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c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 11,000 Clovis people hunted mammoths with spears. Mayans
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.
c. 250 Tikal Mayans began building large pyramids.
c. 300 Teotihuacan had about 80,000 people. Mayans
378 Mayan Tikal ruler conquered Uaxactun.
378 Smoking Frog began ruling Uaxactun. Mayans
562 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Water defeated Tikal.
578-628 Butz Chan ruled Mayan Copan.
615-83 Pacal ruled Mayan Palenque.
628-95 Smoke Imix ruled Mayan Copan.
631 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Kan II defeated Naranjo.
631-81 Six Tun Bird Jaguar ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
659 Mayan Palenque ruler Pacal made war on Yaxchilan.
679 Petexbatun sacrificed Tikal ruler Shield Skull. Mayans
681-742 Shield Jaguar II ruled MayanYaxchilan.
682-734 Ah Cacau ruled Mayans Tikal.
695 Mayan Tikal captured Jaguar Paw of Calakmul.
695-738 Eighteen Rabbit ruled Mayan Copan.
698-727 Shield God K ruled Mayan Petexbatun.
710 Naranjo ruler Smoking Squirrel raided the Yaxha. Mayans
711 Mayan Tonina captured Palenque king Kan Xul II.
738 Quirigua ruler Cauac Sky sacrificed 18 Rabbit. Mayans
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
849-1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
c. 900 Zapotec centralized government ended. Mayans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in valley of Mexico.
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
1325 Tenochtitlan was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1358 Tlatelolco was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1371-1426 Tezozomoc ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1372-91 Acamapichtli ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1391-1414 Huitzilihuitl ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1395 Mexica and Tepanecs conquered Tlaxcala. Aztecs
c. 1400 Hopi lived peacefully north of Mexico. Anasazi
1409-18 Ixtlilxochitl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1414-26 Chimalpopoca ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1418-72 Nezahualcoyotl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1426-28 Maxtla ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1427-40 Itzcoatl ruled the Aztecs.
1428 Aztecs destroyed Tepanec Azcapotzalco.
1438-71 Pachacuti ruled Inca empire.
1440-68 Moteuczoma Ilhuicamina ruled the Aztecs.
1441 Ah Xupan Xiu led revolt that destroyed Mayapan. Mayans
1444 Aztecs defeated Chalca and sacrificed 500.
c. 1450 Quiché Mayans reached their maximum power.
c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1451-54 Tenochtitlan suffered famine. Aztecs
1465 Aztec empire annexed Chalco.
1469-81 Axayacatl ruled Aztec empire.
1471-93 Topa Inca ruled Inca empire.
1472-1516 Nezahualpilli ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1478 Tarascans defeated the Mexica. Aztecs
1486-1502 Ahuitzotl ruled Aztec empire.
1492-1504 Columbus colonized & explored Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI gave America to Spain. Columbus
1493 Syphilis appeared in Europe. Columbus
1493-1526 Huayna Capac ruled Inca empire.
1494 Spain and Portugal made Tordesillas Treaty. Columbus
1495 Columbus enslaved 1,600 Tainos.
1496 Oaxaca Zapotecs revolted against unfair trade. Aztecs
1500 Colon brothers were sent to Spain in chains. Columbus
1500 Portuguese Cabral discovered South America. Brazil
1502-09 Ovando governed Española (Haiti). Caribbean
1502-20 Moteuczoma Xocoyotl ruled Aztecs. Mexico
1505 African slaves were brought to Española. Caribbean
1509 Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1509-23 Diego Colon governed Española. Caribbean
1511 Velazquez and Narvaez conquered Cuba. Caribbean
1511 Montesinos criticized conquest at Santo Domingo. Caribbean
1511 Noronha sent 35 slaves from Brazil to Portugal.
1512 Laws of Burgos were promulgated. Caribbean
1513 Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean. Panama
1514 Spain devised Requirement to warn natives. Caribbean
1516 Las Casas was appointed Protector of Indians. Caribbean
1517 Pedrarias had Balboa beheaded. Panama
1517 Velazquez sent Cordoba to explore Yucatan. Mexico
1517 Contract to import 4,000 African slaves was made. Caribbean
1519 Smallpox wiped out Tainos on Española and Cuba. Caribbean
1519-21 Cortes led the conquest of Mexico.
1522 Carlos V confirmed Cortes as governor.
1524 Cortes promulgated ordinances for New Spain.
1524 Spaniards fought over Honduras and Nicaragua. Central America
1524-33 Francisco Pizarro explored and invaded Peru.
1524-41 Alvarado conquered Guatemala, killing 4 million. Central America
1526-32 Huascar and Atahualpa fought Inca civil war. Incas, Peru
1527 Slaves revolted on Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1527-41 Montejo subjugated Yucatan. Mexico
1528 Narvaez began exploring Florida. Soto
1530 Carlos V banned making Indians slaves. Mexico
1531 Cult of the Virgin began in Guadalupe. Mexico
1532 Quiroga founded a hospital in Mexico City.
1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa founded Sao Vicente. Brazil
1533 Francisco Pizarro took gold and killed Atahualpa.
1533 Mexico bishop Zumarraga exposed Guzman.
1534 Pedro Alvarado invaded Ecuador. Peru
1534, 1541 Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.
1535 Francisco Pizarro founded Lima.
1535 Carlos V assigned Peru to Pizarro and Almagro.
1535-50 Viceroy Mendoza governed Mexico.
1536 Pope Paul III defended American Indians. Las Casas
1536 Manco organized an Inca rebellion. Peru
1537 Almagro took Cuzco from Pizarrists. Peru
1537 Las Casas used peaceful conversion in Vera Paz. Caribbean
1537-57 Irala governed Paraguay.South America
1538 Hernando Pizarro defeated and killed Almagro.
1538 Quesada met Chibchas and founded Bogota. New Granada
1539-42 Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi.
1540-42 Mixton War enslaved 5,000. Mexico
1540-42 Coronado led expedition north to Kansas.
1541 Almagrists assassinated Francisco Pizarro.
1541 Valdivia founded Santiago in Chile. Peru
1542 Spain's New Laws tried to reform encomiendas. Peru
1542 Alonso Alvarado defeated Almagrists at Chupas. Peru
1542 Cabrillo explored the California coast. Mexico
1544 Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas.
1545 Rich silver deposits were discovered at Potosi. Peru
1545 800,000 natives died of a new plague in Mexico.
1545-46 Natives wiped out Bahia and Sao Tomé in Brazil.
1546 Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and killed Viceroy Vela.
1548 Gasca defeated and executed Gonzalo Pizarro.
1549 Tomé de Sousa was first royal governor of Brazil.
1549 Nobrega led first Jesuits to America in Bahia. Brazil
1550 Las Casas debated Sepulveda on Indians.
1550 Valdivia founded Concepcion in Chile. South America
1550 Zapotecs rebelled against Spanish rule. Mexico
1550-64 Viceroy Velasco governed Mexico.
1551 Lima ecclesiastical council condemned coca. Peru
1552 Las Casas published 8 tracts on colonial reform.
1553-54 Giron led a revolt in Cuzco but was defeated. Peru
1553-58 Caupolican led Araucanian revolt in Chile. South America
1556 Nobrega wrote Conversion of the Heathen. Brazil
1562 European diseases infected natives of Bahia. Brazil
1562-75 Ibarra conquered northwest Mexico.
1565 Menendez massacred Huguenots at Fort Caroline.
1566 Inca Titu Cusi signed a treaty, became Christian. Peru
1568 Hawkins fought Spaniards at San Juan de Ulua. Caribbean
1569 Ercilla began publishing his poem La Araucana. South America
1569-82 Viceroy Toledo governed Peru. Peru
1572 Francis Drake attacked Panama. Central America
1574 Moya brought the Inquisition to Mexico.
1574 Toledo organized forced labor in Peru.
1576-80 Epidemic killed two million natives in Mexico.
1580 Garay planned city of Buenos Aires. South America
1585-87 Raleigh sponsored colony at Roanoke.
1586 Drake with 19 ships raided Cartagena. New Granada
1587 Caldera mediated treaties with Chichimecs. Mexico
1591-93 Inquisition purged Jewish influence in Brazil.
1593 Jesuits came to Chile.
1594 Raleigh explored the Orinoco River. Guiana
1596 Drake destroyed Santa Marta. New Granada
1598.6 Clifford led attack on Puerto Rico. West Indies
1598 Araucanian horsemen defeated Spaniards. Chile
1598-1608 Oñate explored and governed in New Mexico. Northern Mexico
1600 Silver-mining Potosi had 150,000 people. Peru
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1602 Parker attacked and captured Puerto Bello. Central America
1607 Plymouth Company colony was abandoned.
1608 Felipe III allowed Jesuits into Rio de la Plata.
1608-97 Missionary Vieira worked for reforms in Brazil.
1609 African slaves revolted at Veracruz. Mexico
1610 Spanish Inquisition came to Cartagena. New Granada
1610 Yaquis made peace with Spaniards in Sonora. Northern Mexico
1610 Indians rebelled at Durango. Mexico
1612 Bishop Trejo founded Jesuit college at Cordoba. Rio de la Plata
1612 Valdivia implemented reforms in Chile.
1616 Groenewegen founded Kykoveral by Essequibo. Guiana
1618 Raleigh was executed to satisfy Spain. Guiana
1619 Virginia elected first Assembly.
1621 Dutch West India Company was chartered.
1624.5 Dutch fleet captured Salvador in Bahia.
1624 British formed the West Indies Association.
1624 Archbishop Serna excommunicated Gelves. Mexico
1625 English colonists landed at Barbados. West Indies
1626 Felipe IV ordered offensive war in Chile.
1628 Piet Heyn captured lucrative Spanish fleet. Dutch, Mexico
1629 Tavares' slave raid took 5,500 Indians in Guaira. Brazil
1629 Araucanians captured Pineda. Chile
1630 Dutch fleet occupied Recife and Olinda.
1634 Spaniards invaded Providence Island. West Indies
1635 Dutch and Brazilians fought Sugar War.
1637-44 Maurits governed Pernambuco for the Dutch.
1640-68 Portugal fought Spain for independence. Brazil
1647-48 Dutch privateers took 249 Brazilian ships.
1651 English began colonizing Guiana.
1651-95 Juana Inés wrote poetry, plays, and essays. Mexico
1652 Barbados Charter included elected assembly. West Indies
1653 Jesuits returned to Sao Paulo. Brazil
1654.1 Dutch surrendered Recife to Portuguese.
1655 Admiral Penn took Jamaica from Spaniards. West Indies
1656 Dutch and Jews occupied Cayenne. Guiana
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1661 Vieira was expelled from Brazil.
1661 Rio de Janeiro executed tax rebel Barbalho. Brazil
1662 Portugal took over the Brazil Company.
1664 Colbert chartered French West India Company.
1664 Puerto Rico began granting slaves asylum. West Indies
1664, 1676 French took Cayenne back from the Dutch. Guiana
1666 Pirates raided Costa Rica and Maracaibo. Central America, West Indies
1667 Breda Treaty gave Surinam back to Dutch. Guiana
1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal opened trade. Brazil
1668-71 Morgan's pirates raided Panama. Central America, West Indies
1673-95 Zumbi led quilombos revolt in Brazil.
1674 Stapleton convened Leeward Islands assembly. West Indies
1675 Popé and others were tried in Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1678 Dominicans formed university in Guatemala. Central America
1680 Buccaneers sacked Caracas. New Granada
1680.8 Popé led a united attack on Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1681 Pope Innocent XI sanctioned Bethlehemites. Central America
1683 Van Horn and Laurent raided Veracruz. Mexico
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Canada
1685, 1690 Slaves on Jamaica revolted. West Indies
1689 Privateer Casse attacked Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1692 High grain prices caused a riot in Mexico City.
1696-98 Spaniards conquered Tarahumaras. Northern Mexico
1697 Ryswick Treaty tried to end piracy. West Indies
1697 Salvatierra founded a mission in Baja California. Northern Mexico
1698 Brazil's long gold rush began.
1698-1700 Scottish colonists failed in Panama. Central America
1703 Jesuits introduced printing in Rio de la Plata.
1708 Spain allowed slaves to purchase their freedom. West Indies
1708 French privateers raided the Essequibo colony. Guiana
1709 Selkirk was rescued from Juan Fernandez Island. Chile
1711.9 5,800 French captured Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1712.11 Cassard's pirates raided Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1713 Utrecht Treaty gave slave trading to British. Mexico
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba.West Indies
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina
1745, 1747 70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies
1746-55 Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.
1747 Spaniards fought Comanches. Mexico
1748 Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil.
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1750.1 Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750 Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750-77 Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1752-72 Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753 Chile monopolized tobacco.
1754 Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil Guiana
1754-56 Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1755 Brazil restored Indian rights.
1755 Cuba established a general post office.
1755-60 Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1757 Brazil abolished Indian slavery.
1758 Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758 University in Chile began teaching law.
1759 Bahia founded Brazilian Academy.
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata New Granada
1760 Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits.
1761 Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761 Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761 Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.11 King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1762 Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia.
1762-63 British invaded and occupied Cuba.
1763.2.10 Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763 Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital.
1763 England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763-64 African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana.
1764.4.5 England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act). West Indies Sugar Tax
1764 Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1765 Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol. Peru New Granada
1765-71 Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances.
1767.2 Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.6.24 Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1769 Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O Uraguai. Brazil
1769-84 Serra founded and led California missions.
1771 Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines.
1771-79 Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1772 Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1772-80 Jauregui governed Chile.
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1777.1.9 Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777 Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1778 Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778 Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778.12 British Navy took over St. Lucia. West Indies
1778-84 Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata.
1780 Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico.
1780 French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780-81 Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru.
1780-83 Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1781.3.16 Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.4 20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.8 Spanish troops regained Bogota. New Granada
1782 Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1783 Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783 Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783.9 British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies
1784-90 Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru.
1784-1803 Lasuen was president of California missions.
1785-86 85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1786.2 Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. Northern Mexico
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves.
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile.
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged. Brazil
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil.
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies.
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began. Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.8 Spain went to war against England. Mexico
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti.
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. French West Indies Haiti
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti.
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison. Haiti
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo. Haiti
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic.
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California.
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico.
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru.
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. Northern Mexico Exploration
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro.
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods.
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent.
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation. Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agravios. New Granada
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation. Mexico
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti.
1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de Comercio. Rio de la Plata
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty.
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of Government. Chile
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico.
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental.
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion. Argentine Revolution
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile.
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation.
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti.
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana.
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican Thinker. Mexico
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New Granada. Central America
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela.
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas.
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileanse at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulc . Mexico
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile.
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers.
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River. North Mexico
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico.
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan. New Granada
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot.
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua.
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena.
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans.
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. Bolivar
1814-40 Francia governed Paraguay. Argentine Revolution
1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army.
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason. Mexico
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king.
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers.
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine Revolution
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. North Mexico
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolivar.
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine Revolution
1817.2.12 San Martín’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. North Mexico
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen. Venezuela
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. North Mexico
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.
1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexican
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil.
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexican
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexican rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed. 1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1822.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress. Mexico
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7 Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26 General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. Bolívar
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize Brazil. Monroe
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.
1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies. 1825-27
1825 Francia closed Paraguay’s Congress.
1825 Haiti stopped helping free blacks’ immigration.
1825 Mexican states produced constitutions.
1825.8.6 Chuquisaca Assembly declared a Bolivian state.
1825.8 Bolívar declared all Bolivian citizens equal.
1825.9.1 Central America ratified its constitution.
1825.10.12 Brazil’s Pedro granted 104 titles of nobility.
1825.12.5 Central America & United States made a treaty.
1825-28 Cisplatine War led to independent Uruguay. Brazil
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Bolívar Monroe John Q. Adams
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President. Bolívar
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. Mexico
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.
1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5.13 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1831.1.2 Guerrero’s army was defeated.
1831.1 Texas state congress began.
1831.1-12 Manuel Victoria governed Alta California.
1831.2.14 Mexican firing squad executed Guerrero.
1831.3.31 Mexico banned external periodicals.
1831.4.7 Emperor Pedro abdicated to his child Pedro II. Brazil
1831.5.27 Comanche hunters killed Jedidiah Smith. New Mexico
1831 Demerara-Essequibo became British Guiana.
1831 Mary Prince wrote a slave narrative in England. West Indies
1831 Slaves in Antigua revolted. West Indies
1831 Panama became part of New Granada.
1831.8 Brazil adopted liberal laws.
1831.12.25 60,000 slaves in Jamaica went on strike. West Indies
1831-41 General Prieto was President of Chile.
1832.1.4 11-day slave revolt ended in Jamaica. West Indies
1832.1.7 Salvador seceded from Central American union.
1832.1.11 Four Mexican ministers resigned. Santa Anna
1832.3.3 Mexican troops beat Santa Anna at Tolome.
1832.3.28 Morazán deposed Salvador’s government. Central America
1832.5.2 Central America recognized free conscience.
1832.5.13 Moctezuma beat Federalists at Tampico. Mexico
1832.6.13 Santa Anna made an armistice with Mexico.
1832.6.13 Texans declared themselves federalists.
1832 Britain took over Malvinas Islands (Falklands). Argentina
1832.8 General Muzquiz replaced VP Bustamante. Santa Anna
1832.9.12 Spaniards surrendered Omoa garrison. Central America
1832.9.18 Centralist army beat Federalists at El Gallinero. Santa Anna
1832.12.23 Mexico ended civil war under Pres. Pedraza. Santa Anna
1832-35 Brazil’s War of Cubanos was worst in Pará.
1832-37 President Santander governed New Granada.
1833.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President.
1833.6.23 Mexican Congress exiled 50 opponents. Santa Anna
1833 Epidemic killed 35,000 California Indians.
1833.8.28 Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act paid slaveholders. West Indies
1833.10.8 Arista’s insurgents surrendered at Guanajuato. Santa Anna
1833,1838 Boyer expelled legislator Hérard-Dumesle. Haiti
1833-35 José Figueroa governed Alta California.
1833-47 Schoelcher published 3 books on slavery. Indies
1834.1 Mexico arrested Stephen Austin. Santa Anna
1834.1-4 Liberal VP Farías governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1834.4-12 Mexico secularized California missions.
1834.6.2 Santa Anna dissolved Mexican Congress.
1834.6.3 Santa Anna made a deal with the Church.
1834 Puerto Rico had 138,000 people, 41,818 slaves.
1834 Flinter’s book justified slavery in Puerto Rico.
1834.8.1 British freed infant slaves in British colonies. West Indies
1834-38 Tacón banned weapons in Havana. Cuba
1835.1 Brazil suppressed big slave revolt in Bahia.
1835.1.27 Mexico Congress made General Barragan VP.
1835.2.7 Central America annexed San Salvador.
1835.2 Earthquake ruined Concepcion, Chile.
1835 Puerto Rico’s trade reached 7.8 million pesos.
1835.7.17 Texans resolved on war, opposed Santa Anna.
1835.10.8 Stephen Austin summoned volunteers for war. Texas
1835.10.10 Austin began Telegraph and Texas Register. Texas
1835.10.16 New Mexico banned weapons sales to Indians.
1835.11.14 Texans made Sam Houston commander.
1835.12.10 Texans took over San Antonio.
1835.12.29 Mexican Congress enacted 1836 Constitution. Santa Anna
1835-37 Liberal Diogo Feijó was Brazil’s regent.
1835-37 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1835-39 President Rocafuerte governed Ecuador.
1835-39 President Morazán governed Central America.
1835-40 Cabanagem revolts broke out at Para in Brazil.
1835-52 Manuel de Rosas governed Buenos Aires. Argentina
1836.1.20 Venezuela made a treaty with United States. 1836-37
1836.3.2 Texas declared independence.
1836.3.6 Santa Anna’s army killed Texans at the Alamo.
1836.3.17 Texans elected David Burnett President.
1836.3.27 Santa Anna had 332 Texans executed.
1836 British chartered 1st West Indies Colonial Bank.
1836.7 New Mexico mandated schooling.
1836.9.5 Texas elected Sam Houston as President.
1836.12.19 Texas claimed territory by the Rio Grande.
1836.12.24 Chile Congress declared war on Peru & Bolivia.
1836.12.27 Stephen Austin died of pneumonia. Texas
1836.12.29 Mexico made New Mexico a department.
1836-38 President Santa Cruz ruled Peru.
1836-45 Rio Grande do Sul suffered Ragamuffin War. Brazil
1837.2 900 died of cholera in Guatemala City. Central America
1837.3.15 Daniel Webster spoke against annexing Texas. 1837
1837.3 United States recognized Texas Republic. 1836-37
1837.3.19 Rosas declared war on Peru and Bolivia. Argentina
1837.6.6 Chile’s War Minister Portales was murdered.
1837.6 Chile’s Civic Guard ended a mutiny.
1837 Sturge & Harvey printed West Indies in 1837.
1837 Puerto Rico paid Spain 500,000-pesos war tax.
1837.7 Pueblos defeated and killed Gov. Pérez. New Mexico
1837.8.9 Taos natives elected Governor González. New Mexico
1837-38 President Orbegoso governed North Peru.
1837-39 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1837-39.3 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1837-40 Brazil’s conservative party led to 2nd Empire.
1837-42 Alvarado governed Alta California.
1837-44 General Armijo governed New Mexico.
1838.1 French reduced Haiti’s debt to 60 million francs.
1838.1.26 Federal garrison mutinied at Guatemala City. Central America
1838.1.27 Ex-Gov. Armijo defeated Taos rebels. New Mexico
1838.2.1 Carrera led 10,000 natives into Guatemala City.
1838.3 Brazil’s army beat Sabinada rebels in Salvador.
1838 Only 5 European nations recognized Haiti.
1838 British freed 700,000 slaves in West Indies.
1838.8.1 British Guiana freed apprentices.
1838.8 Carrera’s Guatemalans defeated federals. Central America
1838-39 President Agüero governed North Peru.
1838,1840 British ended black apprenticeships. West Indies
1838-41 President Lamar governed Texas.
1838-42 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1839.1.20 Chile’s army beat Peru-Bolivians at Yungay.
1839.3 Nicaragua & Honduras invaded Salvador. Central America
1839 Haytian Papers author Prince Saunders died. Haiti
1839 French West Indies had 285,956 slaves.
1839.8 11,000 balaios occupied Caxias in Maranhão. Brazil
1839-41 President Bustamante governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1839-43 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1840.1 Carrera’s forces crushed liberals in Los Altos. Central America
1840.1.31 Federal troops were driven out of Honduras. Central America
1840.2.14 Yucatán seceded from Mexico. Santa Anna
1840.3.18 Morazán’s army liberated Guatemala City. Central America
1840.3.19 Texans and Comanches fought at Béxar.
1840.3.20 Carrera’s army forced Morazán to retreat. Central America
1840.3.25 Mexicans defeated Rio Grande Republic. Texas
1840.3.27 Junta declared Monterey California capital.
1840.5.13 Salvadorans agreed to Guatemalan conditions. Central America
1840 Lamar spent $2.5 million fighting Comanches. Texas
1840 Baylor began Texas Baptist Union Association.
1840.7.15 Texans killed Cherokees by Neches River.
1840.8.8 Comanches burned Linnville, Texas.
1840.8.12 200 Texas Rangers killed 87 Comanches.
1840.8.25 US & Mexico agreed to arbitration commission. 1840
1840.10.24 90 Texans killed 128 Comanches at Red Fork.
1841.2.18 Salvador adopted another constitution. Central America
1841.6.18 Gov. Alvarado granted Sutter 48,827 acres. California
1841 Brazil’s army defeated balaios revolt.
1841 Chile elected General Bulnes president.
1841 Cuba had 425,521 slaves.
1841.8.8 General Paredes began revolt in Guadalajara. Mexico
1841.9.22 Bustamante left Mexico for Europe.
1841.12.3 Brazil imposed a regressive criminal code.
1841-44 Alonso and López governed Paraguay.
1841-42 Texans’ Santa Fé venture failed. New Mexico
1841-44 President Sam Houston governed Texas.
1841-47 President Ballivián governed Bolivia.
1842.5.7 Earthquake killed 5,000 people at Cap-Haitien. Haiti
1842.5 Brazil’s liberals began armed rebellion.
1842.6.27 Texas Congress declared war on Mexico.
1842 Boyer had soldiers shut out 28 deputies. Haiti
1842.7.10 Costa Rica’s assembly made Morazán chief. Central America
1842.7.27 Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua confederated. Central America
1842.8 Riviere-Hérard organized Rights of Man Society. Haiti
1842.9.15 Morazán was executed at San José. Central America
1842.9 Mexican army occupied San Antonio. Texas
1842-43 Mexican Federalists produced a constitution. Santa Anna
1843.1.27 Hérard-Dumesle led a revolt in Praslin. Haiti
1843.2.13 Haiti’s President Boyer fled to Paris.
1843.5 Guatemala and Costa Rica made a treaty. Central America
1843.6.1 Costa Rica’s Assembly enacted human rights. Central America
1843.6.13 Mexico decreed elected assemblies. New Mexico
1843 Prescott wrote Conquest of Mexico. 1843-44
1843.7 La Trinitaria planned a Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1843.8.23 Santa Anna warned US not to annex Texas.
1843.9.29 Texans made peace with ten tribes.
1843.9-12 Haiti convention produced a constitution.
1843.10.5 President Santa Anna let Canalizo govern.
1843.11.28 Padre Martinez wrote about New Mexico.
1843-44 Slaves revolted in Cuba.
1843-45 General Micheltorena governed California.
1843-47 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1843-51 Argentina besieged Montevideo.
1844.1.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President again.
1844.1.4 Haiti inaugurated President Riviere-Hérard.
1844.1 Brazil’s liberals took power & granted amnesty.
1844.2.5 Salvador’s Assembly made Malespín President. Central America
1844.2.27 Duarte & Trinitarians declared Santo Domingo.
1844.3.19 President Hérard led attack on Santo Domingo.
1844.4.11 Costa Rica promulgated a constitution.Central America
1844.4.25 Riché declared the Artibonite republic. Santo Domingo
1844.6.8 US Congress rejected Texas annexation.
1844.6 4,000 were arrested in La Escalera slave revolt. Cuba
1844 Paraguay Congress gave López a 10-year term.
1844 Governor Lejanza provoked war with Utes. New Mexico
1844 Gregg wrote Commerce of the Prairies. New Mexico
1844.8.5 Salvador and Guatemala made peace.Central America
1844.8.22 Santana exiled Trinitarian leaders from Haiti.
1844.9.2 Texans elected Anson Jones as President.
1844.9.16 Mexico paroled Texas prisoners.
1844.11.6 Dominican Republic got a constitution.
1844.11 Santana was elected President of Haiti.
1844.12.11 Guatemala Assembly elected Carrera President. Central America
1844.12 Mexico banished Santa Anna to Cuba.
1844.12 Herrera governed Mexico for next 12 months.
1844-45 President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45 President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48 Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48 President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62 Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.
1845.1.4 California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1 Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1.28 Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2 Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2 Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2.15 Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22 Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27 Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1 Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.28 Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.6.4 President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.15 Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6.23 Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24 Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845 Sarmiento published Civilization and Barbarism. Argentina
1845 Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845 British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845 Cuba outlawed the slave trade.
1845 Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845.7.5 Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7.28 Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8 Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.10 Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war.
1845.12.2 Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state.
1845-47 José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845-49 Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49 Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50 English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51 Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2 Pres. Paredes vowed to defend Mexico. Polk
1846.1.13 Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande.
1846.1-7 President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2 Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2.19 Henderson became Governor of Texas. Polk
1846.2.21 Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5 Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12 Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3.28 US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2 Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4 US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk
1846.4.18 Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23 Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25 Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.5.8 US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9 US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10 Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11 President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12 US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18 US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14 Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15 US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23 Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846 Echeverría published Manual of Moral Instruction. Argentina
1846 Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846 Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846 Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846 1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846.7.4 Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7 Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9 Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7 O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23 Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.24 Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.9 Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15 US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17 Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.29 Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12 General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9 800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22 Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22 Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24 Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10 Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6 Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846-47 President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-49 Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1847.1.2 Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8 US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11 US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13 Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14 Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1 Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24 US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3 Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2-3 87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23 US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1 Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1 Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.9 Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3.21 Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21 Santa Anna resumed Presidency in Mexico. Polk
1847.3.29 US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.4.10 Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18 Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23 Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtres. Haiti
1847.5.15 US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847 Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847.8.20 US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22 Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23 US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14 Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16 Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16 President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847-48 Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48 José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49 Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51 José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52 President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1848.1 British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12 Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13 President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24 Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31 US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6 President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2 Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.3.10 US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3.17 Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2 Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.5 Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5.30 US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6-12 Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848 French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848.7.18 Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.8.30 Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848-51 President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52 Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55 Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1849 Sarmiento published De la Educación Común. Argentina
1849.8.26 Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.9.28 US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10 Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849-51 Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-53 López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53 President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53 President José López governed New Granada. Panama
1849-58 Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59 President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica.
1850.2.2 Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.2.17 Texans claimed El Paso. Whigs
1850.4.9 US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.5.10 Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850 Rio de Janeiro had 200,000 people. Brazil
1850 Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis. Argentina
1850 Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850 New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850 Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850.7.25 Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.31 Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4 Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law.
1850.9.10 Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1851.1.9 Central American Union began.
1851.4.10 Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851 Ecuador abolished slavery.
1851 Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851.8.3 López led filibuster invasion of Cuba. Fillmore
1851.8.16 Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.9.7 Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9 Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.8.12 Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8 Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851,1855 Mármol published his novel Amalia. Argentina
1851-52 President Arista tried to govern Mexico.
1851-53 José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-55 José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-55 Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-61 Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65 94,000 Portuguese emigrated to Brazil.
1851-65 Pres. Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1852.1.1 New Granada abolished slavery.
1852.1.8 Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.5.1 Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partida. Argentina
1852.6 Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852.6 Telegraph connected Santiago to Valparaiso. Chile
1852 Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers.Argentina
1852 Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. New Granada
1852.9 Argentine Liberals revolted against López.
1852.10.7 Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852-55 Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55 President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56 José María Urbina was President of Ecuador.
1853.1-2 Pres. Ceballos governed Mexico for 33 days.
1853 Alberdi & Gutiérrez influenced a constitution. Argentina
1853 British recognized Urquiza in Argentina.
1853 Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853 New Granada’s constitution increased voting.
1853 Panama got a liberal constitution.
1853.12.30 Mexico sold Gadsden Purchase to US. Pierce New Mexico
1853-55 Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55 President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55 Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed. 1854
1853-56 President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1854.1 William Walker claimed Sonora in Mexico. Pierce
1854.1.26 Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.2 Nicaragua got a constitution.
1854.2 Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.3.23 Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854.7.13 US Marines burned San Juan, Nicaragua.
1854.7.13 Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.9.17 Panama became a nation.
1855.1.28 Panamanian railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2 Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855.8 Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8-9 President Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.12.8 Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.12 Emperor Faustin attacked Santo Domingo again.
1855-57 Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57 General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57 President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58 Sarmiento edited El nacional. Argentina
1855-58 José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-62 Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1 Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24 Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.2 Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15 Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.3.9 Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.4.15 A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama.
1856.5.20 Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5.20 Pierce recognized Walker’s Nicaragua regime. 1856
1856.5-10 President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.6 Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6-12 Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856 Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil libertie. Chile
1856 Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856.9.22 Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856-57 Central American allies defeated Walker. Nicaragua
1856-58 President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58 President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58 Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59 Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62 President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.2.5 Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.27 Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.5.1 Walker surrendered to allied armies. Nicaragua Kansas
1857.5.4 3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857 José de Alencar published his novel O Guarani. Brazil
1857 Argentina had 1.1 million people.
1857 Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857.11.25 William Walker led invasion of Nicaragua. Kansas
1857.12 Juárez was elected Supreme Court president. Mexico
1857.12 Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857-60 Fernando Cotoner governed Puerto Rico.
1857-61 Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-67 President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1858.1.19 Juárez set up government at Guanajuato. Mexico
1858.1.23 Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.1-4 Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2.7 Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.10 Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3 Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.” Chile
1858.3 Julián Castro led revolution in Venezuela.
1858.5.4 Juárez moved his government to Veracruz. Mexico
1858.5 British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858 Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la Constitución. Chile
1858 US Congress passed pensions for war widows. Mexican Cession
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.12.6 Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-60 Mexican Civil War was fought.
1858-61 Ospina was New Granada’s President.
1858-61 President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63 Granadine Confederation had a civil war. New Granada
1858-72 President Juárez governed Mexico.
1859.2.12 Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.20 Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.4.1 Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1959.4.6 US recognized Juárez government. Mexico
1859.4.29 Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859 Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government. Chile
1859 Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859.7.12 Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property. Mexico
1859.9.29 Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.12.4 Juárez government enacted religious liberty. Mexico
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12.19 Buchanan called for military posts in Mexico. 1859
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-62 Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba.
1859-63 President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63 President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67 President Fabre Geffrard governed Haiti.
1860.5.3 Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentina
1860 Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860 Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860.9.12 British Honduras executed Walker. Nicaragua Kansas Elections in 1860
1860.9.30 Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.11.6 Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1861.1 Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1 Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1.25 Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.3.18 Santana returned Santo Domingo to Spain.
1861.5.20 Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.6.11 Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.7 Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.9.17 Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18 Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.12 US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861-62 Santana governed Santo Domingo.
1861-63 Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64 Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65 3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65 García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-71 José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1862.1.6-7 British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.4.9 British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.5.5 Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.6.5 United States recognized Haiti and Liberia. June-July 1862
1862.6 Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6.16 Foley organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862 Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862 Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862 Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862.9 Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.26 Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862-66 Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68 Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68 Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1863.2.3 Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.3-5 26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.5.8 Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.6.1 French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.14 Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15 Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863 Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863 Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863 Dutch abolished slavery in Surinam. West Indies
1863.9.1 Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9 Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.12.8 2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863-66 President Jesús Jimenez governed Costa Rica.
1864.1.22 French Navy helped take Veracruz. Mexico
1864.4.9 Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.6.12 Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864 Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864.8-10 Juárez retreated to Chihuahua. Mexico
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay. Argentina
1864.12.14 Paraguay invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12 Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864-66 Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.
1865.1.27 Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.2.9 French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.20 Brazil made a peace treaty with Uruguay.
1865.3 Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.5.1 Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.6.11 Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865 Argentina exported 55,000 tons of wool.
1865 Chile had 1.8 million people.
1865.7.15 Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.