BECK index


Chronological Index of Events

to 1935

Chronology of Latin America to 1935
Chronology of United States to 1896
Chronology of North & South America to 1896
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830
World Chronology to 1830

c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1541 François authorized colonization of America. Canada
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1608 Champlain founded Quebec.
1611 France sent Jesuits to Canada.
1613 Argall destroyed French colonies in Canada.
1616.2 Champlain mediated Huron-Algonquin peace.
1627 Richelieu founded Company of 100 Associates. Canada
1632 Récollet Sagard published a Huron dictionary. Canada
1634 Champlain founded Three Rivers.
1642 Maisonneuve founded Montreal. Canada
1653 Most Iroquois made peace with the French.
1656.5 Mohawks massacred Hurons at Isle of Orleans. Iroquois
1658 Mohawks drove missionaries out of Onondaga. Iroquois
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1663.2 Louis XIV took over the Company in Canada. French
1667 Breda Treaty gave Acadia back to French. Canada
1667 Iroquois League and French made peace. Canada
1672-82 Frontenac governed Canada.
1673 Marquette explored the Mississippi River. Canada
1674-88 Laval was first bishop of Quebec. Canada
1682.4 La Salle claimed Louisiana for Louis XIV.
1684 Senecas besieged Fort St. Louis. Canada
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Canada
1687.3.19 La Salle was murdered in Louisiana.
1687 Denonville went to war against the Iroquois. Canada
1689-97 King William's War fought French. Canada, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1689-98 Frontenac governed Canada during war.
1690.2 French and Indians destroyed Schenectady. Canada
1690.5 Phips of Massachusetts captured Port Royal. Canada, New England
1690.10 British attack on Quebec led by Phips failed. Canada, New England
1696 Louis XIV cancelled beaver permits. Canada
1699 Iberville founded Biloxi in Louisiana. Canada
1701.7 Cadillac started a trading post at Detroit. Canada
1701.8.6 38 chiefs made treaty with French Canadians. Canada
1702-13 Queen Anne's War. Canada, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina
1703 La Hontan wrote New Voyages to North-America. Canada
1703-25 Rigaud de Vaudreuil governed Canada.
1704.2.29 French and Abenakis attacked Deerfield. Canada, Massachusetts
1709 Louis XIV banned selling beaver to English. Canada
1710.9 Nicholson's forces captured Port Royal. Canada, Massachusetts
1711.8 British naval attack on Quebec failed. Canada, Massachusetts
1713 French ceded Acadia to England. Canada, Massachusetts
1719 Louisiana began importing African slaves.
1720-21 John Law created a French financial bubble. Canada
1724 Louisiana excluded Jews and Protestants.
1726-46 Beauharnois governed Canada.
1727 Colden wrote History of the Five Indian Nations. Iroquois
1729-31 French and Choctaws fought Natchez. Louisiana
1731 Louisiana became a royal colony.
1736, 1739 Bienville attacked the Chickasaws. Louisiana
1753 French built forts in Ohio valley. Canada
1754.11 British authorized £1,000,000 for war on French.
1759 Canada’s war expenses reached 30 million livres. French
1759 English colonies raised 17,000 to invade Canada.
1760.9.8 French surrendered Montreal to the English
1762.11.3 France secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. British Canada
1763.2.10 France ceded New France to England.   New England Sugar Tax Canada
1764.8.10 Gov. Murray established two courts for Canada.
1766.6.28 Grand Vicar Briand arrived in Quebec. Canada
1766-70 Guy Carleton governed Canada
1773 Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1774 Hearne established Fort Cumberland. Canada
1775.5.1 Quebec Act went into effect. Canada
1775.5.10 Allen’s volunteers took Fort Ticonderoga. British War Canada
1775 New Englanders were excluded from fisheries. Canada
1775.9.25 Allen was defeated & captured at Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.11.13 Americans took over Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.12.31 Americans were defeated at Quebec. Congress Canada
1776.5 10,000 British soldiers arrived in Canada. Canada
1776.6.15 Arnold’s army abandoned Montreal. Canada
1777.1 Legislative Council met in Quebec. Canada
1778.7.4 Virginians led by Clark captured Kaskaskia. Canada
1778.10.2 Governor Haldimand granted land to Iroquois. Canada
1779.6.21 Spain declared war on England. Frontier Canada
1783.9.3 British ceded Ohio valley to Americans. Canada
1785 Bilingual Montreal Gazette began. Canada
1790 King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Canada
1791 New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. Canada
1791 Upper Canada had 14,000 people. Canada
1791.12.26 Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. Canada
1792 Lower Canada had 155,000 people.
1792.9.17 Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark.
1792.12.17 Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began.
1792-93 Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Canada Jefferson
1792-1808 John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. Canada
1793.4 Upper Canada Gazette began. Canada
1793 Lower Canada banned importing slaves.
1793 Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Canada
1794.5.31 Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act.
1794 York became the capital of Upper Canada.
1794.11.19 Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty. America Canada
1797.7.21 MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec. Canada
1799-1805 Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada.
1801 McGill University began. Canada
1803 Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. Canada
1805 Quebec Mercury began in English. Canada
1806 Le Canadien began in French. Canada
1807-11 James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada.
1810.5.17 Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press. Canada
1811.10 General Brock began governing Upper Canada.
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. War in 1812 Canada
1812.7.1 American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.8.16 British defeated US Army at Detroit. War in 1812 Canada
1812.10.13 General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle. Canada
1812-15 George Prevost governed Canada
1813.4 US Army burned capital buildings at York. War in 1813 Canada
1813.10.5 Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1814.8-9 British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days. War in 1814 Canada
1814.12.24 British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1815 Canada
1816.6.9 Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1817.11.3 Bank of Montreal began with $350,000. Canada
1818.4.16 US-Canada treaty banned warships on Lakes.
1818.5.2 Bishop Plessis sent missionaries to Red River. Canada
1818 Free Port Act aided Nova Scotia shipping. Canada
1818.8.25 Bank of Canada began with £200,000.
1818.12.21 Gourlay & Niagara Spectator editor arrested. Canada
1818-19 Duke of Richmond governed Lower Canada.
1818-21 Smallpox epidemic devastated Canada natives.
1818-28 Maitland governed Upper Canada.
1819.8.21 Upper Canada expelled Robert Gourlay.
1820 Robert Baldwin led reform in Upper Canada.
1820-28 9th Earl of Dalhousie governed Canada.
1821.3.26 NW Co. merged with Hudson’s Bay Co. Canada
1821 Royal Charter established McGill University. Canada
1822 Gourlay wrote on Upper Canada statistics.
1822 Lower Canada had 427,465 people.
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1823 Upper Canada’s arrears were £100,000.
1823.10 Charlton Fisher began editing Quebec GazetteCanada
1824  Canada Co. bought land in Upper Canada
1824 Upper Canada counted 150,066 people.
1826.6.8 Tories destroyed Mackenzie’s printshop.
1826-34 Rideau Canal to Ottawa River cost £800,000. Canada
1827 Strachan founded King’s College in Toronto. Canada
1828-35 John Colborne governed Upper Canada.
1829 Welland Canal connected lakes Ontario & Erie. Canada
1829-62 Robinson was Upper Canada’s Chief Justice.
1831-34 Canada Assembly expelled Mackenzie 5 times.
1832.6-9 Cholera epidemic in Canada killed 3,292.
1832 66,000 immigrated to British America. Canada
1832 Montreal gained a mayor & city council. Canada
1833 John Galt published his Autobiography. Canada
1834.3.6 City of York became Toronto. Canada
1834 Canadian reformers won elections. Canada
1834-35 Mayor Mackenzie governed Toronto.
1834-43 William Carson led Newfoundland reforms.
1836.5.28 Lt. Gov. Head challenged democracy. Canada
1836.6.20 Upper Canada government won elections.
1836.7.4 Mackenzie began the Constitution newspaper.
1836-38 Francis Bond Head governed Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1837.3 British debated 10 resolutions on Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1837.5.7 1,200 Canadians passed resolutions.
1837.6.30 Mackenzie & farmers decided to defend rights.Canadian Rebellion
1837 Mackenzie issued a Call to Revolution. Canadian Rebellion
1837.7.28 Toronto 300 supported Lower Canada patriots. Canadian Rebellion
1837.8.26 Lower Canada legislature was dissolved. Canadian Rebellion
1837.10.1 40 signed a manifesto for a Canadian republic.
1837.10.23 5,000 Canadians opposed using arms.
1837.10.23 7,000 in Montreal backed British Empire. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.4 1,000 supported Lower Canada independence. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.6 Montreal mob destroyed Vindicator printshop. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.8 800 Patriotes fought loyalists at Baker’s Farm. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.10 British defeated 500 Patriotes at Beauharnois. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.15 Mackenzie published a draft constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1837.12.7 Canadian militia captured Americans.Van Buren
1837.12.7 Canadian rebels fled from Toronto to US.
1837.12.14 1,500 British troops beat French Canadians.
1837.12.29 Canadians destroyed US ship Caroline. Van Buren
1838.1 Canadians fought Americans at Niagara River. 1838-39
1838.1.26 British suspended Lower Canada’s constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Smallpox killed Assiniboine, Blackfoot & Cree. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Iroquois Confederation had 187,000 acres. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Upper Canada counted 397,489 people. Canadian Rebellion
1838 British tried 1,900 rebels in Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1839.1.31 Durham gave his long report to Parliament. Canadian Rebellion
1839 Governor Head described Family Compact. Canadian Rebellion
1841.2.10 Union of East and West Canada began. Canadian Union
1843-45 Charles Metcalf governed Canada. Canadian Union
1845.2 Canada’s Parliament granted general amnesty.
1845.5-6 Fires burned two-thirds of Quebec City. Canada
1845.7 Franklin’s Arctic expedition disappeared. Canada
1845-47 Earl Charles Cathcart governed Canada.
1846 Canadian Parliament got control of revenues. Canada
1846 Canada West established Board of Education.
1846 Canada exported 3,312,000 bushels of wheat.
1846-52 John Harvey governed Nova Scotia. Canadian Union
1847 Canada’s grain market collapsed.
1847 Canada changed duties on US & Britain.
1847 90,000 poor Irish immigrated into Canada.
1847-54 Earl of Elgin governed Canada.
1848 New Brunswick accepted Harvey’s reforms. Canada
1848.7 Papineau began publishing L’AvenirCanada
1848.8.9 Ojibway chief Peau spoke to Canadians. Canada
1849.1 Parliament in Montreal allowed use of French. Canada
1849.4.25 Elgin accepted the Rebellion Losses Bill. Canada
1849.6.26 Canada stopped excluding foreign ships.
1849 Baldwin reformed Canada’s Chancery Court. Canada
1849 Canada guaranteed railway bonds. Canada
1849.7.25 Kingston conference debated US annexation. Canada
1850.1.26 Toronto Lunatic Asylum took in 211 from jail. Canadian Union
1850 Canada ended primogeniture.
1851 Canadian leaders Baldwin & Lafontaine quit. 
1851 Trinity College in Toronto began. Canadian Union
1854.6.5 Canada & US agreed on a Reciprocity Treaty.
1854.9.5 New Canadian Parliament opened in Quebec. Canada
1854.9 Liberal-Conservative Party reformed Canada.
1854-61 Edmund Walker Head governed Canada.
1855.10 Canadian government returned to Toronto. Canada
1856 Canada made its Legislative Council elective.
1856 Canada exported 9,391,531 bushels of wheat.
1856.10 Railway connected Montreal to Toronto. Canada
1857 Bank of Upper Canada failed.
1858 Brown’s Grits joined Rouges in Canada East.
1858 Canada adopted decimal monetary system. 
1858-64  James Douglas governed British Columbia. Canada
1859 4 major banks in Canada failed.
1859 Canada’s debt reached $54,142,044.
1859.11 Canada West demanded more Assembly seats.
1859.12 Victoria Bridge over St. Lawrence was done. Canada
1861 Canada West had 11,223 Negroes.
1861.12 British sent 11,000 troops to Canada.
1861-65 53,532 Canadians fought for US Union Army.
1864.6 Canada’s Conservative government resigned.
1864.6-12 Canadians considered confederation. Canada
1864.12.17 US imposed passport controls on Canada.
1865.3 US denounced Reciprocity Treaty with Canada.
1867.7.1 British made Canada a Dominion.
1867-73 Macdonald was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1870.7.15 Manitoba became a province of Canada.
1873-78 Mackenzie was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1875  Northwest Territories got a government. Canada
1876.4.12 Canada’s Indian Act dominated the tribes.
1878-91 Macdonald was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1879 Canada raised tariffs as much as 35%.
1885.3.18 Métis & Riel proclaimed a government. Canada
1885.7.20 Canada imposed a head tax on the Chinese.
1891.6.8 Laurier spoke about John Macdonald.
1893 National Council of Women of Canada began.
1896-1911 Laurier was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1899-1902 Canada sent 7,300 volunteers to the Boer War.
1900-13 British invested $1.8 billion in Canada.
1905 Canada founded Alberta & Saskatchewan.
1908.1.2 Royal Canadian Mint opened. Canada
1908.3.7 University of British Columbia began. Canada
1908-36 Partridge published the Grain Growers’ GuideCanada
1909  Bell Telephone Company began in Canada.
1909  Canada & US made Boundary Waters Treaty.
1909  Mackenzie King became Minister of Labor. Canada
1909-11  Socialist Woodsworth wrote about Canadians. Canada
1910.1.12 Laurier proposed naval college & bases. Canada
1911.1.26 Laurier & US Pres. Taft agreed on reciprocity. Canada
1911-20 Borden was Prime Minister of Canada.
1912 Canada Grain Act regulated trade.
1912.12 Canada sent $35 million for the British Navy.
1913 British invested 75% of Canada’s capital.
1914.5 200 in Winnipeg asked for work or bread. Canada
1914 Stephen Leacock wrote about “the idle rich.” Canada
1914 Protestants developed the Social Gospel. Canada
1914 Woodsworth diagnosed the causes of war. Canada
1914 United Farmers of Ontario was founded. Canada
1914.8.22 Canada passed the War Measures Act.
1914-18 60,661 Canadians died in the Great War. Canada
1914-18 Canadian women were paid less than men. Canada
1914-18 Canada spent $1,068,606,527 on the war.
1914-19 Canada’s exports multiplied by four.
1916 Canada imposed a 25% war profits tax.
1917.6.11 Canada passed the Conscription Act. 
1917.10 Sifton joined Borden in a Union government.       570
1917 Allies deemed Canada & India as autonomous.
1917.12.6 Huge explosion in Halifax killed 1,600 people. Canada
1917-18 Canada nationalized the railroads.
1917-18 Thousands of Canadians became pilots. Canada
1918.4.1 Canada prohibited alcohol.
1918 Canada’s War Labour Policy banned strikes.
1918  Woodsworth wrote about the Social Gospel. Canada
1918  Mackenzie King wrote Industry and HumanityCanada
1918.10 Borden sent 4,192 soldiers to fight in Siberia. Canada
1918.11.11 PM Borden commented as war ended.
1918-19 Spanish Flu killed about 50,000 Canadians.
1919.3.16 Canadian unions formed One Big Union.
1919.5.15 Winnipeg metal workers strike spread. Canada3
1919  Canada had 370,000 union members.
1919 Canada joined the League of Nations & ILO.
1919 Canada passed the Adolescent Attendance Act.
1919 Farmers & Labor gained a 55-54 majority. Canada
1920.1.1 Canada’s National Progressive Party began. Canada
1920 Canada had 1,804,680 students.
1920 Canadian women demanded political equality. Canada
1920 Keynes: Economic Consequences of PeaceCanada
1921.6.1 Canada Census counted 8,888,483 people.
1921 Canada’s national debt was $3.5 billion.
1921 Canadian Authors’ Association began
1921.10 Borden warned different policies divide people. Canada
1921.12.6 Canadian women voted & elected Macphail.
1921-22 Borden is at Naval Disarmament Conference. 
1921-26 Mackenzie King is Canada’s Prime Minister.
1922 Canadian women were voters except Quebec.
1922 US provided 50% of Canada’s foreign capital. 
1922 22,000 Canadian coal miners were on strike.
1923.10-11 PM King attended the Imperial Conference.
1924 Canada rejected mutual assistance.
1926.11.19 Balfour affirmed Dominions as equal. Canada 
1926-30 Mackenzie King is Canada’s Prime Minister.
1927 Canada passed the Old Age Pension Act.
1928.8.27 King signed the Renunciation of War Treaty. Canada
1928.9.8 King spoke to the League Council. Canada
1929 Persons case made women “legal persons.”  Canada
1929 Canada exported the most newsprint. 
1929 Canada had 1.2 million automobiles.
1929.10.29 Toronto & Montreal suffered financial panic. Canada
1929-32 Canada’s economy suffered Depression.
1930-35 Bennett was Prime Minister of Canada.
1931.3.31 Relief Act ended; Canada had 400,000 jobless.
1931.8.3 Canada passed another Relief Act.
1931.12 Canadian unemployed passed 500,000. 
1932.4 Canada’s 3rd Relief Act had no public works.
1932 Canada raised the corporate tax 11%.
1932 Aberhart promoted social credit on radio. Canada
1932  Bennett had Communist offices raided.
1932  Police suppressed Eight Men Speak play. Canada
1932.11.10 Toronto Globe printed Bennett on Communism.
1932-33 Canada reduced military spending by $9.6m.
1933.2 Canada unemployment reached 713,000.
1933.7 Socialists promoted the CCF Manifesto. Canada
1933-35  6 provinces removed Conservative regimes. Canada
1934  Canada spent $40 million on public works.
1935.1 Bennett on radio talked about public spending.
1935.4.4 1,800 workers went on strike in Vancouver. Canada
1935  Bennett got economic reforms passed.
1935  Communists recruited workers in labor camps. Canada
1935  3,000 workers gathered at Winnipeg. Canada
1935  Rehabilitation aided farmers in the Dust Bowl. Canada
1935.7.1  Police killed 39 strikers at Winnipeg. Canada
1935.10.14 Liberals & Mackenzie King won the election. Canada

Copyright © 2015-18 2020-23 by Sanderson Beck

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1844
Chronology of North & South America 1845-1896
Chronology of Latin America to 1896
Chronology of United States to 1844
Chronology of United States 1845-1896

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815


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