle.
1897.11 Germans imposed a hut tax in East Africa.
1897-1900 Mutiny led to war in the Congo Free State.
1897-1907 Ferdinando Martini governed Eritrea for Italy.
1898.1 Anti-Semitism persecuted Jews in Algeria.
1898.3 Matadi-Leopoldville railway was completed. Leopold II
1898.6.14 French and British signed treaty over Borgu. Nigeria
1898 Rinderpest epidemic caused Humbe rebellion. Angola
1898 Ross learned mosquito causes malaria. Southern Africa
1898.8 British defeated Ogaden Somali. East Africa
1898.9.29 French captured Samory. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1899.4 Al-Hassan raised army in Somalia for Islam.
1899.4 British deported Mwanga and Kabarega. Uganda
1899 British appointed governor-general of Sudan.
1899 Conrad published Heart of Darkness. Congo
1899 Dahomey joined the French Federation. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1899 German East Africa took over Rwanda.
1899.9 Al-Hassan led jihad against Ethiopia. Somaliland
1899.10.11 Transvaal and OFS invaded Natal. South Africa
1899.11.24 Egyptians killed Mahdi successor ‘Abdallahi. Sudan
1899-1904 British fought al-Hassan’s army in Somalia.
1899-1905 ‘Abduh was Grand Mufti of Egypt.
1900 British made Northern Nigeria a protectorate.
1900 Sierra Leone had 34 newspapers.
1900 Rebellion against French in Madagascar ended.
1900 British invaded OFS during Boer War. South Africa
1900.8 Fourth Zionist Congress met in London.
1900-07 Lugard was High Commissioner of Nigeria.
1900-08 ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ruled Morocco.
1901.2 Kitchener and Louis Botha began negotiations. South Africa
1901.3 British captured Kumasi, deported leaders.
1901 Buber began editing Zionist weekly Die Welt.
1901 Central Native Council began in Lagos. Nigeria
1901 Leopold II started Fondation de la Couronne.
1901.11 Persia and Russia agreed on customs tariff.
1901.12.29 Zionists set up Jewish National Fund.
1901-08 Turks built railway from Damascus to Medina. Arabia
1901-11 George Denton governed Gambia for the British.
1901-19 Habibullah ruled Afghanistan.
1902.2 Ottoman Liberals met in a Paris home. Young Turks
1902.3.26 Cecil Rhodes died of congenital heart problem.
1902.5.31 Boer War ended with amnesty. South Africa
1902 Coppolani and French occupied Mauritania. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1902 French governed West Africa from Dakar.
1902 British took half of Buganda’s land.
1902-06 200,000 died of sleeping sickness. Uganda and the British
1902-53 Abdul Aziz ibn Saud ruled Arabia.
1903.6.26 Blyden spoke to Africa Society in London. Liberia
1903 Kahlil Gibran wrote Spirits Rebellious in Arabic.
1903 Ben-Yehuda began teaching Hebrew in Palestine. Zionism
1903 Muhammad ‘Abduh visited Algeria.
1903 Sierra Leone recognized chiefs as judges.
1903 Bruce said tsetse fly spreads sleeping sickness. Uganda and the British
1903 France made Oubangui-Chari a colony. French Congo
1903.7.27 Lugard’s army conquered the Sokoto empire. Nigeria
1903.12 Menelik II and British signed commercial treaty.
1903, 1909 Nigeria squelched newspapers.
1903-06 Chinese labored in South Africa.
1903-11 Charles Jonnart governed Algeria.
1904.3.23 Congo Reform Association met at Liverpool.
1904 Yemen’s Imam Yahya revolted against Turks.
1904 Lugard simplified Nigeria’s tax system.
1904 Lewanika brought in black missionaries to teach. Rhodesia
1904 South Africa had one million Europeans.
1904 Gandhi led Indian delegation to London.
1904.10 Witbooi revolt was suppressed by Germans. South West Africa
1904-12 Arthur Barclay was president of Liberia.
1904-13 Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II was ill.
1905.1 Mustafa Kemal organized Fatherland Society. Young Turks
1905.1 Louis Botha began Het Volk party. South Africa
1905.3.21 Afghanistan confirmed alliance with British.
1905 Hebrew became language of Zionist movement.
1905 Uganda railway began turning a profit. East Africa
1905-07 Germans defeated the Maji Maji rebellion.
1906.5 British made Southern Nigeria a protectorate.
1906 Young Turks founded CUP.
1906 Liberia borrowed $500,000 from British.
1906 British created four reserves for Kikuyu. East Africa
1906 Vocational schools began in the Congo.
1906.8.5 Muzaffar al-Din Shah agreed to an Assembly. Iran
1906.9 Gandhi first used civil disobedience.
1906-12 Rechenberg governed German East Africa.
1906-18 Alapetite governed Tunisia for France.
1907.3 Het Volk won Transvaal election. South Africa
1907 Hamba organized Young Tunisians.
1907 French troops invaded Morocco.
1907 Africans gained citizenship in Liberia.
1907 Koch explained how to kill tsetse flies. Germans
1907 Portuguese defeated Mbadya rebellion.
1907.9 Moderate Egyptians founded People’s Party.
1907.10 Iran got Fundamental Laws.
1907.12 2nd Young Turk Congress met in Paris.
1907-10 Portuguese pacified Dembo.
1908.2.3 Smuts promised Gandhi he would repeal Act.
1908.6.23 Muhammad ‘Ali Shah made a coup. Iran
1908 CUP took over Ottoman empire. Revolution
1908 Ethiopia joined International Postal Union.
1908 British defeated Luhya in northern Bugusu. East Africa
1908 Congo Free State had 313 military posts.
1908.8.16 Gandhi & 3,000 Indians burned certificates.
1908.8.27 China announced plan for a constitution. Late Qing
1908.9 Klobukowski closed University of Hanoi. Vietnam
1908.10.7 Gandhi was arrested in Transvaal.
1908.11.15 Belgium annexed the Congo Free State.
1908-18 Angoulvant governed Ivory Coast for France. Futa Jallon
1909.4.27 Assembly replaced Abdulhamid II with Mehmet V. Revolution
1909 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company formed.
1909 British finally defeated Ekumeku. Nigeria
1909 Cadell from Sierra Leone staged coup in Liberia.
1909 A. C. Doyle helped Morel on the Congo issue.
1909 South African Labour Party began.
1909.7 Assembly replaced Muhammad ‘Ali with Ahmad. Iran
1910.2 CUP formed People’s Party. Revolution
1910.3.31 Union of South Africa began with a constitution.
1910 France gained 40% of Morocco’s customs tax.
1910 Galandou Diouf co-founded Young Senegalese. French West Africa
1910 Afrique Equatoriale Française combined colonies. Equatorial Africa
1910 ARPS stopped the Forestry Bill in England. Gold Coast Colony
1910 Tafari began governing Harar. Haile Selassie
1910 British Somaliland banned missionaries.
1910 Belgian Congo imposed a poll tax on Africans.
1910 Portuguese subdued Swahili and Makua.
1910 Republic of Portugal abolished slavery.
1911.4 French forces occupied Fez. Morocco
1911 Asir’s al-Idrisi rebelled against Ottomans. Arabia
1911 Young Arab Society al-Fatat began in Paris. Syria
1911 Spanish troops occupied Alcazar. Morocco
1911 Congo census said population was less than half.
1911 Boers formed South African Party.
1911 Mozambique adopted a constitution.
1911 O Africano began publishing in Mozambique.
1911-12 Albania became independent. Revolution
1911-12 War and famine killed a third in British Somalia.
1911-13 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá spoke in Europe and America.
1912.1 South Africa Native National Congress began. ANC
1912.3.30 Morocco became a protectorate of France.
1912 Halide Edib wrote The New Turan.
1912 Ikhwan religious movement began in Arabia.
1912 Bouderba led Young Algeria delegates to Paris.
1912 Liberia borrowed $1,700,000 from United States.
1912 Belgian Congo banned selling liquor to Africans.
1912.10 Balkan states declared war on Ottomans.
1912.10.18 Libya made treaty with Italy.
1912.10.26 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prophesied European war.
1912-19 Lugard governed Nigeria.
1912-20 Daniel Howard was president of Liberia.
1912-24 Lyautey governed Morocco for France.
1912-43 Ofori Ata I ruled Akim Abuakwa. Gold Coast
1913.2.22 Franco-indigéne Alliance began in Algeria.
1913.3 South Africa law limited marriage to Christians. Gandhi
1913.6.9 Ottoman empire ceded European territory.
1913.6.29 Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece and lost. Ottoman War Losses
1913 Afghans put down revolt by Mangals in Khost.
1913 Talib al-Naqib founded Reform Society of Basra. Iraq
1913 Spanish forces occupied Tetuan. Morocco
1913 William Wade Harris baptized 80,000. Asante
1913 South Africa imposed segregation.
1914.1 Hertzog and de Vet began National Party. South Africa
1914.6. Smuts and Gandhi resolved issues.
1914.6.28 Serbian nationalist killed Ferdinand of Austria. Ottoman War Losses
1914 Diagne was elected to Chamber of Deputies. West Africa
1914 Yoruba began Christian Reformed Ogboni Soc. Nigeria
1914.7 Indian Relief Act recognized Indian marriages. Gandhi
1914.7.21 Ahmad Shah Qajar was crowned. Iran
1914.8.2 Ottomans made alliance with Germany.
1914.8.6 British and French invaded Togo.
1914.8.10 Liberia declared neutrality in the war.
1914.8 British seized Lüderitz from Germans. South West Africa
1914.9.7 Ottomans cancelled capitulations to Europeans.
1914.11.2 Russia declared war on Ottoman empire.
1914.11.11 Mehmet V declared war on British, French, Russia. Ottomans
1914.11 British declared war on Ottoman empire.
1914.11 British occupied Basra. Iraq
1914.12.27 Beha-a-Din expelled 6,000 Jews from Jaffa. Zionism
1914-18 Iran was neutral during the Great War.
1915.3 15,000 Jews fled to Egypt. Zionism
1915.4.30 British paid Idrisi to fight Imam Yahya. Arabia
1915.5 Botha with 50,000 men captured Windhoek. South West Africa
1915 British fought Turks at Gallipoli. Ottoman War Losses
1915 Nationalist Party won election in South Africa.
1915.7 250,000 Armenians set up a state.
1915.12.26 Ibn Saud signed treaty with British. Arabia
1915-16 Kru rebelled in Liberia.
1915-18 Turks slaughtered about a million Armenians.
1916.1 Afghanistan declared neutrality.
1916.1 Sykes-Picot made secret pact on Palestine.
1916.3 Smuts led invasion of German East Africa. South Africa
1916.5.15 Sykes-Picot agreement gave British Iraq.
1916 Sudan made Darfur a province.
1916 Taxes provoked riots in Oyo. Nigeria
1916 Angola banned Ndaka newspaper.
1916 Belgian forces occupied Ruanda-Urundi.
1916 British quelled Iseyin-Okeiho rebellion. Nigeria
1916.7.8 Hussein revolted against Ottoman empire. Arabia
1916.8 Tafari began governing Kaffa. Haile Selassie
1916.10.22 Iyasu’s troops were defeated by Ethiopia’s army.
1916.12.22 British army captured al-Arish. Palestine
1916-17 Portuguese invaded German East Africa and fled.
1917.2.11 Zewditu was crowned Empress of Ethiopia.
1917.3 British army captured Baghdad. Armenian Genocide Iraq
1917.3 British army occupied Gaza. Palestine
1917.3 Big rebellion began in Barwe. Mozambique
1917 Zionist Organization of America began.
1917 Franco-Egyptian railway reached Addis Ababa. Ethiopia
1917 Revolts broke out in French West Africa.
1917.7.6 Lawrence helped Arabs take Aqaba. Syria Trans-Jordan
1917.8.4 Liberia declared war on Germany.
1917.8 Madras committee approved passive resistance. India
1917.8.27 Ethiopia’s army defeated Iyasu again.
1917.11.2 British Balfour Declaration favored Jewish home. Zionism
1917.11.16 British army captured Jaffa. Palestine
1917.12.9 British entered Jerusalem, declared martial law. Palestine
1917.12 Anti-Bolsheviks formed Transcaucasia Republic. Armenian Genocide
1918.2 Arabs with Lawrence defeated Turks at Tafileh. Arabia
1918.3.7 Weizmann met with George V in England. Zionism
1918.3 Soviet Union evacuated eastern Anatolia. War 1915-18
1918.5 British occupied Iraq. War 1915-18
1918.5 Georgia replaced Transcaucasia Republic. War 1915-18
1918.6.4 Ottomans made peace with Georgia, Azerbaijan. War 1915-18
1918.6.16 British promised Arabs self-government. Palestine
1918.6.28 Mehmet V died, succeeded by Mehmet VI. War 1915-18
1918.10.3 Faisal entered Damascus with 1,000 men. Syria
1918.10.6 French occupied Beirut. War 1915-18
1918.11.13 Egypt’s delegation demanded independence.
1918.11.16 Tripolitania declared independence.
1918.11.2 CUP leaders Talat, Cemal, and Enver fled. War 1915-18
1918.11.7 English & French declared emancipation. Palestine
1918.11.23 Bolsheviks exposed secret Sykes-Picot pact. Syria
1918.12 Allied troops occupied Istanbul. Ottoman
1918-19 250,000 Nigerians died of influenza.
1918-20 Rinderpest killed 20,000 cattle in Uganda.
1918-25 British and French martial law ruled Syria.
1919.1.3 Faisal and Weizmann signed an agreement. Syria
1919.1.4 Faisal agreed to Jewish rights in Palestine. Zionism
1919.2 Muslim-Christian Association held first congress. Palestine
1919.2 Soviet Union banned Zionist periodicals, groups.
1919.2 League gave Togo and Cameroun to France. French West Africa
1919.2.27 Amanullah overthrew his uncle Nasrullah. Afghanistan
1919.3 Mustafa and Tha‘alibi organized Parti Tunisien. Tunisia
1919.5.6 British declared war on Afghanistan.
1919.5 Greek army invaded Anatolia. Ottoman
1919.5 Barzinji proclaimed Kurdistan independent. Iraq
1919 Mustafa Kemal organized Turkish resistance.
1919 Zaghlul founded the Wafd Party in Egypt.
1919 Pan-African conference drafted charter of rights. French West Africa
1919 Thiraud’s novel portrayed Senegalese. French West Africa
1919 National Congress of British West Africa began. Gold Coast Colony
1919 Small founded Gambia Native Defensive Union.
1919 African Progress Union began. Sierra Leone
1919 Liberian court applied constitution to hinterland.
1919 100,000 died of influenza in Madagascar.
1919.8.8 British recognized Afghanistan’s independence.
1919.9 National Congress elected Kemal president. Ottoman
1919-22 Lugard wrote Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa. Nigeria
1919-27 Guggisberg governed Gold Coast colony.
1919-29 Amanullah Khan ruled Afghanistan. India
1920.1.20 Kemal founded National Sovereignty newspaper. Turkish
1920.2 Arabs protested in Palestine’s cities. Zionism
1920.3 Al-‘Ahd al-‘Iraqi proclaimed Iraq independent.
1920.3.7 Syrian Congress proclaimed Faisal king. Palestine
1920.3.18 British dissolved parliament in Istanbul. Ottoman
1920.4 League gave Palestine mandate to British.
1920.4 League of Nations gave Syria mandate to France.
1920.4.23 Turkish parliament met at Ankara, elected Kemal.
1920.4.25 British were given mandate for Iraq.
1920 Yahya conquered Lower Yemen.
1920 British declared Kenya a colony.
1920 Portugal gave colonies financial autonomy.
1920 RGA won Southern Rhodesia election.
1920.7 Zionists elected Weizmann president. Palestine
1920.8 Faisal left Syria and went to England.
1920.11 Percy Cox organized Iraq’s government.
1920-26 Samuel governed Palestine. Trans-Jordan Palestine
1920-26 Abd al-Karim led rebellion in Morocco.
1920-48 British had mandate for Palestine.
1921.1.20 Turkey Assembly passed a constitution.
1921.2.12 Reza Khan arrested 60 politicians in Tehran. Iran
1921.2 Jews began electing Rabbinical Council. Palestine
1921.3 Cairo conference made Faisal king of Iraq.
1921.3.16 Turkish-Soviet Treaty was signed at Moscow.
1921.4.1 British made ‘Abdullah emir of Trans-Jordan.
1921.5 Soldiers massacred 163 blacks on “white land.” South Africa
1921 Guellaty founded Parti Réformiste in Tunisia.
1921 Mozambique banned African languages in school.
1921 René Maran published Batouala. French Congo
1921.5-10 Ibn Saud besieged and took over Ha’il. Arabia
1921.7 Moroccon rebels defeated Spanish army.
1921.8 Afghanistan made treaty with Soviet Union.
1921.8.23 Faisal became king of Iraq. Syria
1921.9.12 Kimbangu was imprisoned for life for sedition. Belgian Congo
1921.11.28 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá died, succeeded by Shogi Effendi.
1921.12 British recognized Supreme Muslim Council.
1921-24 Norton de Matos governed Angola.
1921-33 Faisal was king of Iraq.
1921-35 Ben-Gurion led Histadrut. Palestine
1921-50 Shaikh Ahmed ruled Kuwait. Saudi Arabia
1922.2 Governor Armitage visited Gambia’s chiefs.
1922.3.1 Afghanistan made treaty with Turkey.
1922.3.14 British arrested Kikuyu activist Harry Thuku. Kenya
1922.6 General Gouraud formed Federal Council in Syria.
1922.6.22 Afghanistan made treaty with Iran.
1922 Karaosmanoglu published Nur Baba.
1922 Güntekin published Çalıkusu (The Wren).
1922 Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen fled to Afghanistan.
1922 Jewish homeland limited to west of Jordan River. Palestine
1922 British ended martial law in Egypt.
1922 British gave Nigeria a constitution.
1922 Committee of Educated Aborigines began. Sierra Leone
1922 Makerere College was founded near Kampala. Uganda
1922 Apprenticeship Act favored whites over blacks. South Africa
1922.7 Druze began rebellion in Lebanon. Syria
1922.7 League of Nations gave Tanganyika to British.
1922.8.30 Turkish army defeated Greek army.
1922.11.1 Turkish Assembly abolished the sultanate.
1922.12.6 Kemal organized the People’s Party. Turkish
1922, 1926 Lawrence published Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Arabia
1922-36 Fu’ad was king of Egypt.
1923.1 Rhodesian Bantu Voters Association began.
1923.2 Shaikh Mahmud became king of Kurdistan. Iraq
1923.4.9 Afghanistan adopted Fundamental Law.
1923.4.19 Egypt’s King Fu’ad promulgated a constitution.
1923 Kahlil Gibran wrote The Prophet in English.
1923 Spanish Morocco became a dictatorship.
1923 Tafari began publishing Light and Peace. Haile Selassie
1923 SANNC became African National Congress (ANC).
1923.7.24 Turkey signed Treaty of Lausanne.
1923.9.28 League of Nations admitted Ethiopia.
1923.10.1 Southern Rhodesia became a Crown colony.
1923.10 British troops evacuated Istanbul. Turkish
1923.10.29 Turkey accepted a constitution, elected Kemal.
1923.12 League gave Rwanda-Urundi to Belgium. Tanganyika
1923, 1928 Nigerian National Democrat Party won elections.
1923-28 Fascist Vecchi governed Italian Somaliland.
1923-38 Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) was president of Turkey.
1923-43 Italian Fascists occupied Tripolitania.
1924.1 Wafd Party won Egypt’s elections.
1924.2.11 Revival Party reformed Iran.
1924.3 Mangals and Jajis rebelled against Afghanistan.
1924.3 Iraq Assembly began meeting.
1924.3.31 Tafari decreed emancipation of slaves. Haile Selassie
1924.4.9 Tafari decreed weapons control. Haile Selassie
1924.4 Northern Rhodesia became a Crown colony.
1924 Turkish Women’s Union was founded. Turkey Republic
1924 Halide Edib published Shirt of Fire.
1924 British ended subsidies to Arab leaders. Saudi Arabia
1924 Karnou began preaching nonviolent resistance. French West Africa
1924 Sierra Leone got a new constitution.
1924 Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) was formed. Kenya
1924 Belgium accepted mandate for Rwanda-Urundi.
1924.10.3 Hussein abdicated and went into exile. Saudi Arabia
1924.11.9 Progressive Republican Party founded in Turkey.
1924-27 65,000 Poles emigrated to Palestine.
1925.2 Tunisia arrested CGTT union leaders.
1925.3 King Fu’ad dissolved Egyptian parliament.
1925.3 Sierra Leone Aborigines Society formed.
1925.4 Jabotinsky founded Revisionist Party. Palestine
1925.6 Iraq held first general elections.
1925.6 Shahbandar founded People’s Party in Syria.
1925.6 Hebrew University began in Jerusalem. Palestine
1925 Iran enacted criminal and commercial codes.
1925 Buber helped found Brit Shalom. Zionism
1925 Firestone Rubber Company leased Liberian land.
1925 Wage Act protected white workers. South Africa
1925.12 Iran Assembly made Reza Shah king.
1925-26 Druze led Great Revolt in Lebanon and Syria.
1925-31 Cameron governed Tanganyika for British.
1925-31 Edward Grigg governed Kenya for the British.
1925-37 Inonü was prime minister of Turkey.
1925-41 Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled Iran.
1925-44 Katznelson edited Davar newspaper. Palestine
1926.1.1 Turkey adopted European calendar and time.
1926.1.8 Ibn Saud became king of the Hijaz.
1926.2 Gambia Representative Committee began.
1926.2 ANC condemned segregation, began boycott.
1926 Kurdish rebellion began on Mount Ararat. Turkey Republic
1926 Prempeh became Kumasihene. Gold Coast Colony
1926 Ethiopia began 6% education tax on trade.
1926 Portugal imposed censorship on colonies.
1926 Smuts published Holism and Evolution. South Africa
1927.4 Iran abolished foreign capitulations.
1927.4 Secret Moroccon League began.
1927 Delegates formed the United Kibbutz. Palestine
1927 Histadrut began Palestine Labor Confederation. Palestine
1927 Taha Haddad published Tunisian Workers.
1927 Senghor was at League Against Imperialism. French West Africa
1927 Solanke published United West Africa. Gold Coast Colony
1927 Guggisberg founded Achimota College. Gold Coast Colony
1927 Gold Coast elected municipal councils.
1927 League Against Imperialism was founded. Gambia
1927 Gambia made slavery illegal.
1927 André Gide published Voyage au Congo. French Congo
1927 ANC began protesting pass laws.
1928.1.1 Knesset Israel began representing Jews. Palestine
1928 Güntekin published The Green Night.
1928 National Bank of Iran was established.
1928 Afghanistan’s Amanullah visited Europe.
1928 KCA elected Jomo Kenyatta general secretary. Kenya
1928.8.2 Tafari signed a friendship treaty with Italy. Haile Selassie
1928.10.6 Ethiopia’s Zewditu made Tafari her heir. Haile Selassie
1928-29 Bacha-i-Saqao led revolt in Afghanistan.
1928-29 Famine in Belgian Congo killed 300,000.
1928-32 Mubarak al-Mili wrote History of Algeria.
1929.1.1 Turkey adopted Roman alphabet.
1929.5 Iran arrested 500 striking oil workers.
1929.5 E. F. Small organized Bathurst Trade Union. Gambia
1929 Dr. Danquah organized Gold Coast Youth.
1929 Young People’s Progressive Union began. Sierra Leone
1929 Tanganyika African Association was formed.
1929 Tanganyika authorized native courts.
1929 French arrested and deported André Matswa.
1929 Nationalists won election in South Africa.
1929.7 Bathurst Ratepayers’ Association began. Gambia
1929, 1932 Qashqa’is rebelled against Iran.
1929-30 Census provoked Ibo Women’s War. Nigeria
1929-33 Nadir Khan was king of Afghanistan.
1930.3.31 Ethiopia’s army quelled Gugsa’s rebellion.
1930.4 Haile Selassie became emperor of Ethiopia.
1930.6 Kurds rebelled against Iran.
1930 I. W. Johnson organized African Workers Union. Nigeria
1930 Angola’s taxes on Africans doubled.
1930-34 Gambia’s Governor Palmer opposed elections.
1930-39 Leon Cayla governed Madagascar for France.
1930-44 Edwin James Barclay was president of Liberia.
1931.3 Patriotic Brotherhood Party formed in Iraq.
1931.4.1 Carter Commission land law favored whites. Rhodesia
1931 Turkey adopted European measurements.
1931 Revisionist youths formed Irgun A’vai Le’umi. Palestine
1931 Kitawala Watchtower led Elisabethville boycott. Belgian Congo
1931 Pende rebelled in Kwango and were suppressed. Belgian Congo
1931.7.1 Haile Selassie started the Bank of Ethiopia.
1931.7.16 Ethiopia adopted constitution based on Japan’s.
1931.10.31 Afghanistan adopted a constitution.
1931.11.3 Ethiopia’s first parliament met.
1931-34 Haidara led peasants revolt in Sierra Leone.
1931-35 Donald Cameron governed Nigeria for British.
1932.1.4 Moderates won elections in Syria.
1932.5.12 Ethiopia’s army subdued Abba Jifar II of Jima.
1932 Karaosmanoglu wrote The Alien (Yaban).
1932 University of Kabul was founded. Afghanistan
1932 Al-Madani published Book of Algeria.
1932 Haile Selassie bought weapons for Ethiopia.
1932.7 Turkey joined the League of Nations.
1932.10.3 League of Nations admitted Iraq.
1932.12 Palestinians formed a Youth Congress.
1932, 1935 Hutu tax revolts were crushed. Belgian Congo
1932-39 275,000 German Jews emigrated to Palestine.
1932-70 Sultan Said ben Taimur ruled Oman. Persian Gulf
1933.3 Hertzog and Smuts formed coalition ministry. South Africa
1933 Turkey adopted 5-year economic plan.
1933 Ibn Saud gave SOCAL a lease to drill oil.
1933 Nigeria deported Isaac Wallace Johnson.
1933 Nnamdi Azikiwe edited African Morning Post. Nigeria
1933-46 P. M. Hashim Khan governed Afghanistan.
1933-53 Huggins was prime minister of South Rhodesia.
1933-73 Muhammad Zahir Shah was king of Afghanistan.
1934.3 Neo-Dustur party emerged in Tunisia.
1934 Iranian women gained more freedom.
1934 Afghanistan joined the League of Nations.
1934 Diouf won seat in French National Assembly. French West Africa
1934 Governor Thomas banned Negro Worker. Gold Coast Colony
1934 Iyo Ita organized Nigerian Youth Movement.
1934 Azikiwe published Liberia in World Politics.
1934 Verbeken began Ngonga newspaper for Africans. Belgian Congo
1934 Afrikaners formed Purified Nationalist Party. South Africa
1934.12 Mussolini accused Ethiopia of aggression.
1934.12.2 Palestinians formed National Defense Party.
1934.12.4 Women voted in Turkey’s elections.
1934-41 Arnold Hodson governed Gold Coast colony.
1935.3 Husaynis founded Palestine Arab Party.
1935.5 Iraqi Communist Party was founded.
1935 Gueye founded socialist party in Senegal. French West Africa
1935 Somali National League was formed.
1935 Pan-Angolan Evangelical Alliance began.
1935.10.7 League of Nations declared Italy the aggressor. Ethiopia
1935.10.11 Gugsa of Tigray defected to Italians. Ethiopia
1935.10 Italian forces invaded Ethiopia.
1936.1.10 Thousands of Ethiopians fled and were killed.
1936.1.27 Nationalists began general strike in Syria.
1936.4.4 Italians bombed Ethiopia with gas.
1936.4 Faruq became king of Egypt.
1936.4.25 Mufti Hajj Amin formed Arab Higher Committee. Palestine
1936.5 Haile Selassie fled from Ethiopia to England.
1936.6.30 Haile Selassie spoke to League of Nations.
1936 Algerian Communist Party was founded.
1936 Joyce Cary published novel, The African Witch. Nigeria
1936 Kenya imposed income tax on Europeans.
1936 Native Registration Act began in South Rhodesia.
1936 Bathurst Young Muslims Society began. Gambia
1936.11 Nationalists won elections in Syria.
1936-43 Nogues governed Morocco for France.
1937.1 Algerian government banned ENA.
1937.3.11 Unions became legal in French West Africa.
1937.5.21 Italians killed 297 monks in Shoa. Ethiopia
1937 Egypt removed foreign judges.
1937 Azikiwe began publishing West African Pilot. Nigeria
1937 Sierra Leone gave chiefs administrative power.
1937 Italians killed thousands in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia
1937 Native Laws Act intensified segregation. South Africa
1937.7.8 4 nations signed Sa‘adabad Pact. Turkey Iran Afghanistan Iraq
1937.10.29 Morocco arrested 650 at Qarawiyin.
1937-46 Ryckmans governed Belgian Congo.
1938.4.9 10,000 attended Neo-Dustur rally in Tunis.
1938 British renounced privileges in Morocco.
1938 Nigerian Youth Movement won elections.
1938 Kenyatta published Facing Mount Kenya.
1938-50 Inonü was president of Turkey.
1939 Iran took over religious property.
1939 Cary published novel, Mister Johnson. Nigeria
1939 SLYL organized Mabella Works strike. Sierra Leone
1939 Kenya Teacher Training College began.
1939.9.9 Italian planes bombed Tel Aviv. Palestine
1939.9 Trans-Jordan declared war on Germany.
1939.10.19 Turkey agreed on aid with Britain and France.
1939-44 British interned Isaac Wallace Johnson. Sierra Leone
1939-45 Turkey did not fight in World War II.
1939-45 Afghanistan was neutral in World War II.
1940.6.14 Franco’s forces took over Tangier. Morocco
1940.7.12 British declared Haile Selassie an ally.
1940.10 Italian planes bombed Bahrain oil fields. Saudi Arabia
1940-47 Bettencourt governed Mozambique.
1941.5.5 Haile Selassie went to Addis Ababa.
1941.6.8 British army invaded Syria.
1941 Iran refused to expel German nationals.
1941 Cary wrote The Case for African Freedom. Nigeria
1941 British liberated Somalis from Italian Fascists.
1941 British took over Eritrea from Italian Fascists.
1941.10 Tuda Party formed in Iran.
1941.12 Miners went on strike in Katanga. Belgian Congo
1941-44 Nuri al-Sa’id was prime minister of Iraq again.
1941-44 Eboué governed French Equatorial Africa.
1942.1.29 Iran signed treaty with Britain and Soviet Union.
1942.1.31 British recognized Ethiopia’s sovereignty.
1942 Sierra Leone had 12 registered unions.
1942 South Africa took over Madagascar from French.
1942-47 Alan Burns governed Gold Coast colony.
1943.1 Allied forces captured Tripoli.
1943.1 Free French took over Madagascar.
1943.1.16 Iraq declared war on Germany, Italy & Japan.
1943.5.13 Somali Youth Club began at Mogadishu.
1943.5-10 Ethiopia suppressed rebellion in Tigray.
1943.5 200,000+ Axis soldiers surrendered in Tunisia.
1943.6.1 General de Gaulle took over Algeria.
1943 United States began aiding Iran.
1943 Communists organized GEC in West Africa.
1943.7 Leftist Quwwatli won elections in Syria.
1943.8.9 USA signed lend-lease treaty with Ethiopia.
1943.9 Lebanon’s Chamber elected Bishara president.
1943.12 ANC published African Claims.
1943.12.20 Morrison Committee proposed a Jewish state. Palestine
1943-48 Arthur Richards governed Nigeria for British.
1943-48 Gerald Fisher governed Somalis progressively.
1943-52 Bishara al-Khuri was president of Lebanon.
1944.1.11 Moroccon nationalists declared independence.
1944.2 Kananga garrison at Luluabourg mutinied. Belgian Congo
1944 ANC began Youth League.
1944.12.19 Ethiopia signed better treaty with British.
1944-46 Hamdi al-Pachachi was prime minister of Iraq.
1944-71 William Tubman was president of Liberia.
1945.3.1 Saudi Arabia declared war on Germany.
1945.3 Yemen joined the Arab League.
1945.3.22 Arab League became effective. Syria Trans-Jordan
1945.5.1 AML organized marches in Algeria.
1945.5.6 French invaded Beirut. Lebanon
1945 NCNC supported general strike in Nigeria.
1945.10.11 Spanish forces withdrew from Tangier. Morocco
1946.1.7 Democratic Party formed in Turkey.
1946.2.20 France abolished indigénat law code. French West Africa
1946.4.25 Parliament proclaimed ‘Abdullah king of Jordan.
1946.6 UDMA won elections in Algeria.
1946.6.17 Haganah destroyed 10 bridges in Palestine
1946 French troops withdrew from Syria & Lebanon.
1946 Margai began Sierra Leone Organisation Society.
1946 Protectorate Assembly began in Sierra Leone.
1946 Muslim League was formed in Eritrea.
1946.12 Ben-Gurion replaced Weizmann as leader. Palestine
1946-47 Prime Minister Qavam governed Iran.
1946-53 P. M. Mahmud Shah governed Afghanistan.
1947.3 United States began aiding Turkey.
1947.3 ANC and Indian Congresses cooperated.
1947 UNSCOP recommended Palestine partition.
1947 Nationalists formed Bureau du Maghreb Arabe. Tunisia
1947 Kenyatta led Kenya African Union.
1947 Rebels fought French in Madagascar.
1947.8 Danquah began United Gold Coast Convention.
1947.8 UGTT led general strike in Tunisia.
1947.10 MTLD won 110 local elections in Algeria.
1947.11 E. F. Small won Gambia’s elections.
1947-50 Mons negotiated with nationalists in Tunisia.
1948.1 Nkrumah became general secretary of UGCC. Gold Coast Colony
1948.1.26 Accra’s chief led boycott of European imports. Gold Coast Colony
1948.2 French appointed Naegelen to govern Algeria.
1948.3 British troops left Cairo, stayed at Suez Canal.
1948.4.9 Begin led attack on Deir Yasin village. Israel
1948.5.14 Ben-Gurion proclaimed Israel independent.
1948.5.14 Jews captured Jaffa; 70,000 Arabs fled. Israel
1948.5.15 Egyptian army invaded Palestine.
1948.5.16 British army advisors withdrew from Iraq.
1948.5.16 Syrians invaded Galilee. Israel
1948.5.29 Arab Legion took Jerusalem. Israel
1948.6.11 One-month truce began in Palestine. Israel
1948 Aramco sold shares to Standard Oil and Mobil. Saudi Arabia
1948 Iraq sent 18,000 soldiers to Palestine.
1948 Radio Tunis gained broadcasting monopoly.
1948 Rioting broke out in the Gold Coast colony.
1948 Luthuli lectured in the United States for ANC.
1948 Nationalists began implementing apartheid. ANC
1948.9 Palestinian government began in Gaza. Israel
1949.1.2 Israel withdrew troops from the Sinai.
1949.1 African-Indian race riot in Durban killed 142. South Africa
1949.2.14 Israel Assembly elected Weizmann president.
1949.3.30 Col. Za’im overthrew President Quwwatli. Syria
1949.4.3 Armistice left West Bank to Jordan.
1949.5 Israel became a member of the United Nations.
1949.6.1 Sayyid Idris proclaimed Cyrenaica independent. Libya
1949.6 Convention People’s Party began in Gold Coast.
1949 Israel made terms with Lebanon, Jordan, Syria.
1949 Nigerian Women’s Union formed.
1949.8 Afghanistan recognized Pashtunistan.
1949.8.14 Col. Hinnawi removed Za’im in Syria.
1949.10.11 Cyrenaica promulgated a constitution. Libya
1949.10 Morocco’s Muhammad V visited Paris.
1949.11 Shah Muhammad Reza visited United States. Iran
1949.11 Nuri organized Constitutional Union Party in Iraq.
1949.11.21 United Nations gave Somalia trusteeship to Italy.
1949.12.11 UN Palestine Conciliation Commission began. Israel
1949.12.19 Col. Shishakli removed Hinnawi in Syria.
1949.12.21 United Nations favored independence of Libya.
1950.1.1 Israel moved capital to Jerusalem.
1950.1.6 Trade Union Congress began general strike. Gold Coast Colony
1950.4.11 Palestinian Arabs voted in Jordan’s election.
1950.4 Jordan annexed West Bank. Israel
1950.5.1 Communists, Indian Congress led general strike. Dissent in South Africa
1950.5.14 Democratic Party won Turkey’s election.
1950 Iran’s Prime Minister Razmara favored Soviets.
1950.9.5 Syria’s Assembly adopted a new constitution.
1950.12.2 UN approved Italian Trust Admin. for Somalia.
1950.12.2 UN voted to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia.

Copyright © 2005, 2010-2018 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
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Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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