BECK index

Latin America

Chronological Index of Events

to 1935

Chronology of United States to 1896
Chronology of Canada to 1935
Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1829
Chronology of North & South America 1830-1865
World Chronology to 1830

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1925 1930

(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 11,000 Clovis people hunted mammoths with spears. Mayans
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.

c. 250 Tikal Mayans began building large pyramids.
c. 300 Teotihuacan had about 80,000 people. Mayans
378 Mayan Tikal ruler conquered Uaxactun.
378 Smoking Frog began ruling Uaxactun. Mayans
562 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Water defeated Tikal.
578-628 Butz Chan ruled Mayan Copan.
615-83 Pacal ruled Mayan Palenque.
628-95 Smoke Imix ruled Mayan Copan.
631 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Kan II defeated Naranjo.
631-81 Six Tun Bird Jaguar ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
659 Mayan Palenque ruler Pacal made war on Yaxchilan.
679 Petexbatun sacrificed Tikal ruler Shield Skull. Mayans
681-742 Shield Jaguar II ruled MayanYaxchilan.
682-734 Ah Cacau ruled Mayans Tikal.
695 Mayan Tikal captured Jaguar Paw of Calakmul.
695-738 Eighteen Rabbit ruled Mayan Copan.
698-727 Shield God K ruled Mayan Petexbatun.
710 Naranjo ruler Smoking Squirrel raided the Yaxha. Mayans
711 Mayan Tonina captured Palenque king Kan Xul II.
738 Quirigua ruler Cauac Sky sacrificed 18 Rabbit. Mayans
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
849-1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
c. 900 Zapotec centralized government ended. Mayans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in valley of Mexico.
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
1325 Tenochtitlan was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1358 Tlatelolco was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1371-1426 Tezozomoc ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1372-91 Acamapichtli ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1391-1414 Huitzilihuitl ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1395 Mexica and Tepanecs conquered Tlaxcala. Aztecs
c. 1400 Hopi lived peacefully north of Mexico. Anasazi
1409-18 Ixtlilxochitl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1414-26 Chimalpopoca ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1418-72 Nezahualcoyotl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1426-28 Maxtla ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1427-40 Itzcoatl ruled the Aztecs.
1428 Aztecs destroyed Tepanec Azcapotzalco.
1438-71 Pachacuti ruled Inca empire.
1440-68 Moteuczoma Ilhuicamina ruled the Aztecs.
1441 Ah Xupan Xiu led revolt that destroyed Mayapan. Mayans
1444 Aztecs defeated Chalca and sacrificed 500.
c. 1450 Quiché Mayans reached their maximum power.
c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1451-54 Tenochtitlan suffered famine. Aztecs
1465 Aztec empire annexed Chalco.
1469-81 Axayacatl ruled Aztec empire.
1471-93 Topa Inca ruled Inca empire.
1472-1516 Nezahualpilli ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1478 Tarascans defeated the Mexica. Aztecs
1486-1502 Ahuitzotl ruled Aztec empire.

1492-1504 Columbus colonized & explored Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI gave America to Spain. Columbus
1493 Syphilis appeared in Europe. Columbus
1493-1526 Huayna Capac ruled Inca empire.
1494 Spain and Portugal made Tordesillas Treaty. Columbus
1495 Columbus enslaved 1,600 Tainos.
1496 Oaxaca Zapotecs revolted against unfair trade. Aztecs
1500 Colon brothers were sent to Spain in chains. Columbus
1500 Portuguese Cabral discovered South America. Brazil
1502-09 Ovando governed Española (Haiti). Caribbean
1502-20 Moteuczoma Xocoyotl ruled Aztecs. Mexico
1505 African slaves were brought to Española. Caribbean
1509 Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1509-23 Diego Colon governed Española. Caribbean
1511 Velazquez and Narvaez conquered Cuba. Caribbean
1511 Montesinos criticized conquest at Santo Domingo. Caribbean
1511 Noronha sent 35 slaves from Brazil to Portugal.
1512 Laws of Burgos were promulgated. Caribbean
1513 Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean. Panama
1514 Spain devised Requirement to warn natives. Caribbean
1516 Las Casas was appointed Protector of Indians. Caribbean
1517 Pedrarias had Balboa beheaded. Panama
1517 Velazquez sent Cordoba to explore Yucatan. Mexico
1517 Contract to import 4,000 African slaves was made. Caribbean
1519 Smallpox wiped out Tainos on Española and Cuba. Caribbean
1519-21 Cortes led the conquest of Mexico.
1522 Carlos V confirmed Cortes as governor.
1524 Cortes promulgated ordinances for New Spain.
1524 Spaniards fought over Honduras and Nicaragua. Central America
1524-33 Francisco Pizarro explored and invaded Peru.
1524-41 Alvarado conquered Guatemala, killing 4 million. Central America
1526-32 Huascar and Atahualpa fought Inca civil war. Incas, Peru
1527 Slaves revolted on Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1527-41 Montejo subjugated Yucatan. Mexico
1528 Narvaez began exploring Florida. Soto
1530 Carlos V banned making Indians slaves. Mexico
1531 Cult of the Virgin began in Guadalupe. Mexico
1532 Quiroga founded a hospital in Mexico City.
1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa founded Sao Vicente. Brazil
1533 Francisco Pizarro took gold and killed Atahualpa.
1533 Mexico bishop Zumarraga exposed Guzman.
1534 Pedro Alvarado invaded Ecuador. Peru
1534, 1541 Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.
1535 Francisco Pizarro founded Lima.
1535 Carlos V assigned Peru to Pizarro and Almagro.
1535-50 Viceroy Mendoza governed Mexico.
1536 Pope Paul III defended American Indians. Las Casas
1536 Manco organized an Inca rebellion. Peru
1537 Almagro took Cuzco from Pizarrists. Peru
1537 Las Casas used peaceful conversion in Vera Paz. Caribbean
1537-57 Irala governed Paraguay.South America
1538 Hernando Pizarro defeated and killed Almagro.
1538 Quesada met Chibchas and founded Bogota. New Granada
1539-42 Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi.
1540-42 Mixton War enslaved 5,000. Mexico
1540-42 Coronado led expedition north to Kansas.
1541 Almagrists assassinated Francisco Pizarro.
1541 Valdivia founded Santiago in Chile. Peru
1542 Spain's New Laws tried to reform encomiendas. Peru
1542 Alonso Alvarado defeated Almagrists at Chupas. Peru
1542 Cabrillo explored the California coast. Mexico
1544 Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas.
1545 Rich silver deposits were discovered at Potosi. Peru
1545 800,000 natives died of a new plague in Mexico.
1545-46 Natives wiped out Bahia and Sao Tomé in Brazil.
1546 Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and killed Viceroy Vela.
1548 Gasca defeated and executed Gonzalo Pizarro.
1549 Tomé de Sousa was first royal governor of Brazil.
1549 Nobrega led first Jesuits to America in Bahia. Brazil

1550 Las Casas debated Sepulveda on Indians.
1550 Valdivia founded Concepcion in Chile. South America
1550 Zapotecs rebelled against Spanish rule. Mexico
1550-64 Viceroy Velasco governed Mexico.
1551 Lima ecclesiastical council condemned coca. Peru
1552 Las Casas published 8 tracts on colonial reform.
1553-54 Giron led a revolt in Cuzco but was defeated. Peru
1553-58 Caupolican led Araucanian revolt in Chile. South America
1556 Nobrega wrote Conversion of the Heathen. Brazil
1562 European diseases infected natives of Bahia. Brazil
1562-75 Ibarra conquered northwest Mexico.
1565 Menendez massacred Huguenots at Fort Caroline.
1566 Inca Titu Cusi signed a treaty, became Christian. Peru
1568 Hawkins fought Spaniards at San Juan de Ulua. Caribbean
1569 Ercilla began publishing his poem La Araucana. South America
1569-82 Viceroy Toledo governed Peru. Peru
1572 Francis Drake attacked Panama. Central America
1574 Moya brought the Inquisition to Mexico.
1574 Toledo organized forced labor in Peru.
1576-80 Epidemic killed two million natives in Mexico.
1580 Garay planned city of Buenos Aires. South America
1585-87 Raleigh sponsored colony at Roanoke.
1586 Drake with 19 ships raided Cartagena. New Granada
1587 Caldera mediated treaties with Chichimecs. Mexico
1591-93 Inquisition purged Jewish influence in Brazil.
1593 Jesuits came to Chile.
1594 Raleigh explored the Orinoco River. Guiana
1596 Drake destroyed Santa Marta. New Granada
1598.6 Clifford led attack on Puerto Rico. West Indies
1598 Araucanian horsemen defeated Spaniards. Chile
1598-1608 Oñate explored and governed in New Mexico. Northern Mexico

1600 Silver-mining Potosi had 150,000 people. Peru
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1602 Parker attacked and captured Puerto Bello. Central America
1607 Plymouth Company colony was abandoned.
1608 Felipe III allowed Jesuits into Rio de la Plata.
1608-97 Missionary Vieira worked for reforms in Brazil.
1609 African slaves revolted at Veracruz. Mexico
1610 Spanish Inquisition came to Cartagena. New Granada
1610 Yaquis made peace with Spaniards in Sonora. Northern Mexico
1610 Indians rebelled at Durango. Mexico
1612 Bishop Trejo founded Jesuit college at Cordoba. Rio de la Plata
1612 Valdivia implemented reforms in Chile.
1616 Groenewegen founded Kykoveral by Essequibo. Guiana
1618 Raleigh was executed to satisfy Spain. Guiana
1619 Virginia elected first Assembly.
1621 Dutch West India Company was chartered.
1624.5 Dutch fleet captured Salvador in Bahia.
1624 British formed the West Indies Association.
1624 Archbishop Serna excommunicated Gelves. Mexico
1625 English colonists landed at Barbados. West Indies
1626 Felipe IV ordered offensive war in Chile.
1628 Piet Heyn captured lucrative Spanish fleet. Dutch, Mexico
1629 Tavares' slave raid took 5,500 Indians in Guaira. Brazil
1629 Araucanians captured Pineda. Chile
1630 Dutch fleet occupied Recife and Olinda.
1634 Spaniards invaded Providence Island. West Indies
1635 Dutch and Brazilians fought Sugar War.
1637-44 Maurits governed Pernambuco for the Dutch.
1640-68 Portugal fought Spain for independence. Brazil
1647-48 Dutch privateers took 249 Brazilian ships.

1651 English began colonizing Guiana.
1651-95 Juana Inés wrote poetry, plays, and essays. Mexico
1652 Barbados Charter included elected assembly. West Indies
1653 Jesuits returned to Sao Paulo. Brazil
1654.1 Dutch surrendered Recife to Portuguese.
1655 Admiral Penn took Jamaica from Spaniards. West Indies
1656 Dutch and Jews occupied Cayenne. Guiana
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1661 Vieira was expelled from Brazil.
1661 Rio de Janeiro executed tax rebel Barbalho. Brazil
1662 Portugal took over the Brazil Company.
1664 Colbert chartered French West India Company.
1664 Puerto Rico began granting slaves asylum. West Indies
1664, 1676 French took Cayenne back from the Dutch. Guiana
1666 Pirates raided Costa Rica and Maracaibo. Central America, West Indies
1667 Breda Treaty gave Surinam back to Dutch. Guiana
1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal opened trade. Brazil
1668-71 Morgan's pirates raided Panama. Central America, West Indies
1673-95 Zumbi led quilombos revolt in Brazil.
1674 Stapleton convened Leeward Islands assembly. West Indies
1675 Popé and others were tried in Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1678 Dominicans formed university in Guatemala. Central America
1680 Buccaneers sacked Caracas. New Granada
1680.8 Popé led a united attack on Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1681 Pope Innocent XI sanctioned Bethlehemites. Central America
1683 Van Horn and Laurent raided Veracruz. Mexico
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Canada
1685, 1690 Slaves on Jamaica revolted. West Indies
1689 Privateer Casse attacked Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1692 High grain prices caused a riot in Mexico City.
1696-98 Spaniards conquered Tarahumaras. Northern Mexico
1697 Ryswick Treaty tried to end piracy. West Indies
1697 Salvatierra founded a mission in Baja California. Northern Mexico
1698 Brazil's long gold rush began.
1698-1700 Scottish colonists failed in Panama. Central America

1703 Jesuits introduced printing in Rio de la Plata.
1708 Spain allowed slaves to purchase their freedom. West Indies
1708 French privateers raided the Essequibo colony. Guiana
1709 Selkirk was rescued from Juan Fernandez Island. Chile
1711.9 5,800 French captured Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1712.11 Cassard's pirates raided Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1713 Utrecht Treaty gave slave trading to British. Mexico
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba.West Indies
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina

1745, 1747 70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies      
1746-55 Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.
1747 Spaniards fought Comanches. Mexico
1748 Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1750.1 Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750 Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750-77 Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1752-72 Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753 Chile monopolized tobacco.
1754 Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil  Guiana
1754-56 Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in BrazilRio de la Plata
1755 Brazil restored Indian rights. 
1755 Cuba established a general post office.
1755-60  Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1757 Brazil abolished Indian slavery. 
1758 Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758 University in Chile began teaching law. 
1759 Bahia founded Brazilian Academy. 
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spanish empire.  Rio de la Plata New Granada
1760 Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits. 
1761 Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761 Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761 Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.11 King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1762 Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia. 
1762-63 British invaded and occupied Cuba
1763.2.10 Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763 Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital. 
1763 England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763-64 African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana

1764.4.5 England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act). West Indies Sugar Tax
1764 Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1765 Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol.  Peru New Granada
1765-71 Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances.
1767.2 Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.6.24 Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1769 Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O UraguaiBrazil
1769-84 Serra founded and led California missions.
1771 Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines. 
1771-79 Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1772 Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1772-80 Jauregui governed Chile.  
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1777.1.9 Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777 Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1778 Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778 Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778.12 British Navy took over St. Lucia.  West Indies
1778-84 Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata
1780 Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico
1780 French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780-81 Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru
1780-83 Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1781.3.16 Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.4 20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.8 Spanish troops regained Bogota.  New Granada
1782 Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1783 Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783 Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783.9 British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies

1784-90 Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru.
1784-1803 Lasuen was president of California missions.
1785-86 85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1786.2 Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. Northern Mexico
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged. Brazil
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies.
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.8 Spain went to war against England. Mexico
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.  
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada

1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. French West Indies Haiti
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru.
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. Northern Mexico Exploration
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation. Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation. Mexico
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti.

1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion. Argentine Revolution
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation.
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana.
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New GranadaCentral America
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela. 
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileanse at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulc . Mexico
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. Bolivar
1814-40 Francia governed ParaguayArgentine Revolution

1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason. Mexico
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine Revolution
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. North Mexico
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolivar.
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine Revolution
1817.2.12 San Martín’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. North Mexico
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen.  Venezuela
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. North Mexico
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.

1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexican
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexican
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexican rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed. 1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1822.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress. Mexico
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7  Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26  General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. Bolívar
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize BrazilMonroe
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.

1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies. 1825-27
1825 Francia closed Paraguay’s Congress.
1825 Haiti stopped helping free blacks’ immigration.
1825 Mexican states produced constitutions.
1825.8.6 Chuquisaca Assembly declared a Bolivian state.
1825.8 Bolívar declared all Bolivian citizens equal.
1825.9.1 Central America ratified its constitution.
1825.10.12 Brazil’s Pedro granted 104 titles of nobility.
1825.12.5 Central America & United States made a treaty.
1825-28 Cisplatine War led to independent Uruguay. Brazil
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Bolívar Monroe John Q. Adams
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President. Bolívar
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. Mexico
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.

1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5.13 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1831.1.2 Guerrero’s army was defeated.
1831.1 Texas state congress began.
1831.1-12 Manuel Victoria governed Alta California.
1831.2.14 Mexican firing squad executed Guerrero.
1831.3.31 Mexico banned external periodicals.
1831.4.7 Emperor Pedro abdicated to his child Pedro II. Brazil
1831.5.27 Comanche hunters killed Jedidiah Smith. New Mexico
1831 Demerara-Essequibo became British Guiana.
1831 Mary Prince wrote a slave narrative in England. West Indies
1831 Slaves in Antigua revolted. West Indies
1831 Panama became part of New Granada.
1831.8 Brazil adopted liberal laws.
1831.12.25 60,000 slaves in Jamaica went on strike. West Indies
1831-41 General Prieto was President of Chile.
1832.1.4 11-day slave revolt ended in Jamaica. West Indies
1832.1.7 Salvador seceded from Central American union.
1832.1.11 Four Mexican ministers resigned. Santa Anna
1832.3.3 Mexican troops beat Santa Anna at Tolome.
1832.3.28 Morazán deposed Salvador’s government. Central America
1832.5.2 Central America recognized free conscience.
1832.5.13 Moctezuma beat Federalists at Tampico. Mexico
1832.6.13 Santa Anna made an armistice with Mexico.
1832.6.13 Texans declared themselves federalists.
1832 Britain took over Malvinas Islands (Falklands). Argentina
1832.8 General Muzquiz replaced VP Bustamante. Santa Anna
1832.9.12 Spaniards surrendered Omoa garrison. Central America
1832.9.18 Centralist army beat Federalists at El Gallinero. Santa Anna
1832.12.23 Mexico ended civil war under Pres. Pedraza. Santa Anna
1832-35 Brazil’s War of Cubanos was worst in Pará.
1832-37 President Santander governed New Granada.
1833.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President.
1833.6.23 Mexican Congress exiled 50 opponents. Santa Anna
1833 Epidemic killed 35,000 California Indians.
1833.8.28 Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act paid slaveholders. West Indies
1833.10.8 Arista’s insurgents surrendered at Guanajuato. Santa Anna
1833,1838 Boyer expelled legislator Hérard-Dumesle. Haiti
1833-35 José Figueroa governed Alta California.
1833-47 Schoelcher published 3 books on slavery. Indies
1834.1 Mexico arrested Stephen Austin. Santa Anna
1834.1-4 Liberal VP Farías governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1834.4-12 Mexico secularized California missions.
1834.6.2 Santa Anna dissolved Mexican Congress.
1834.6.3 Santa Anna made a deal with the Church.
1834 Puerto Rico had 138,000 people, 41,818 slaves.
1834 Flinter’s book justified slavery in Puerto Rico.
1834.8.1 British freed infant slaves in British colonies. West Indies
1834-38 Tacón banned weapons in Havana. Cuba

1835.1 Brazil suppressed big slave revolt in Bahia.
1835.1.27 Mexico Congress made General Barragan VP.
1835.2.7 Central America annexed San Salvador.
1835.2 Earthquake ruined Concepcion, Chile.
1835 Puerto Rico’s trade reached 7.8 million pesos.
1835.7.17 Texans resolved on war, opposed Santa Anna.
1835.10.8 Stephen Austin summoned volunteers for war. Texas
1835.10.10 Austin began Telegraph and Texas Register. Texas
1835.10.16 New Mexico banned weapons sales to Indians.
1835.11.14 Texans made Sam Houston commander.
1835.12.10 Texans took over San Antonio.
1835.12.29 Mexican Congress enacted 1836 Constitution. Santa Anna
1835-37 Liberal Diogo Feijó was Brazil’s regent.
1835-37 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1835-39 President Rocafuerte governed Ecuador.
1835-39 President Morazán governed Central America.
1835-40 Cabanagem revolts broke out at Para in Brazil.
1835-52 Manuel de Rosas governed Buenos Aires. Argentina
1836.1.20 Venezuela made a treaty with United States. 1836-37
1836.3.2 Texas declared independence.
1836.3.6 Santa Anna’s army killed Texans at the Alamo.
1836.3.17 Texans elected David Burnett President.
1836.3.27 Santa Anna had 332 Texans executed.
1836 British chartered 1st West Indies Colonial Bank.
1836.7 New Mexico mandated schooling.
1836.9.5 Texas elected Sam Houston as President.
1836.12.19 Texas claimed territory by the Rio Grande.
1836.12.24 Chile Congress declared war on Peru & Bolivia.
1836.12.27 Stephen Austin died of pneumonia. Texas
1836.12.29 Mexico made New Mexico a department.
1836-38 President Santa Cruz ruled Peru.
1836-45 Rio Grande do Sul suffered Ragamuffin War. Brazil
1837.2 900 died of cholera in Guatemala City. Central America
1837.3.15 Daniel Webster spoke against annexing Texas. 1837
1837.3 United States recognized Texas Republic. 1836-37
1837.3.19 Rosas declared war on Peru and Bolivia. Argentina
1837.6.6 Chile’s War Minister Portales was murdered.
1837.6 Chile’s Civic Guard ended a mutiny.
1837 Sturge & Harvey printed West Indies in 1837.
1837 Puerto Rico paid Spain 500,000-pesos war tax.
1837.7 Pueblos defeated and killed Gov. Pérez. New Mexico
1837.8.9 Taos natives elected Governor González. New Mexico
1837-38 President Orbegoso governed North Peru.
1837-39 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1837-39.3 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1837-40 Brazil’s conservative party led to 2nd Empire.
1837-42 Alvarado governed Alta California.
1837-44 General Armijo governed New Mexico.
1838.1 French reduced Haiti’s debt to 60 million francs.
1838.1.26 Federal garrison mutinied at Guatemala City. Central America
1838.1.27 Ex-Gov. Armijo defeated Taos rebels. New Mexico
1838.2.1 Carrera led 10,000 natives into Guatemala City.
1838.3 Brazil’s army beat Sabinada rebels in Salvador.
1838 Only 5 European nations recognized Haiti.
1838 British freed 700,000 slaves in West Indies.
1838.8.1 British Guiana freed apprentices.
1838.8 Carrera’s Guatemalans defeated federals. Central America
1838-39 President Agüero governed North Peru.
1838,1840 British ended black apprenticeships. West Indies
1838-41 President Lamar governed Texas.
1838-42 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1839.1.20 Chile’s army beat Peru-Bolivians at Yungay.
1839.3 Nicaragua & Honduras invaded Salvador. Central America
1839 Haytian Papers author Prince Saunders died. Haiti
1839 French West Indies had 285,956 slaves.
1839.8 11,000 balaios occupied Caxias in Maranhão. Brazil
1839-41 President Bustamante governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1839-43 President Flores governed Ecuador.

1840.1 Carrera’s forces crushed liberals in Los Altos. Central America
1840.1.31 Federal troops were driven out of Honduras. Central America
1840.2.14 Yucatán seceded from Mexico. Santa Anna
1840.3.18 Morazán’s army liberated Guatemala City. Central America
1840.3.19 Texans and Comanches fought at Béxar.
1840.3.20 Carrera’s army forced Morazán to retreat. Central America
1840.3.25 Mexicans defeated Rio Grande Republic. Texas
1840.3.27 Junta declared Monterey California capital.
1840.5.13 Salvadorans agreed to Guatemalan conditions. Central America
1840 Lamar spent $2.5 million fighting Comanches. Texas
1840 Baylor began Texas Baptist Union Association.
1840.7.15 Texans killed Cherokees by Neches River.
1840.8.8 Comanches burned Linnville, Texas.
1840.8.12 200 Texas Rangers killed 87 Comanches.
1840.8.25 US & Mexico agreed to arbitration commission. 1840
1840.10.24 90 Texans killed 128 Comanches at Red Fork.
1841.2.18 Salvador adopted another constitution. Central America
1841.6.18 Gov. Alvarado granted Sutter 48,827 acres. California
1841 Brazil’s army defeated balaios revolt.
1841 Chile elected General Bulnes president.
1841 Cuba had 425,521 slaves.
1841.8.8 General Paredes began revolt in Guadalajara. Mexico
1841.9.22 Bustamante left Mexico for Europe.
1841.12.3 Brazil imposed a regressive criminal code.
1841-44 Alonso and López governed Paraguay.
1841-42 Texans’ Santa Fé venture failed. New Mexico
1841-44 President Sam Houston governed Texas.
1841-47 President Ballivián governed Bolivia.
1841-51 General Bulnes was President of Chile.
1842.5.7 Earthquake killed 5,000 people at Cap-Haitien. Haiti
1842.5 Brazil’s liberals began armed rebellion.
1842.6.27 Texas Congress declared war on Mexico.
1842 Boyer had soldiers shut out 28 deputies. Haiti
1842.7.10 Costa Rica’s assembly made Morazán chief. Central America
1842.7.27 Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua confederated. Central America
1842.8 Riviere-Hérard organized Rights of Man Society. Haiti
1842.9.15 Morazán was executed at San José. Central America
1842.9 Mexican army occupied San Antonio. Texas
1842-43 Mexican Federalists produced a constitution. Santa Anna
1843.1.27 Hérard-Dumesle led a revolt in Praslin. Haiti
1843.2.13 Haiti’s President Boyer fled to Paris.
1843.5 Guatemala and Costa Rica made a treaty. Central America
1843.6.1 Costa Rica’s Assembly enacted human rights. Central America
1843.6.13 Mexico decreed elected assemblies. New Mexico
1843 Prescott wrote Conquest of Mexico. 1843-44
1843.7 La Trinitaria planned a Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1843.8.23 Santa Anna warned US not to annex Texas.
1843.9.29 Texans made peace with ten tribes.
1843.9-12 Haiti convention produced a constitution.
1843.10.5 President Santa Anna let Canalizo govern.
1843.11.28 Padre Martinez wrote about New Mexico.
1843-44 Slaves revolted in Cuba.
1843-45 General Micheltorena governed California.
1843-47 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1843-51 Argentina besieged Montevideo.
1844.1.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President again.
1844.1.4 Haiti inaugurated President Riviere-Hérard.
1844.1 Brazil’s liberals took power & granted amnesty.
1844.2.5 Salvador’s Assembly made Malespín President. Central America
1844.2.27 Duarte & Trinitarians declared Santo Domingo.
1844.3.19 President Hérard led attack on Santo Domingo.
1844.4.11 Costa Rica promulgated a constitution.Central America
1844.4.25 Riché declared the Artibonite republic. Santo Domingo
1844.6.8 US Congress rejected Texas annexation.
1844.6 4,000 were arrested in La Escalera slave revolt. Cuba
1844 Paraguay Congress gave López a 10-year term.
1844 Governor Lejanza provoked war with Utes. New Mexico
1844 Gregg wrote Commerce of the Prairies. New Mexico
1844.8.5 Salvador and Guatemala made peace.Central America
1844.8.22 Santana exiled Trinitarian leaders from Haiti.
1844.9.2 Texans elected Anson Jones as President.
1844.9.16 Mexico paroled Texas prisoners.
1844.11.6 Dominican Republic got a constitution.
1844.11 Santana was elected President of Haiti.
1844.12.11 Guatemala Assembly elected Carrera President. Central America
1844.12 Mexico banished Santa Anna to Cuba.
1844.12 Herrera governed Mexico for next 12 months.
1844-45 President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti. Haiti
1844-45 President Malespín governed El Salvador. El Salvador
1844-48 Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48 President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62 Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.

1845.1.4     California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1        Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1.28   Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2        Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2        Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2.15   Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22   Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27   Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1     Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.28   Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.6.4     President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.15   Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6.23   Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24   Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845           Sarmiento published Civilization and BarbarismArgentina
1845           Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845           British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845           Cuba outlawed the slave trade.
1845           Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845.7.5     Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7.28   Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8        Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.10      Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war. 
1845.12.2   Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state.
1845-47      José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845-49      Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49      Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50      English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2     Pres. Paredes vowed to defend MexicoPolk
1846.1.13   Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande.
1846.1-7     President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2        Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2.19   Henderson became Governor of Texas. Polk
1846.2.21   Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5     Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12   Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3.28   US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2     Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4        US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk
1846.4.18   Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23   Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25   Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.5.8     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10   Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11   President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12   US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18   US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14   Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15   US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23   Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846           Echeverría published Manual of Moral InstructionArgentina
1846           Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846           Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846           Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846           1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846.7.4     Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7     Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9     Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7        O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23   Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.24   Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.9     Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15   US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17   Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.29   Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12   General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9        800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22  Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22   Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24   Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10      Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6   Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846-47      President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-49      Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1847.1.2     Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8     US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11   US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13   Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14   Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1        Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24   US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3     Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2-3     87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23   US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1     Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1     Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.9     Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3.21   Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21   Santa Anna resumed Presidency in MexicoPolk
1847.3.29   US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.4.10   Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18   Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23   Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtresHaiti
1847.5.15   US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847           Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847.8.20   US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22   Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23   US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14   Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16   Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16   President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847-48      Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48      José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49      Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52      President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1848.1        British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12   Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13   President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24   Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31   US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6     President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2     Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.3.10   US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3.17   Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2     Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.5        Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5.30   US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6-12   Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848           French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848.7.18   Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.8.30   Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848.10.7    Carlos López confiscated Indian & mestizo land.
1848-51      President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52      Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55      Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1849           Sarmiento published De la Educación ComúnArgentina
1849           Bolivia’s President Belzu spoke on equality.
1849.8.26   Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.9.28   US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10      Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849-51      Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-53      López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53      President José López governed New GranadaPanama
1849-56       Emperor Faustin ruled Haiti.
1849-58      Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59      President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica. Republic
1849-78       Báez was Pres. of Dominicanos 5 times.

1850.2.2 Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.4.9     US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.4.19   United States & Britain committed to a canal. Panama
1850.5.10   Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850.5.18   Blacks rebelled in Panama City.
1850.5.19   600 American filibusters landed in Cuba.
1850.6.10   Ecuador’s Interim President Ascásubi resigned.
1850           Brazil imported 22,856 slaves.
1850           Paraguay & Brazil made a commercial treaty.
1850           Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis. Argentina
1850           Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850           New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850           Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850.7.25   Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.31   Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4     Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law. Brazil
1850.9.10   Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1850-51      Colombian political parties had a civil war.
1850,1855  López drove Brazil garrisons out of Paraguay.
1851.1.9     Central American Union began. Honduras
1851.1-2      Salvadoran allies invaded Guatemala.
1851.2.2      Carrera defeated Nicaraguan invasion. Guatemala
1851.2         Carlos López appointed Hopkins minister to US. El Salvador
1851.4.10   Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851.4.20   President Bulnes put down an army mutiny. Chile
1851.5        Colombia freed their remaining 20,000 slaves.
1851.6.25   General Urvina abolished slavery in Ecuador.
1851           Brazil imported 3,287 slaves.
1851           Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851.8.6     American filibusters were executed in Cuba.
1851.8.12   Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8        Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.8.16   Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.8.18   Buenos Aires Gov. Rosas declared war. Brazil  Paraguay
1851.9.7     Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9        Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.9        Loizaga asked Rosas to invade Paraguay.
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851.10.19 Guatemala adopted a new constitution.
1851.12.8   1,800 Chilean soldiers died in a battle.
1851.12      García Moreno defended Jesuits. Peru
1851-53      José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-54      Francisco Dueñas was President of El Salvador.
1851-55      Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-55      José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-56      José Urvina was President of Ecuador.
1851-61      Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1851-89      Emperor Pedro II governed Brazil.
1851-1917  238,960 immigrants came to British Guiana.
1852.1.1     Colombia & Panama emancipated slaves.
1852.1.8     Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.2.3     42,200 Brazilians & allies defeated Rosas. Argentina
1852.2.15   Managua became the capital of Nicaragua.
1852.5.1     Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partidaArgentina
1852.6        Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852           Brazil imported 800 slaves.
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers. Argentina
1852           Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. Chile
1852           France began shipping convicts to Guiana.
1852.10.7   Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852-53      President Giró governed Uruguay with “fusion.”
1852-54      Urquiza directed Argentine Confederation.
1852-55      Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55      President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56      José María Urvina was President of Ecuador.
1853           Argentine Constitution was ratified.
1853           Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853           Peru’s El Comercio printed Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853           Colombians made 2 new constitutions.
1853.9        Liberals in Buenos Aires revolted.  Argentina
1853.12.30 Mexico sold Gadsden Purchase to US. Pierce New Mexico
1853-55      Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55      President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55      Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed.
1853-56      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1854.1.5     Revolutionaries defeated Peru’s army.
1854.1.26   Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.2        Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.2.28   Assembly decreed Nicaragua Constitution.
1854.3.5     Urquiza became Argentine President.
1854.3.23   Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854           Pedro II sent 4,000 troops to help Uruguay.
1854           Paraguay President López was re-elected.
1854           Chile census found under 17% were literate.
1854           Echenique freed black slave veterans. Peru
1854.7.5     Castilla promised to abolish Indian tribute.
1854.7.13   US Navy bombarded Greytown, Nicaragua.
1854.8.13   Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.12.23 Dominican Republic passed a constitution.
1854-59      Captain-General Concha governed Cuba.

1855.1.28   Panama railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2        Brazil sent Navy forces to Humaitá. Paraguay
1855.2.18   Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855           Peru compensated owners of freed slaves.
1855           Castilla reformed San Marcos University.
1855           Liberals began El Tiempo news in Bogotá. Colombia
1855           Panama Railroad was completed.
1855           El Salvador published a Code of Commerce.
1855.8.17   Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8-9     President Martin Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.9.17   Panama became a state in New Granada.
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.12.8   Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855-57      General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57      Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57      Patricio Rivas was President of Nicaragua.
1855-57      President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58      Sarmiento edited El nacionalArgentina
1855-58      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-62      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1        Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24   Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.2        Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15   Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.3.9     Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.4.11   Costa Ricans defeated filibusters in Nicaragua.
1856.4.15   A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama. Colombia
1856.5.20   Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5-10   President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.6     Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856           Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil liberty. Chile
1856           Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856           Peru banned trafficking in Asian workers.
1856           Guatemalans fought Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.7.12   800 Salvadoran troops invaded Nicaragua.
1856.7        3 nations’ armies fought for Nicaragua.
1856.9.22   Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856.10       US sent troops to protect the Panama Railroad.
1856.10.31  Arequipa rebelled &Peru’s navy mutinied.
1856.12.15  Pope Pius IX condemned Juárez & Lerdo Law.
1856-57      Central American allies defeated Walker.
1856-58      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58      President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58      Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59      Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62      President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.2.5     Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.27   Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.5.1     Walker surrendered to allied armies. Kansas
1857.5.4     3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857           Uruguay River became Brazil-Argentina border.
1857           José de Alencar wrote Diario de Rio de JaneiroBrazil
1857           Bello commented on the Chilean Civil Code.
1857           Chile’s Conservative Party was founded.
1857           Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857.12      Juárez was elected Supreme Court president.
1857.12      Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857-61      Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-61      Ospina was President of New Granada. Colombia
1857-67      President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1857-72      Benito Juárez was President of Mexico.
1858.1.19   Juárez set up government at Guanajuato.
1858.1.23   Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.1-4     Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2.7     Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.6      Besieged Arequipa surrendered. Peru
1858.3.10   Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3        Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.”  Chile
1858.5        British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858           Chilean Bilbao began editing El Grito Paraguayo.
1858           Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la ConstituciónChile
1858           Costa Rica made education mandatory.
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.12.6   Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-59      Julián Castro was President of Venezuela.
1858-61      Mexicans fought in the Reform War.
1858-62      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63      Granadine Confederation had a civil war.
1859.2.12   Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.20   Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.4.1     Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1959.4.6     US recognized Juárez government.
1859.4.29   Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859           Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government.
1859           Guatemala recognized British Belize.
1859           Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859.7.12   Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property.
1859.9.4     Gov. Borja surrendered Quito to triumvirs.  Peru
1859.9.29   Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.10.4    Castilla led Peruvian invasion of Guayaquil.
1859.10.23  Urquiza’s army defeated Buenos Aires. Argentina
1859.11.11  Carlos López mediated a treaty for Argentina.
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty.
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-61      Brazil Conservatives reversed electoral reforms.
1859-61      Liberal Tovar was President of Venezuela.
1859-62      Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba
1859-63      Venezuela suffered in the Federalist War.
1859-63      President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63      President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67      President Fabre Geffrard governed Haiti.

1860.1.28    British gave Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua.
1860.5.3     Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires.
1860           Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860           Chileans took over Araucanía.
1860           Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860           United States sent troops to Panama.
1860           El Salvador got a new civil & criminal code.
1860.9.12   British Honduras executed Walker.
1860.9.30   Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.11.6   Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.12      Brazilians formed the Progressive League.
1860.12      Peru adopted a new Constitution.
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1860-62      Mitre was governor of Buenos Aires.
1860-64      Uruguay’s President Berro used fusion.
1861.1        Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1        Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.3.18   Santana returned Santo Dominingo to Spain.
1861.5.20   Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.6.11   Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.7        Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.9.17   Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18   Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.12      US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861-62      Santana governed Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic
1861-63      Mosquera was Granadina Confed. President. Colombia
1861-63      Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64      Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65      3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65      García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-71      José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1861-86      11 Liberal Presidents governed Colombia.
1862.1.4      Hassaurek wrote about García Moreno.
1862.1.6-7  British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.4.9     British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.5.5     Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.6.5     United States recognized Haiti and Liberia.
1862.6        Brazil adopted the metric system.
1862.6        Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6.16   Forey organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862           Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862           Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862           Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862.9.20   Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.26   Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862-66      Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68      Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68      Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1862-70      Solano López was President of Paraguay.
1863.2.3     Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.2.23   Guatemala’s Carrera invaded El Salvador again.
1863.3-5     26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.5.8     Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.5.17   Mexicans surrendered San Lorenzo to French.
1863.5.29   Spain recognized independent Guatemala.
1863.6.1     French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.14   Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15   Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863.6        Brazil broke off relations with the British.
1863           Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863           Colorados & allies invaded Uruguay.
1863           Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863           Chile’s Radical Party began.
1863           Colombia adopted a new Constitution.
1863.7.1     Surinam freed last 32,000 slaves.
1863.9.1     Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9        Rio de Janeiro attorneys questioned slavery. Brazil
1863.9        Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.12.6   Ecuador’s army invaded Colombia.
1863.12.8   2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863-65     General Pezet was President of Peru.
1863-66     President Jesús Jiménez governed Costa Rica.
1863-68      Falcón Zavarce was President of Venezuela.
1863-71      Dueñas was President of El Salvador.
1863-86      Panama isthmus had 26 governors.
1864.1.14   Pedro II urged freeing of slave children.
1864.1.15   Brazil’s Isabel married Count Gaston of Eu.
1864.1.22   French Navy helped take Veracruz.
1864.4.9     Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.6.12   Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864           Paraguay’s Pres. López drafted 64,000 men.
1864           Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864           Guatemala combined Indians & ladinos.
1864.8-10   Juárez retreated to Chihuahua.
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay.
1864.12.14 80,000 Paraguayans invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12      Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864-66      Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.

1865.1    Argentina denied Paraguay’s army access.
1865.1.27   Brazil declared war against Paraguay.
1865.1.27   Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.2.9     French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.20   Montevideo surrendered to Brazil.
1865.3.18   Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.4.13   Paraguay began a war against Argentina.
1865.5.1     Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.5.4     Argentina declared war on Paraguay.
1865.5        Paraguayan Legion joined Argentina’s army
1865.6.11   Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865.6        Moreno had 24 prisoners executed.
1865           Bolivia & Peru made a treaty on Arica.
1865.7.15   Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.
1865.8         Paraguayan army captured Uruguaiana.
1865.8.17    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Yatay.
1865.9         Brazil drove foreigners from Rio Grande do Sul.
1865.9.18    5,545 Paraguayans surrendered.
1865.9.18    Honduras adopted a reformed constitution.
1865.9.25    Chile declared war against Spain.
1865-67       Carrión was President of Ecuador.
1865-68       Sarmiento was minister in the United States.
1865-70       Brazil had 168,000 killed in Paraguayan War.
1865-70       20,000 Argentines died in the Paraguayan War.
1865-70       Uruguay had 3,000 killed in Paraguayan War.
1865-70       591,000 people died in Paraguayan War. 
1865-70       Paraguay lost over 400,000 people in the war.
1865-71       General Cerna was President of Guatemala.
1866.1         Peru’s President Prado declared war on Spain.
1866.3         Only men with property voted in Cuba.
1866.3.31    Spanish ships bombarded Valparaíso. Chile
1866.5.2      Allies & Paraguayans suffered at Estero Bellaco.
1866.5.2      Peru’s army defeated Spaniards at Callao.
1866.5.24    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Tuyutí.
1866           Ranchers began Argentine Rural Society.
1866           Bolivia & Chile agreed to share Mejillones.
1866.7         French Committee petitioned Pedro II on slavery.
1866.7         Transatlantic cable reached Newfoundland. Peru
1866.8         Pedro II appointed the Progressive Zacarias.
1866.9.1-3   Allies defeated Paraguayans at Curuzú.
1866.9.22    Paraguayans defeated Allies at Curupaití. Brazil  Argentina
1866,1867    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Tuyutí. Brazil
1866-70       Bolivia sold Indians’ communal land.
1867.2         Serapio Cruz led Liberal revolt in Guatemala.
1867.5         Pedro II spoke for slave emancipation.
1867           Mauá had more wealth than Brazil’s budget.
1867           Ayacucho Treaty gave Bolivia land from Brazil.
1867.9         National University of Colombia began.
1867-68       Allies besieged Paraguay’s forces at Humaitá.
1867-71       Guzmán was President of Nicaragua.
1868.1         Betances et al wrote a Puerto Rico constitution.
1868.2.19    Uruguay’s President Flores was murdered.
1868.6-12    López had 596 people killed in Asunción.
1868            Sarmiento published Life of Horace Mann.
1868.7.14    Pedro II replaced Liberals with Conservatives.
1868.8.16    Earthquake killed 20,000 in Ibarra & Otavalo. Ecuador
1868.9.23    Revolutionaries took over Lares, Puerto Rico.
1868.10.10   Céspedes freed 30 slaves in Cuba.
1868.12.11   Brazil’s army defeated Paraguayans at Avay.
1868-71       Peru’s Finance Minister Piérola aided the rich.
1868-72       President Lorenzo Batlle governed Uruguay.
1868-72       José Balta was President of Peru.
1868-74       Sarmiento was President of Argentina.
1868-78       Ten Years War cost Cuba $300 million.
1869.1         Allies occupied Asunción. Paraguay
1869.3.19    Allies ordered López property confiscated.
1869.3.19    General Veintemilla led a revolt in Guayaquil. Ecuador
1869.6.9      Ecuador’s 8th Constitution was approved. Ecuador
1869           Juan Montalvo began El Joven LiberalEcuador
1869.7.22    Allies chose a triumvirate to govern Paraguay.
1869.8.12    Brazil’s army wiped out 1,600 Paraguayans
1869.8         Peru & Spain signed a friendship treaty.
1869.10.1    Decouds began publishing La RegeneraciónParaguay
1869.10.2    Triumvirate abolished slavery in Paraguay.
1869-74       Nissage was President of Haiti.
1869-95       José Martí worked for Cuban Revolution.
1870.1.1      Nicaragua got a new constitution.
1870.1.15    Haiti executed ex-President Salnave.
1870.1         Mitre began La Nación in Buenos Aires. Argentina
1870.3.1      Allies killed Paraguay’s President LópezBrazil Argentina
1870.3.7      Triumvirate ordered schools in Paraguay
1870.4.11    Urquiza was assassinated. Mitre  Argentina
1870.5.6      Pedro II argued for free labor in farming.
1870.6.20    Peace treaty ended the Paraguayan War.
1870           Typographers formed first union in Uruguay.
1870           Paraguay abolished slavery.
1870           Cevallos completed his History of Ecuador.
1870.9.23    Italians sacked La Regeneración’s office. Paraguay
1870.10.13   Mexican Congress granted amnesty to traitors.
1870.11.20   Paraguay convention signed a Constitution.
1870.11.25   Rivarola was elected President of Paraguay.
1870.12.29   Paraguay issued 100,000 pesos paper money.
1870-76       Tomás Guardia was President of Costa Rica.
1870-77       Guzmán Blanco was President of Venezuela.
1871.1.26    Corrientes militia defeated rebels in Argentina.
1871.1-5      Argentina suffered a yellow fever epidemic.
1871.2         El Salvador invaded Honduras.
1871.4.6      Audain wrote in Gazette du PeupleHaiti
1871.4         Paraguay Congress approved agriculture colony.
1871.5.17    Pedro II’s daughter became Regent of Brazil.
1871           Chile banned a President succeeding himself.
1871           Guatemala Liberals led a revolution.
1871.9.28    Brazil enacted the Law of Free Birth.
1871.10.12   Mexico adopted the metric system.
1871.10.17   El Salvador adopted a democratic constitution.
1871.11.6    Triple Allies agreed on a treaty. Paraguay
1871.11.19   Violence upset Paraguay’s elections.
1871.12.7    Costa Rica adopted a very liberal Constitution.
1871-72       Pedro II traveled in Europe for 10 months.
1871-72       General Morales was President of Bolivia.
1871-73       Garcia Granados was President of Guatemala.
1871-74       Jovellanos was President of Paraguay.
1871-75       Council President Rio Branco reformed Brazil.
1871-75       Vicente Cuadra was President of Nicaragua.
1871-76       Errázuriz Zañartu was President of Chile.
1872.1         Paraguay lost territory to Brazil in a treaty.
1872.3.2      Rebellion led by Porfirio Díaz was defeated. Mexico
1872.3.8      Paraguay Congress borrowed £2,000,000.
1872.3.25    El Salvador & Guatemala invaded Honduras.
1872.5-6     Guatemala & El Salvador fought Honduras.
1872           Brazil’s census revealed widespread illiteracy.
1872           Acevedo wrote Profession of a Rationalist FaithUruguay
1872           Guatemala expelled the Jesuits.
1872.12.18   Nación Paraguaya began publishing. Paraguay
1872-76       Manuel Pardo was Peru’s civilian President.
1872-76       Lerdo de Tejada was President of Mexico.
1873.3.22    Gen. Caballero urged a revolution in Paraguay.
1873.3.23    Spain freed 31,635 slaves in Puerto Rico.
1873.4.18    Brazil’s Paulista Republican Party began.
1873.6.18    Paraguay’s army defeated Caballero’s rebels.
1873           Brazil had 1,566,416 slaves.
1873           Principistas entered Uruguay’s legislature.
1873           Sarmiento established a national bank.
1873.8.26    Nicaragua, Guatemala & El Salvador allied.
1873.10       Liberals began La Nueva Era in Ecuador.
1873.12.13   Paraguay & Uruguay signed a peace treaty.
1873-74       Adolfo Ballivián was President of Bolivia.
1873-76       Ignacio González was Dominican President.
1873-85       Rufino Barrios was President of Guatemala.
1874.3.15    National Autonomist Party began in Argentina.
1874.4.17    Brazil’s troops defeated Paraguayan rebels. 
1874           Brazil ended military conscription.
1874           Transatlantic cable connected Brazil to Europe. 
1874           Varela published La Educación del PuebloUruguay
1874           Chile & Bolivia agreed on the border.
1874.10.2    Montalvo published La dictadura perpetuaEcuador
1874-76       Tomás Frías was President of Bolivia.
1874-76       Ponciano Leiva was President of Honduras.
1874-77       Gill was President of Paraguay.
1874-80       Avellaneda was President of Argentina.
1875.4.27    Gómez demanded revolutionary reforms. Cuba
1875.5.20    Paraguay ceded Chaco territory to Argentina.
1875           Pardo nationalized Peru’s nitrate industry.
1875           Mexico added a Senate to the Congress.
1875.7.1      Paraguay’s National Bank began.
1875.7.1      Decoud began publishing La ReformaParaguay
1875.8.6      García Moreno was shot dead.
1875.12.9    Antonio Borrero became President of Ecuador.
1875-76       Indian tribes revolted in Argentina.
1875-79       Chamorro Alfaro was President of Nicaragua.
1876.3-11    Díaz led a revolt in Mexico.
1876.6.22    Brazil’s troops left Paraguay.
1876.10.9    Juan Montalvo published Bulletin of PeaceEcuador
1876.11       Col. Veintemilla bought 1,000 Remington rifles. 
1876.12.14   Veintemilla’s army defeated Borrero’s forces. Ecuador
1876-77       Pedro II traveled to United States & Europe.
1876-79       Mariano Ignacio Prado was President of Peru.
1876-80       Uruguay Pres. Latorre imposed military law.
1876-80       General Hilarión Daza was President of Bolivia.
1876-81       Liberal Aníbal Pinto was President of Chile.
1876-83       Aurelio Soto was President of Honduras.
1876-85       Rafael Zaldívar was President of El Salvador.
1877.3.30    Archbishop of Quito died of poisoned wine. Ecuador
1877.4.12    President Gill was shot dead on a street. Paraguay
1877.6.28    Veintemilla suspended the 1862 Concordat.
1877.8         Uruguay got the Law of Common Education.
1877-78       Banks in Chile collapsed.
1877-80       Díaz was President of Mexico.
1877-82       Tomás Guardia was President of Costa Rica.
1878.1.5      Pedro II appointed a Liberal leader.
1878.5.31    Ecuador completed its 9th Constitution.
1878           Women began attending universities in Chile.
1878.8.15    Paraguay elected Bareiro the President.
1878.11       US Pres. Hayes ruled on Chaco for Paraguay
1878.11.16   Peru’s ex-President Pardo was assassinated.
1878.12       Chile ceded Patagonia & Straits to Argentina.
1879.2.14    Chile attacked Antofagasta, Bolivia.  Peru
1879.2         Brazil reform limited voting to the literate. 
1879.4.5      Chile declared war on Bolivia & Peru.
1879.5.21    Peru’s iron Huáscar sank Chile’s Esmeralda.
1879           General Roca led suppression of Indians.
1879.10.31   Liberals gained a majority in Brazil’s election.
1879.11.19   9,500 Chilean troops occupied port of Pisagua. 
1879.11.27   Peruvians defeated Chileans at Tarapacá. Peru
1879.12.11   Guatemala Assembly approved a constitution.
1879-81       Piérola was President of Peru.
1879-83       Zavala Solís was President of Nicaragua.
1879-84       Guzmán Blanco was President of Venezuela.
1879-86       Decoud was Paraguay’s Foreign Minister.
1879-88       Lysius Salomon was President of Haiti.
1880.1         Chile’s army invaded Arica & Tacna.
1880.5.26    Chile defeated Peru in Tacna battle.
1880.6.7      Chile’s army defeated Peruvians at Arica.
1880.9.4      Senate made Caballero Paraguay’s President.
1880-82       Mapuche uprising led to Chile selling their land.
1880-84       General Campero was President of Bolivia.
1880-84       González Flores was President of Mexico.
1880-86       General Roca was President of Argentina.
1880-1906   Argentina’s Autonomy Party controlled elections.
1881.1.17    Chile army took Lima & Peru surrendered.
1881.4.7      Spain promised Cubans equal rights.
1881.7         Paraguay’s National University began.
1881.7         Chile & Argentina agreed on a treaty.
1881-86       Santa María was President of Chile.
1882.3.26    Veintemilla assumed dictatorial powers.
1882           Chile secularized marriage, birth & death.
1882-99       French attempts to build Panama Canal failed.
1883.1.11    Restorers led by Alfaro took over Quito. Ecuador
1883           Nabuco de Araújo published O AbolicionismoBrazil
1883           Costa Rica gave Keith 800,000 acres.
1883.7.10    Chilean soldiers defeated Peruvians in Peru.
1883.10.23   Peru gave Tacna to Chile in Ancón Treaty.
1883-87       Adán Cárdenas was President of Nicaragua.
1883-88       Caamaño was President of Ecuador.
1883-91       Luis Bográn was President of Honduras.
1884.3         Chile & Bolivia made a peace treaty.
1884.4.4      Bolivia ceded coast land to Chile.
1884           Brazil Liberals regained a majority.
1884           Sarmiento promoted publishing of many books.
1884.8         Chilean troops left Peru.
1884.8.27    General Cáceres led guerrilla attack on Lima.
1884-88       Wealthy Pacheco was President of Bolivia.
1884-1911   Díaz was President of Mexico again.
1884-1933   Brazil accepted 6,077,000 immigrants.
1885.2.28    Barrios proclaimed Central America. Guatemala
1885.3.31    Barrios led invasion of El Salvador. Guatemala
1885.3-4      US Navy intervened in Colón, Panama.
1885.4.15    Guatemala restored diplomatic relations.
1885.7.11    Paraguay passed a law on Chaco land.
1885.9.28    Brazil freed older slaves with conditions.
1885.12.3    Peru’s President Iglesias resigned.
1885-90       Soto Alfaro was President of Costa Rica.
1885-90       Menéndez was President of El Salvador.
1885-92       Barillas Bercián was President of Guatemala.
1886.1         Brazil Conservatives regained a majority.
1886.6.16    Battle y Ordóñez began publishing El Día.
1886            Peru gave Michael P. Grace a rich contract.
1886.9.28    Brazil banned whipping as a punishment.
1886-90       Celman was President of Argentina.
1886-90       Patricio Escobar was President of Paraguay.
1886-90       Cáceres was President of Peru.
1886-91       Balmaceda was President of Chile.
1886-94       Núñez Moledo was President of Colombia.
1886-94       Colombia mistreated Panama.
1887           Brazil still had 723,419 slaves.
1887           Chilean Radicals began the Democratic Party.
1887           N. Martínez criticized concertaje labor laws. Ecuador
1887.8.25    Caballeros founded the Colorado Party. Paraguay
1887-88       Ill Pedro II visited Europe.
1887-99       Ulises Heureaux was Dominican President.
1888.3.6      Regent Isabel’s cabinet resigned. Brazil
1888.5.13    Brazil’s Golden Law freed all the slaves.
1888           Catholic University of Chile was founded.
1888.9.28    Isabel vowed obedience to Pope Leo XIII. Brazil
1888-89       Chile abolished taxes on income & estates.
1888-92       Conservative Arce was President of Bolivia.
1888-92       Flores Jijón was President of Ecuador.
1889.3         Brazil established a War College.
1889           Brazil produced 57% of the world’s coffee.
1889.8.7      Balmaceda chose a new cabinet led by Prats.
1889.8.31    Brazil’s Liberals regained a large majority.
1889.11       Oliveira Viana published Setting of the EmpireBrazil
1889.11.15   Deodoro’s rebels took over Brazil’s government.
1889.11.17   Pedro II & his family left Brazil.
1889.12.3    Deodora had 5 jurists write a constitution. Brazil
1889-91       Frederick Douglass advised Haitians.
1889-96       Hyppolite was President of Haiti.
1890.1.7      Brazil declared church & state separate.
1890.6         Brazil decree excluded Africans & Asians.
1890.6.22    Carlos Ezeta’s coup killed President Menéndez. El Salvador
1890           British owned 70% of Chile’s nitrates.
1890           Peru exempted mining industry from taxes.
1890.7         Dockworkers in Iquique began a strike. Chile
1890-94       Uruguay President Herrera reduced military.
1890-94       Juan González was President of Paraguay.
1890-94       Constitutional Bermúdez was Peru’s President.
1891.1         Brazil’s stock market crashed.
1891.1         Alem spoke to Civic Union Party convention. Argentina
1891.1         Congress rebelled against Balmaceda.
1891.1.21    Brazil’s 6 ministers resigned.
1891.2.11    Muñoz Rivera began editing La DemocraciaPuerto Rico
1891.2.25    Brazil Assembly elected Deodoro President.
1891.6.26    Radicals & nationals split the Civic Union Party. Argentina
1891           Uruguay’s Banco Nacional collapsed.
1891           Balmaceda’s forces lost the civil war in Chile.
1891           Haiti’s public debt reached $25 million.
1891.9.19    Balmaceda shot himself dead. Chile
1891.11.1    La Unión newspaper appealed to immigrants. Argentina
1891.11       Deodoro dissolved Assembly & resigned. Brazil
1891,1893    Matto de Turner wrote Indole and Heredity.  Peru
1891-96       Admiral Jorge Montt was President of Chile.
1892           Chile enacted Communal Autonomy.
1892-95       Luis Sáenz Peña was President of Argentina.
1892-95       Luis Cordero was President of Ecuador.
1892-96       Conservative Baptista was President of Bolivia.
1892-98       Joaquín Crespo was President of Venezuela.
1892-98       Reina Barrios was President of Guatemala.
1893           Brazil law made recent immigrants citizens.
1893           Argentina renegotiated its foreign debt.
1893-95       Brazil suffered in the Federalist Revolution.
1893-1909   Santos Zelaya was President of Nicaragua.
1894.1         US Navy ended rebel blockade in Brazil.
1894           Javier Prado wrote Estado SocialChile
1894           Nicaragua incorporated the Mosquito Reserve.
1894.11.5    Brazil made a friendship treaty with Japan.
1894.11.20   Nicaragua incorporated the Bluefields. 
1894-98       Egusquiza was President of Paraguay.
1894-98       Caro was President of Colombia.
1894-98       Gutiérrez was President of El Salvador.
1894-99       Policarpo Bonilla was President of Honduras.
1894-1902   Yglesias Castro was President of Costa Rica.
1895.3.17    Piérola’s rebels attacked Lima; 2,500 died. Peru
1895           Leguía began South American Insurance Co. Peru
1895           France sent Alfred Dreyfus to Devil’s Island. French Guiana
1895           Guatemala had 33 newspapers.
1895.8.23    Treaty ended Brazil’s Federalist Revolution.
1895.12       Bolivia ceded territory to Chile.
1895-99       Piérola was President of Peru.
1895-1901   Eloy Alfaro was President of Ecuador.
1896.6.28    Justo began the Socialist Party in Argentina.
1896           Uruguay’s teachers got a pension fund.
1896           Chile’s military spending was 48 million pesos.
1896           Mariano H. Cornejo taught sociology. Peru
1896           Villarán taught law and philosophy. Peru
1896.9.15    Central America Republic was ratified. El Salvador
1896.10.10   Delegates elected Alfaro Interim President.
1896.11       Brazil’s force led to an 11-month war in Bahia.
1896.12.28   Iglesias began Regional Workers Federation. Puerto Rico
1896-99       Conservative Fernández was Bolivia President.
1896-1901   Errázuriz Echaurren was President of Chile.
1896-1902   Simon Sam was President of Haiti.
1897.8.25    Uruguay Pres. Borda against peace, was killed.
1897.9.18    Pact gave Uruguay Blancos 6 departments.
1898.2.15    USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor. Cuba
1898.4.25    United States declared war in Cuba.
1898.5.12    US Navy attacked San Juan Bay. Puerto Rico
1898           Rothschilds loaned £10 million to Brazil.
1898           Indian peasants took over Sucre & La Paz. Bolivia
1898           Peru adopted a Military Code of Justice.
1898           Dr. Gargas reduced malaria cases in Cuba.
1898.7.25    United States invaded Puerto Rico.
1898.8.12    Spain & US agreed on Cuba protocol.
1898.8.26    McKinley claimed Puerto Rico is a US territory.
1898-1903   General Regalado was El Salvador President. El Salvador
1898.10.26   US made English the language of Porto Rico. Puerto Rico
1898.11.29   Central America Republic was dissolved. El Salvador
1898.12.10   Paris Treaty ceded Puerto Rico to US. Puerto Rico
1898-1902   Campos Sales was President of Brazil.
1898-1902   Emilio Aceval was President of Paraguay.
1898-1904   Roca was President of Argentina again.
1898-1920   Cabrera was President of Guatemala.
1899.1         Spain pulled out of Cuba.
1899.4         Liberals won civil war in Bolivia.
1899           Ordóñez attended The Hague Peace Conference.
1899           Keith began the United Fruit Company. Costa Rica Guatemala
1899.7         Socialist Workers’ Party began in Puerto Rico.
1899-1900   Gálvez claimed the Republic of Acre.Bolivia
1899-1902   Colombia had a Thousand Days’ War.
1899-1902   United States military governed Cuba.
1899-1903   López de Romaña was President of Peru.
1899-1904   Liberal Pando was President of Bolivia.
1899-1908   Cipriano Castro was President of Venezuela.
1900           Bribery controlled Chile’s Congress.
1900           Tiburcio Carías wrote on machines & work.
1900.10       President Alfaro signed the Civil Registry Act.
1900-04       Brazil produced 70% of the world’s coffee.
1900-04       Marroquín was President of Colombia.
1900-30       Colombia had 9 Conservative Presidents.
1901.11.18   British gave US right to build the canal. Panama
1901-04       US Judge William Hunt governed Puerto Rico.
1901-05       Leónidas Plaza was President of Ecuador.
1901-06       Riesco was President of Chile.
1901-20       UFC increased its power in Guatemala.
1902.1.9      A coup removed Paraguay’s President Aceval.
1902.1-11    Carvallo was Acting President of Paraguay
1902.5.28    Chile & Argentina agreed to limit naval forces.
1902           US took steps to build the Panama Canal.
1902-04       Escurra was President of Paraguay.
1902-06       Rodrigues Alves was President of Brazil.
1902-06       Estrada Palma was President of Cuba.
1902-06       Esquivel Ibarra was President of Costa Rica.
1902-08       Nord Alexis was President of Haiti.
1903.3.14    US Senate ratified a treaty with Colombia. Panama
1903.8         Colombia Senate rejected Hay-Herrán treaty.
1903.11.6    United States recognized Panama
1903.11.11   Bolivia ceded Acre territory to Brazil.
1903-07       Pres. Batlle y Ordóñez governed Uruguay.
1903-07       Leguía was Peru’s Finance Minister.
1903-07       José Escalón was President of El Salvador.
1903-07       Manuel Bonilla was President of Honduras.
1904           Machado de Assis wrote novel Esaú e JacóBrazil
1904           Uruguayans fought a civil war.
1904           Samuel Gompers visited Puerto Rico.
1904.10.20   Bolivia ceded coast territory to Chile.
1904-05       Liberal Juan Gaona was President of Paraguay.
1904-07       Amador Guerrero was President of Panama.
1904-08       José Pardo was President of Peru.
1904-09       Liberal Gen. Montes was President of Bolivia.
1904-09       Reyes Prieto was President of Colombia.
1905           Uruguay made divorce legal.
1905.3         Haiti closed all Syrian businesses.
1905.4.27    Panamanian police attacked protesting blacks. Panama
1905.10.22   Protests in Santiago resulted in 250 killed. Chile
1905-11       Cáceres was Dominican Republic President.
1906.2.6      3,000 workers protested in Antofagasta. Chile
1906.3         Pres. Ordóñez had 1,000 Nationalists in jail.
1906           Brazil & Dutch agreed on Suriname border.
1906           Pres. Ordóñez reduced Uruguay’s foreign debt.
1906           Chilean Student Federation was founded.
1906.10.1    Francisco Madero opposed shedding blood. Mexico
1906.12.11   T. Roosevelt offered Puerto Ricans citizenship.
1906-08       Benigno Ferreira was President of Paraguay.
1906-10       Alcorta was President of Argentina.
1906-10       Pedro Montt was President of Chile.
1906-11       Eloy Alfaro was President of Ecuador.
1907           Central American Court of Justice began. Nicaragua El Salvador
1907.12.21   Chilean army killed 2,000 workers in Iquique.
1907-11       Williman was President of Uruguay.
1907-11       Figueroa was President of El Salvador
1907-11       Miguel Davila was President of Honduras
1908.1.3      Ordóñez criticized foreign insurance companies.
1908           United States invested $23 million in Peru.
1908.9.10    Brazil launched a dreadnought battleship.
1908.10.14   Law of Charity nationalized religious property. Ecuador
1908-12       Augusto Leguía was President of Peru.
1908-13       Juan Vicente Gómez was Venezuela President.
1909           Rodó wrote The Motives of Proteus on ethics. Uruguay
1909           Chilean Workers’ Federation was founded.
1909.9.17    Bolivia & Peru settled border dispute.
1909-11       Madero led a revolution in Mexico.
1909-13       Wealthy Villazón was President of Bolivia.
1909-13       José Miguel Gómez was President of Cuba.
1909-14       Epidemics killed over 600,000 Chileans.
1910.1         Argentine Nationalists prepared for war.  Uruguay
1910.4.20    Uruguay Conservatives formed a Peace League.
1910           Brazil’s Conservative Republican Party began.
1910           Justo published Argentine Socialism.  Argentina
1910.10.24   Uruguay Pres. Williman mobilized the Army.
1910-14       Hermes da Fonseca was President of Brazil.
1910-14       Roque Sáenz Peña was Argentina’s President.
1910-14       Ricardo Jiménez was President of Costa Rica.
1910-15       Liberal Barros Luco was President of Chile.
1911.6.24    Madero issued a “Manifesto to the Nation.” 
1911.11.25   Zapata announced his “Plan de Ayala.”
1911-13       Araujo was President of El Salvador.
1911-13       Madero was President of Mexico.
1911-15       Pres. Batlle y Ordóñez governed Uruguay.
1911-17       Adolfo Díaz was President of Nicaragua.
1912.1.28    Eloy Alfaro was killed in prison. Ecuador
1912.3.14    El Día called for woman suffrage. Uruguay
1912           Recabarren began the Socialist Workers’ Party. Chile
1912.8.3      Nicaragua’s Díaz asked for US military.
1912.8-11    US forces took over Nicaragua.
1912-16       Brazil’s Contestado War killed over 6,000.
1912-16       Schaerer was President of Paraguay.
1912-16       Leónidas Plaza was President of Ecuador.
1912-16       Liberal Porras was President of Panama.
1913.2         President Madero was removed by a coup.
1913.2.22    General Huerta murdered Madero.
1913.3.26    Gov. Carranza issued his Plan of Guadalupe.
1913.6.14    Uruguay’s Chamber approved an 8-hour day.
1913.11       Unionists called for Puerto Rico independence. 
1913-14       Victoriano Huerta was dictator of Mexico.
1913-17       Ismael Montes was President of Bolivia.
1913-19       Bertrand was President of Honduras.
1913-21       Mario García Menocal was Cuba’s President.
1913-21       Arthur Yager governed Puerto Rico.
1913-24       Nicaragua was under martial law.
1914.4.22    US Marines took over Veracruz. Mexico
1914.6         Columbia ratified United States treaty.
1914           US invested $1.7 billion in Latin America. Haiti
1914.8.5      Nicaragua gave US land for military bases.
1914.8         Uruguay declared neutrality in the Great War.
1914.9.12    US Justice settled Panama’s border dispute.
1914.9.30    Carranza made Obregón commander-in-chief.
1914.11.9    Obregón declared war against Pancho Villa
1914.12.4    Revolutionaries Villa & Zapata allied.
1914.12.17   United States Marines landed in Haiti.
1914-15       Óscar Benavides was President of Peru.
1914-18       Venceslau Brás was President of Brazil.
1914-18       Columbia was neutral during the Great War.
1914-20       Carranza was President of Mexico.
1914-22       Gómez ruled Venezuela for President Márquez.
1915.1         Obregón’s army defeated Zapatistas at Puebla.
1915.1.29    Haiti defaulted on financial obligations.
1915.4         Obregón’s army defeated Villistas at Celaya. Mexico
1915.5.25    Argentina, Brazil & Chile formed the ABC Pact.
1915.7.27    President Sam executed 167 political prisoners.
1915.8.4      More US Marines landed in Haiti.
1915.10.26   Zapatistas issued a “Manifesto to the Nation.”  Mexico
1915.11.11   Pres. Pardo promulgated religious tolerance. Peru
1915-18       Carlos Meléndez was President of El Salvador.
1915-19       Viera was President of Uruguay.
1915-19       José Pardo was President of Peru again.
1915-20       Liberal Sanfuentes was President of Chile.
1915-22       Dartiguenave was President of Haiti.
1916.3         Pres. Carranza made Obregón Minister of War.
1916.4.2      Radical Civic Union won election in Argentina.
1916.5.5      US Marines occupied Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic
1916.5.8      El Día published “Constitutional Reform.” Uruguay
1916           Chile’s Congress raised tariffs.
1916-19       Manuel Franco was President of Paraguay.
1916-22       Yrigoyen was President of Argentina.
1917.2.5      Mexico got a new constitution.
1917.5         Paraguay’s Congress granted amnesty.
1917           Peruvian Student Federation was founded. Peru
1917           Society of the Golden Arrow studied Incas. Peru
1917           Webber published Those That Be in BondageBritish Guiana
1917-18       Five earthquakes devastated Guatemala City.
1917-20       Gutiérrez was President of Bolivia.
1917-20       Chamorro Vargas was President of Nicaragua.
1918.3         Liberals gained a majority in Chile.
1919.1.1      Lima workers began a general strike. Peru
1919.1.9      Argentine workers began a general strike.
1919.4.10    Carranza’s men murdered Emiliano Zapata.
1919           Interior Minister Beiró spoke about ideals. Argentina
1919           Ibarguren lectured on civilization. Argentina
1919           University of Concepción began in Chile.
1919-22       Epitácio Pessoa was President of Brazil.
1919-23       Jorge Meléndez was President of El Salvador.
1919-30       Augusto Leguía was President of Peru again.
1920.1.10    Uruguay joined the League of Nations.
1920.1         La Epoca praised Yrigoyen’s democracy.
1920.4.2      Batlle killed Dr. Beltran in a duel. Uruguay
1920.4.8      Guatemala Assembly declared Cabrera insane.
1920.6-11    Adolfo de la Huerta was President of Mexico.
1920           Chile had 105 strikes with 50,439 workers.
1920           Leguía began Reformist Democratic Party.
1920           Highway Conscription Act made men work. Peru
1920.7         Seligman wrote on Haiti in the Nation.
1920.8.13    Republican junta took over Bolivia.
1920.9.30    Yrigoyen called for social welfare.
1920-21       Manuel Gondra was President of Paraguay.
1920-21       Carlos Herrera was President of Guatemala.
1920-24       Liberal Alessandri was President of Chile.
1920-24       Julio Acosta was President of Costa Rica.
1920-24       López Gutiérrez was President of Honduras.
1920-24       Obregón Salido was President of Mexico.
1921.2         Guatemala reduced its military to 5,000 men.
1921.5         Leguía shut down San Marcos University.
1921           Bolivia suppressed an Indian uprising.                
1921           US paid Colombia $21 million for Canal Zone. Panama
1921-22       Argentina’s Army crushed rural strikes.
1921-23       Eusebio Ayala was President of Paraguay.
1921-24       Belisario Porras was President of Panama.
1921-25       Republican Saavedra was President of Bolivia.    
1921-25       Alfredo Zayas was President of Cuba.
1921-26       Orellana Pinto was President of Guatemala.
1922.2-4      United States influenced Guatemala’s policies.
1922           Yrigoyen began the National Oil Agency.
1922-26       Arthur Bernardes was President of Brazil.
1922-29       Gómez was President of Venezuela again.
1922-30       Louis Borno was President of Haiti.
1923.4         Paraguay’s Pres. Eusebio Ayala was removed.
1923.5.3      Brazil signed the Pan-American Treaty.
1923-27       Alfonso Quiñónez was President of El Salvador.
1923-28       José Eligio Ayala was President of Paraguay.
1923-29       Horace Mann Towner governed Puerto Rico.
1924.1-4      General Tiburcio Carías led a revolt. 
1924.5.7      Haya began Revolutionary Alliance (APRA). Peru
1924           Guatemala suppressed striking workers.
1924-25       Altamirano was Chile President for 4 months.
1924-28       Rodolfo Chiari was President of Panama.
1924-28       Ricardo Jiménez was President of Costa Rica.
1924-28       Elías Calles was President of Mexico.
1924-30       Vásquez was Dominican Republic President.
1925.3.5      US Pres. Coolidge arbitrated for Peru & Chile.
1925.3-10    Liberal Alessandri was President of Chile.
1925           University of Cochabamba began in Bolivia.
1925.8.3      Last US Marines left Nicaragua.
1925-26       Nicaragua Pres. Solórzano removed liberals.
1925-29       Paz Barhona was President of Honduras.
1925-33       Gerardo Machado was President of Cuba.
1926.5.2      Nicaraguan Liberals revolted.
1926           Brazil’s Democratic Party began.
1926.8.27    US Marines landed at Bluefields, Nicaragua.
1926.11.2    Sandino & 29 men attacked 200 soldiers. 
1926-29       Isidro Ayora was President of Ecuador.
1926-29       Adolfo Díaz was president of Nicaragua.
1926-29       Mexicans fought Cristero War over religion.
1926-30       Washington Luis was Brazil’s President.
1926-30       Nationalist Silis Reyes was President of Bolivia.
1926-30       Lázaro Chacón was President of Guatemala.
1926-31       Isidro Ayora was President of Ecuador.
1927.1.6      United States Marines invaded Nicaragua.
1927.3.28    Sandino’s men took over Jinotega.
1927.4-5      Stimson met with Nicaraguan emissaries.
1927.6.30    Sandino’s Army captured a US gold mine.
1927           Bogotá tenants went on a rent strike. Colombia
1927.7.1      Sandino issued his first manifesto.
1927.7.16    US bombing killed 400 Sandinistas. Sandino
1927.7-8      200 Indians died in a revolt in Bolivia.
1927-31       Ibáñez was a dictatorial President of Chile.
1927-31       Bosque was President of El Salvador.
1928.1         Sandino sent a letter to US Senator Borah.
1928.4.12    Sandino had La Luz gold mines destroyed.
1928           200 people died in Salta province in an election. Argentina
1928           Venezuela had 107 petroleum companies.
1928.7.17    Catholic Toral killed President-elect Obregón. Mexico
1928.9         Mariátegui founded Peruvian Socialist Party. Peru
1928.12       Soldiers killed hundreds of banana strikers. Colombia
1928-32       US military monitored Nicaragua’s elections.
1929.6.3      Peru & Chile signed the Treaty of Lima.
1929.6         US mediated a dispute for Peru & Chile
1929           Radical students formed a federation in Bolivia.
1929           Chile bought 6 new destroyers from Britain.
1929           Peru’s foreign dept rose to $100 million.
1929           Indigenistas began La Sierra periodical. Peru
1929           Attacking planes wounded Sandino.
1929-32       Argentina’s gross product fell by 14%.
1929-32       T. Roosevelt Jr. governed Puerto Rico.
1929-33       Liberal Moncada was President of Nicaragua.
1929-33       Mejía Colindres was President of Honduras.
1930.1         Sandino met with Mexico’s Presidents.
1930.7.28    Guatemala’s army suppressed 2,000 peasants.
1930.9         A military coup removed President Yrigoyen.
1930.10       Luciano Castilla founded Socialist Party of Peru.
1930.11.3    Junta made Getúlio Vargas Brazil’s President.
1930.11       Brazil began Ministry of Education & Health.
1930.10.24   Military junta removed Brazil’s President Luís.
1930-34       Liberal Olaya Herrera was Colombia President.
1930-38       Trujillo was Dominican Republic President.
1930-41       Sténio Vincent was President of Haiti.
1930-45       Getúlio Vargas was President of Brazil.
1931.2         Chile gave Pres. Ibáñez emergency powers.
1931.2.15    Sandino wrote “Light and Truth.”
1931.3.1      Gabriel Terra became President of Uruguay.
1931.4.14    Guggiari replaced War Minister with a civilian. Paraguay
1831.4.15    Sandinistas shut down Fruit Company’s radio. Sandino
1931.4         Vargas allowed religion in Brazil’s schools.
1931.4         Radicals won elections in Buenos Aires. Argentina
1931.4         Paraguayan soldiers mutinied in Chaco.
1931.5         Farabundo Martí went on a hunger strike. El Salvador
1931           Terra’s Field Distribution Law helped the poor. Uruguay
1931           Chile’s labor code regulated unions.
1931.16       Communist Party of Costa Rica was founded.
1931.7         Brazil began destroying excess coffee beans.
1931.7         Argentina Pres. Uriburu annulled April elections.
1931.9         Brazil suspended its foreign debts.
1931.10.12   Rio de Janeiro got Christ the Redeemer statue. Brazil
1931.10.23   Students protesting in Asunción were shot. Paraguay
1931.10.25   Paraguay’s President Guggiari resigned.
1831.11.8    Radicals were not allowed to vote in Argentina
1931.12.27   Police broke up a Communist convention. El Salvador
1931-34       Daniel Salamanca was President of Bolivia.
1931-34       Martínez was President of El Salvador. El Salvador
1931-35       Gómez was President of Venezuela again.
1931-44       Jorge Ubico was President of Guatemala.
1932.1.4      Striking workers began a mass movement. El Salvador
1932.1         Mármol & Martí agreed on a general strike. El Salvador
1932.1.22    Salvadoran rebels began an insurrection. El Salvador
1932.1.25    National Guards massacred 10,000 rebels. El Salvador
1932.1.28    Guggiari resumed his presidency. Paraguay
1932.2.14    Vargas reformed Brazil’s Electoral Code.
1932.6.15    Bolivians began the Chaco War.
1932           Peasant leader Modesto Ramírez was killed. El Salvador
1932.7.9      Democrats began a revolution in São Paulo. Brazil
1932.8.15    Eusebio Ayala urged a demilitarized zone. Paraguay
1932.8         Eleanor Roosevelt visited Puerto Rico.
1932.9.7      Paraguay’s army besieged 448 Bolivians.
1932.9.29    Wounded Bolivians surrendered Boquerón.    Paraguay
1932-36       Harmodio Arias was President of Panama.
1932-36       Ricardo Jiménez was President of Costa Rica.
1932-38       Agustín Justo was President of Argentina.
1932-38       Arturo Alessandri was President of Chile.
1933.1,7      Paraguayans defeated Bolivians at Nanawa.
1933.2.2      Sandino announced revolution without arms.
1933.4.14    Uruguay stopped debt collection.
1933.5.1      British & Argentina made a commercial treaty.
1933.5.1      Paraguay declared war against Bolivia.
1933           Vargas appointed 36 new generals in Brazil.
1933.11       Argentina imposed an income tax.
1933.11-12  Paraguay’s army defeated Bolivians.
1933.12.19   Pres. Ayala asked League of Nations to help.Paraguay
1933-35       About 162,000 people died in the Chaco War.
1933-36       Sacasa was President of Nicaragua.
1933-48       Tiburcio Carías was President of Honduras.
1934.1.6      Bolivians revived the Chaco War.
1934.2.21    Somoza’s Guards killed Sandino & his brother.
1934.2.22    National Guard killed over 300 Sandinistas. Sandino
1934.5.25    Bolivians defeated Paraguayans.
1934           University of São Paulo was founded. Brazil
1934           Uruguay’s constitution improved social rights.
1934           Argentina established a National Bank.
1934           United States Marines left Haiti.
1934.7.14    Brazil adopted a federal constitution.
1934.11.27   Bolivian generals deposed Pres. Salamanca.
1934-35       José Velasco was President of Ecuador
1934-40       Lázaro Cárdenas was President of Mexico
1935.1.11    1,200 Bolivian soldiers surrendered. Paraguay
1935.2.7      5,000 Paraguayans attacked Villa Montes.
1935.4         Women began voting in Chile.
1935.4.25    Paraguayans captured 475 prisoners.
1935.6.14    An armistice ended the Chaco War.
1935           Brazil imposed the Law of National Security.
1935           Brazil leftists began National Liberation Alliance.
1935           Uruguay ended relations with the Soviet Union.
1935           Radical youths published Fuerzo de Orientación. Argentina
1935           Mexico had 642 strikes by 145,212 workers.
1935.7.11    Brazil arrested many Communists.
1935.10.7    University of Panama was founded.
1935.10       Bolivia’s President Sorzano sued Standard Oil.
1935.11       Brazil suppressed rebels in Recife & Rio. 

Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020, 2022 by Sanderson Beck

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1844
Chronology of North & South America 1845-1896
Chronology of United States to 1844
Chronology of United States 1845-1896
Chronology of Canada to 1935

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830



















Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020, 2022 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of Latin America to 1865

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1829
Chronology of North & South America 1830-1865

Chronology of United States to 1845
Chronology of United States 1845-1912

Canada to 1865


BECK index