BECK index

North & South America

Chronological Index of Events


Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1844
Chronology of Latin America to 1935
Chronology of United States to 1896
Chronology of Canada to 1935
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830
World Chronology to 1830

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1850 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895

(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

1844-45  President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45      President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48      Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62      Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.
1845.1.4     California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1.4     Creeks & Seminoles made a treaty. Native
1845.1        Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1        Congress set date for US Presidential elections. Polk
1845.1.21   Giddings warned US would assume Texas debt. Polk
1845.1.31   Senator Douglas proposed Nebraska Territory. Polk
1845.1.28   Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2        Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2        Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2        Canada’s Parliament granted general amnesty.
1845.2.15   Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22   Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27   Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1     Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.4     Polk began 4-year US Presidency.
1845.3.6     Polk made Buchanan Secretary of State.
1845.3        Frémont reported on western exploration. Polk
1845.3.28   Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.3.31   Robert Owen wrote open letter “To Capitalists.” Polk
1845.5-6     Fires burned two-thirds of Quebec City. Canada
1845.6.1     Frémont began his 3rd expedition in St. Louis. Polk
1845.6.4     President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.8     Ex-President Andrew Jackson died. Polk
1845.6.15   Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6        Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass published.
1845.6.23   Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24   Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845           Frederick Douglass autobiography is published.
1845           Sarmiento published Civilization and BarbarismArgentina
1845           Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845           British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845           Cuba outlawed the slave trade.
1845           5,000 Americans took the Oregon Trail west. Polk
1845           Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845           Porter began weekly Scientific AmericanPolk
1845           Elias Howe got patents for a sewing machine. Polk
1845           Deere made a plow with a steel moldboard. Polk
1845           Burritt edited Advocate of Peace.
1845           Margaret Fuller published Woman in the 19th Century.
1845           Dorothea Dix wrote Remarks on Prisons.
1845.7.4     Sumner spoke on “True Grandeur of Nations.”  Peacemakers
1845.7.5     Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7        Worcester printed Cherokee & Choctaw books. Native Tribes
1845.7        Franklin’s Arctic expedition disappeared. Canada
1845.7.28   Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8.10   US founded the Smithsonian Institution in DC. Polk
1845.8        Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.9.8     Col. Hitchcock criticized US aggression. Polk
1845.9        Knickerbocker Base Ball Club made rules. Polk
1845.10.10 US Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis. Polk
1845.10      Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.10.17 Douglass criticized Irish Methodists.
1845.11.6   Washington Union demanded all of Oregon. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war. 
1845.12.2   Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state.
1845-47      Henry David Thoreau lived by Walden Pond.
1845-47      José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845-47      Earl Charles Cathcart governed Canada.
1845-49      Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49      Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50      English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2     Pres. Paredes vowed to defend MexicoPolk
1846.1.13   Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande.
1846.1-2     Brigham Young married 20 women.
1846.1-5     Douglass spoke to Presbyterians in Scotland.
1846.1-7     President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2        Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2        Oregon Spectator began publishing. 
1846.2.17   Young organized Mormons at Israel Camp.
1846.2.19   Henderson became Governor of Texas. Polk
1846.2.21   Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5     Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12   Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3        Melville published Typee.
1846.3.28   US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2     Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4        US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk
1846.4.18   Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23   Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25   Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.4.30   Mormons dedicated their Nauvoo Temple.
1846.5.8     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10   Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11   President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12   US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18   US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14   Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15   US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23   Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846           Echeverría published Manual of Moral InstructionArgentina
1846           Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846           Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846           Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846           1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846           106,000 Irish immigrated into the US.
1846           Chickasaws adopted a constitution. Native Tribes
1846           Wilmot proposed banning slavery in territories. Black Progress
1846           Canadian Parliament got control of revenues. Canada
1846           Canada West established Board of Education.
1846           Canada exported 3,312,000 bushels of wheat.
1846           Maine was first state to prohibit alcohol. Peace
1846           Ballou published Christian Non-Resistance.
1846           Whittier published Voices of FreedomLongfellow
1846.7.4     Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7     Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9     Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7        O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23   Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.23   Thoreau was arrested for not paying a tax.
1846.7.24   Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.3     Jacksonian Grier joined US Supreme Court. Polk
1846.8.6     United States & Cherokees signed a treaty. Native Tribes
1846.8.9     Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15   US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17   Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.17   Douglass & Garrison talked to Chartist Lovett.
1846.8.29   Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12   General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9        800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22  Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22   Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24   Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10      Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.10      Morton used ether gas in painless surgery. Polk
1846.11.8   Samuel May gave a sermon on women’s rights. Polk
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6   Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846.12.28 Iowa became a US state. Polk
1846-47      President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-47      400 Mormons died at the Winter Quarters.
1846-49      Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1846-52      John Harvey governed Nova Scotia. Canadian Union
1847.1.2     Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8     US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11   US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13   Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14   Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1        Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24   US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3     Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2.19   Sen. Calhoun defended slaveholder “rights.” Polk
1847.2-3     87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23   US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1     Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1     Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.5     Jones v. Van Zandt upheld US slavery. Polk        
1847.3.9     Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3        Melville published Omoo.
1847.3.21   Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21   Santa Anna resumed Presidency in MexicoPolk
1847.3.29   US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.3.30   Douglass spoke at London Tavern.
1847.4.10   Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18   Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23   Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtresHaiti
1847.5.1     American Medical Association was founded. Polk
1847.5.15   US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847           Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847           Parkman began publishing his Oregon TrailPolk
1847           Missouri banned teaching blacks to read. South
1847           Canada’s grain market collapsed.
1847           Canada changed duties on US & Britain.
1847           90,000 poor Irish immigrated into Canada.
1847           Lucy Stone graduated from Oberlin College.
1847           Longfellow published Evangeline.
1847.7.24   Young led Mormons to Great Salt Lake. Polk
1847.7-8     Douglass, Garrison toured Pennsylvania, Ohio.
1847.8.20   US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22   Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23   US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14   Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16   Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16   President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.11.29 Suffering Cayuse murdered settlers. Oregon
1847.12.3   Douglass began publishing The North Star.
1847.12.15 Polk vetoed Wisconsin Territory improvements.
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847.12.24 Cass favored popular sovereignty in territories. Polk
1847-48      Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48      José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49      Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52      President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1847-54      Earl of Elgin governed Canada.
1847-57      Coffin helped runaway slaves in Cincinnati. Black Progress
1848.1        British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12   Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13   President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24   Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31   US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6     President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2     Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.2.23   Ex-President John Quincy Adams died. 1848 US Election
1848.3.10   US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3        Pennsylvania limited daily work to 10 hours. 1848 US Election
1848.3        Gilliam led attack against Cayuse. Oregon
1848.3.17   Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2     Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.4.17   US Navy recaptured 78 fugitive slaves. 1848 US Election
1848.4.24   Chicago Board of Trade began. 1848 US Election
1848.5.12   Brannan announced gold find in San Francisco. Gold Rush
1848.5        Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5        US Congress paid Frémont’s debts. Gold Rush
1848.5.25   Democrats nominated Cass for President. 1848 US Election
1848.5.29   Wisconsin became the 30th state in the US. 1848 US Election
1848.5.30   US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6        Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for President. 1848 US Election
1848.6        Dorothea Dix wrote her memorial to the US Congress.
1848.6.28   Free Soil Party nominated Van Buren for Pres.1848 US Election
1848.6-12   Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848           French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848           Many fled from potato blights to the US. 1848 US Election
1848           Lowell published his satirical Biglow Papers1848 US Election
1848           University of Mississippi began classes. 1848 US Election
1848           Citizens Union urged equality for blacks. 1848 US Election
1848           Blacks organized Free Soil Party at Buffalo. 1848 US Election
1848           Rhode Island rejected US Fugitive Slave Law. 1848 US Election
1848           New Brunswick accepted Harvey’s reforms. Canada
1848           Noyes & others began the Oneida community.
1848.7.14   Douglass was at Women’s Rights conference.
1848.7        Papineau began publishing L’AvenirCanada
1848.7.18   Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.7.19   Woman’s rights conference met at Seneca. 1848 US Election Mrs. Stanton
1848.7.28   The North Star supported women’s rights. Douglass
1848.8.9     Ojibway chief Peau spoke to Canadians. Canada
1848.8.14   US established Oregon Territory. 1848 US Election
1848.8.30   Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848.9        Natural Sciences Academy began in US. 1848 US Election
1848.9        Burritt went to Brussels Int’l Peace Congress.
1848.9        Whitman began editing Brooklyn Freeman.
1848.10.7    Carlos López confiscated Indian & mestizo land.
1848.11.7   US elected Zachary Taylor President. 1848 US Election
1848.11.7   New York helped Taylor win Presidency. Douglass
1848.12.5   Polk’s annual message fostered a gold rush. 1848 US Election
1848-51      President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52      Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55      Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1848-81      John Noyes led the Oneida community. 1848 US Election
1849.1.11   Associated Press wire service began. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Giddings proposed banning slavery in DC. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Amelia Bloomer began publishing The Lily1848 US Election
1849.1        Parliament in Montreal allowed use of French. Canada
1849.2.16   President Polk reinstated Frémont. California
1849.3.3     US Interior Dept. & Minnesota Territory began. 1848 US Election
1849.3.5     General Zachary Taylor became US President. 1848 US Election
1849.3        Melville published Mardi.
1849.4.25   Elgin accepted the Rebellion Losses Bill. Canada
1849.5.5     A mob attacked Douglass in New York City.
1849.5.10   New York City riot killed 25 people. Taylor
1849.5.28   Sumner spoke on “The War System.”  Peacemakers
1849.6.15   Ex-President James K. Polk died of cholera. 1848 US Election
1849.6.26   Canada stopped excluding foreign ships.
1849           Sarmiento published De la Educación ComúnArgentina
1849           Bolivia’s President Belzu spoke on equality.
1849           Calhoun wrote Disquisition on Government1848 US Election
1849           Kellogg published Labor and Other CapitalTaylor
1849           US established the Minnesota Territory. Native Tribes
1849           Young excluded Africans as Mormon priests.
1849           Garnet began the African Civilization Society. Black Progress
1849           Avery funded a College for Negroes. Black Progress
1849           Baldwin reformed Canada’s Chancery Court. Canada
1849           Canada guaranteed railway bonds. Canada
1849           US was at the World Peace Congress in Paris. Peacemakers
1849           Thoreau published “Civil Disobedience.”
1849           Emerson published his essay “War.”
1849.7.25   Kingston conference debated US annexation. Canada
1849.8.26   Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.8.30   US Army killed Navajo Chief Narbona. Taylor
1849.8-9     Navaho & Zunis fought each other. New Mexico
1849.9        Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
1849.9        Melville published Redburn.
1849.9.27   Santa Fé convention approved a constitution. Taylor
1849.9.28   US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10      Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.13 Californians ratified a constitution. Taylor
1849.11.14 Fox sisters held a public séance in Rochester. Taylor
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849.12.4   Sumner challenged segregated schools. Taylor Black Progress
1849.12      Democrats controlled the US Congress. Taylor
1849.12.17 Lucretia Mott gave her “Discourse on Women.”
1849-51      Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-51      John Geary governed San Francisco. California
1849-53      López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53      President José López governed New GranadaPanama
1849-56       Emperor Faustin ruled Haiti.
1849-58      Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59      President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica. Republic
1849-78       Báez was Pres. of Dominicanos 5 times.

1850.1        Melville published White Jacket.
1850.1.26 Toronto Lunatic Asylum took in 211 from jail. Canadian Union
1850.1.29   Sen. Clay proposed compromise resolutions. Whigs
1850.2.2     Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.2.15   Rep. Horace Mann defended abolitionists. Black Progress
1850.2.17   Texans claimed El Paso. Whigs
1850.2.20   Thaddeus Stevens spoke in the US Congress. Whigs
1850.3.4     Sen. Calhoun’s last speech was read. Whigs
1850.3.7     Sen. Webster defended the Union. Whigs
1850.3.11   Sen. Seward spoke on freedom & equality. Whigs
1850.3.13   Sen. Douglas spoke on territories. Whigs
1850.3        Hawthorne published The Scarlet Letter.
1850.3.31   John Calhoun of South Carolina died. Whigs
1850.4.9     US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.4.13   California passed Foreign Miners’ Tax Act
1850.4.17   Sen. Foote pointed a pistol at Sen. Benton. Whigs
1850.4.19    United States & Britain committed to a canal. Panama
1850.4.19   Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was signed. Whigs
1850.4.22   California bound Indians to labor contracts.
1850.5.10   Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850.5.15   US Dragoons killed 175 Pomos at Clear Lake. Indian
1850.5        New Mexico Territory ratified a constitution. Whigs
1850.5        Narrative of Sojourner Truth was published.
1850.5.18   López-led filibusters invaded Cuba. Whigs
1850.5.18   Blacks rebelled in Panama City.
1850.5.19    600 American filibusters landed in Cuba.
1850.6.3     Delegates of 9 slave states met at Nashville. Whigs
1850.6.10    Ecuador’s Interim President Ascásubi resigned.
1850           Brazil imported 22,856 slaves.
1850           Paraguay & Brazil made a commercial treaty.
1850           Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis. Argentina
1850           Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850           New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850           Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850           Livermore’s War with Mexico Reviewed.  Polk Peacemakers
1850           Sumner led US Peace Congress Committee. Taylor
1850           670 US Negroes emigrated to Liberia. Census of 1850
1850           US had 23,191,876 people & 3,204,313 slaves. Census of 1850
1850           US & Canada had about 500,000 “Indians.” Census of 1850
1850           American League of Colored Laborers began. Black Progress
1850           Canada ended primogeniture.
1850           Emerson published Representative Men.
1850           Women began wearing “bloomers.” Mrs. Stanton
1850.7.10   Millard Fillmore became US President.
1850.7        Margaret Fuller died in a shipwreck. Emerson
1850.7.17   Daniel Webster gave his last speech in Senate. Fillmore
1850.7.22   Senator Clay warned against civil war. Fillmore
1850.7.25   Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.6     Pres. Fillmore declared New Mexico Territory.
1850.8.21   2,000 met at Fugitive Slave Convention. Douglass
1850.8.23   US Senate passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Fillmore
1850.8.31   Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4     Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law. Brazil
1850.9.9     California became a US state. Fillmore
1850.9.10   Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1850.9        Brazil’s Land Law ended squatting.
1850.9        Fillmore signed the Great Compromise bills.
1850.9.28   US banned the flogging of sailors. Fillmore
1850.9-12   3,000 blacks fled from US to Canada. Fillmore
1850.10.23 Women organized for rights at Worcester. Fillmore
1850.11.12 Nashville convention accepted compromise. Census of 1850
1850.12.1   Parker spoke on “The State of the Nation.” Census of 1850
1850.12.2   Fillmore declared friendly relations. Census of 1850
1850.12.20 California elected Senators Gwin & Fremont.
1850-51       Colombian political parties had a civil war.
1850-51      Barnum paid Jenny Linn $1,000 per concert. Census of 1850
1850-59      1,865,786 Irish & Germans came to the US. 1854
1850,1855    López drove Brazil garrisons out of Paraguay.
1851.1.7     California Gov. Burnett predicted genocide.
1851.1.9     Central American Union began. Honduras
1851.1-2      Salvadoran allies invaded Guatemala.
1851.2.2      Carrera defeated Nicaraguan invasion. Guatemala
1851.2         Carlos López appointed Hopkins minister to US. El Salvador
1851.2        H. B. Stowe had a vision in church.
1851.2.15   Abolitionists freed Shadrach Minkins. Census of 1850 Black Progress
1851.2.26   US & Portugal settled a financial dispute. Fillmore
1851.3        Asahel Bush began Oregon Statesman.
1851.4.10   Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851.4        Massachusetts elected Sumner to US Senate. Fillmore
1851.4.20    President Bulnes put down an army mutiny. Chile
1851.5.3     Fire burned most of San Francisco. California
1851.5.3     Emerson criticized the Fugitive Slave Act.
1851.5.8     Sojourner Truth was at Woman’s Rights Convention. Mrs. Stanton
1851.5        Colombia freed their remaining 20,000 slaves.
1851.5.19   Railroad connected east US to Great Lakes. Fillmore
1851.6.2     Maine was the first state to ban alcohol. Fillmore
1851.6        Danish planters compensated slaveowners. West Indies
1851.6        Frederick Douglass’ Paper began publishing.
1851.6       Uncle Tom’s Cabin began serialization.
1851.6.25   General Urvina abolished slavery in Ecuador.
1851           Brazil imported 3,287 slaves.
1851           Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851           Indiana & Iowa banned Negro immigration. Fillmore
1851           Greeley serialized Marx’s RevolutionFillmore
1851           Chickasaw Academy opened with 60 students. Native Tribes
1851           Canadian leaders Baldwin & Lafontaine quit. 
1851           Trinity College in Toronto began. Canadian Union
1851           Susan B. Anthony & Stanton began temperance society.
1851           Hawthorne wrote The House of Seven Gables.
1851.7.23   Sioux ceded land to Iowa & the US. Fillmore Native Tribes
1851.8.3     López led filibuster invasion of Cuba. Fillmore
1851.8.6     American filibusters were executed in Cuba.
1851.8.12   Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8        Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.8.16   Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.8.18    Buenos Aires Gov. Rosas declared war. Brazil  Paraguay
1851.9.7     Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9        Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.9        Loizaga asked Rosas to invade Paraguay.
1851.9.17   8 tribal nations & US made Ft. Laramie Treaty. Native Tribes
1851.9-11   Douglass aided fugitive slaves.
1851.10.1   Abolitionists freed Jerry Henry in Syracuse. Black Progress
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851.10      Virginia approved a liberal constitution. Fillmore
1851.10      Melville published Moby Dick.
1851.10.19  Guatemala adopted a new constitution.
1851.12.2   Pres. Fillmore reaffirmed friendly relations.
1851.12.8    1,800 Chilean soldiers died in a battle.
1851.12       García Moreno defended Jesuits. Peru
1851.12      Tubman led slaves to Ontario, Canada.
1851-52      US made 18 treaties with Indians in California.
1851-53      José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-54       Francisco Dueñas was President of El Salvador.
1851-55      José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-55      Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-55       Gregorio Monagas was President of Venezuela.
1851-56       José Urvina was President of Ecuador.
1851-57      Schoolcraft published books on Indian tribes. Kansas
1851-57      Brigham Young governed Utah Territory.
1851-61      Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1851-89      Emperor Pedro II governed Brazil.
1851-1917  238,960 immigrants came to British Guiana.
1852.1.1     Colombia & Panama emancipated slaves.
1852.1.7     Liberated Kossuth visited the White House. Fillmore
1852.1.8     Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.1.28   Giddings of Ohio spoke for equality & peace. Fillmore
1852.2.3      42,200 Brazilians & allies defeated Rosas. Argentina
1852.2.15    Managua became the capital of Nicaragua.
1852.3.20   H. B. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s CabinFillmore Black Progress
1852.5.1     Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partidaArgentina
1852.5.3     California spent $600,000 to fight Indians.
1852.5        Douglass opposed dissolving the Union.
1852.5        United States Senator Rhett resigned over secession.
1852.6        Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852.6        Gerrit Smith opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. Black Progress
1852.6.29   “Great Compromiser” Henry Clay died. Fillmore
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers.Argentina
1852           Brazil imported 800 slaves.
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers. Argentina
1852           Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. Chile
1852           France began shipping convicts to Guiana.
1852           About 20,000 Chinese came to California.
1852           Utah approved indentured Indian children.
1852           Delaney published book on US colored people. Black Progress
1852           Free Soil Party nominated Sen. Hale for Pres. Black Progress
1852           Kentucky excluded black immigrants. South
1852           Autographs of Freedom was published. Douglass
1852           Caltharine Parr Traill wrote Canadian CrusoeCanada
1852           Lucy Stone advocated tax resistance.
1852           Hawthorne wrote The Blithedale Romance.
1852.7.5     Douglass spoke to Anti-Slavery Ladies. Fillmore
1852.7.6     Lincoln gave eulogy on Henry Clay.
1852.8        Melville published Pierre.
1852.8.26   Sumner spoke on “Freedom National.” Fillmore
1852.9.11   The Columbian weekly began at Olympia.  Washington Territory
1852.9.27    Ecuador’s Constitution abolished slavery.
1852.10.7   Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852.10      Chickasaws began Wapanucka Female Inst. Native Tribes
1852.10.24 Daniel Webster died of cirrhosis. Fillmore
1852.11.2   Democrat Pierce defeated Whig Scott for Pres. Fillmore
1852.8.11   Douglass spoke to Free Democratic Party.
1852-53      President Giró governed Uruguay with “fusion.”
1852-54      Urquiza directed Argentine Confederation.
1852-55      Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55      President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56      José María Urvina was President of Ecuador.
1853.1.6     Pierce’s son died in a railway accident.
1853.1        B&O railway was finished to Wheeling, Ohio. Pierce
1853.2        Douglass visited Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1853.3.2     US Congress passed Washington Territory.
1853.3.3     US created the Washington Territory. Pierce
1853.3.15   Uncle Tom’s Cabin play opened. 1853
1853.4        Abolitionists appealed for women’s rights. Pierce
1853.4.19   US Vice President William King died. Pierce
1853.5.11   Douglass spoke to reformers in New York City.
1853.5-6     Slave Anthony Burns was arrested & returned. North
1853.6.1     Elizabeth Stanton spoke on women’s rights.
1853           Argentine Constitution was ratified.
1853           Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853           Peru’s El Comercio printed Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853           Colombians made 2 new constitutions.
1853           Brace began Children’s Aid Society in NY. Pierce
1853           25,000 Chinese people lived in San Francisco. Pierce
1853           783 blacks emigrated from US to Liberia. North
1853           Society of Progressive Friends began. North
1853           Hildreth published his Theory of PoliticsNorth
1853           Dew & others wrote Pro-Slavery ArgumentSouth
1853           Northup’s 12 Years a Slave was published.
1853           Susan B. Anthony spoke at NY teachers convention.
1853           Stowe published A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853.7.6-8  National Council of Colored People began. Pierce North
1853.7.27   8 chiefs & US signed a treaty at Ft. Atkinson. Native Tribes
1853.9         Liberals in Buenos Aires revolted. Argentina
1853.9        US bought tribal land in Oregon for settlers. Pierce
1853.11.11 M. C. Douglass was fined for teaching blacks. North
1853.12.13 Senator Dodge proposed Nebraska Territory. Pierce
1853.12      Democrats had majorities in the US Congress. Pierce
1853.12.21 Cincinnati rioted against a Catholic Archbishop.Pierce
1853.12.30  Mexico sold territory to United States for $10 million.
1853-55      Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55      President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55      Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed.
1853-56      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1853-57      Stevens governed Washington Territory.
1854.1.4     Senator Douglas introduced the Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.1.5     Revolutionaries defeated Peru’s army.
1854.1        William Walker claimed Sonora in Mexico. Pierce
1854.1        Oregon banned selling weapons & ammunition.
1854.1.26   Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.1-5     US Congress debated Kansas-Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.2.12   Parker preached for abolition of slavery. North
1854.2        Nicaragua got a constitution.
1854.2        Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.2        Massachusetts granted $1 million to NEEAC. 1854
1854.2.28   Assembly decreed Nicaragua Constitution.
1854.3.4     Emerson opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. North
1854.3.5     Urquiza became Argentine President.
1854.3.18   People freed arrested slave Glover in Racine. North
1854.3.23   Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854.3.31   US Commodore Perry opened ports in Japan. 1854
1854.4        New England Emigration Aid Society began. North
1854.5.3     Pierce vetoed Dix Bill for the Indigent Insane. 1854
1854.5        Sauk and Fox ceded land to the United States. Native Tribes
1854.5.30   Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854.5-12   8,000 people moved to the Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.6.2     Abolitionists freed fugitive slave Burns. 1854
1854.6.5     Canada & US agreed on a Reciprocity Treaty.
1854.6.17   Nativists gathered in New York City. 1854
1854.6-8     US-Canada Treaty agreed on fishing. 1854
1854           Pedro II sent 4,000 troops to help Uruguay.
1854           Paraguay President López was re-elected.
1854           Chile census found under 17% were literate.
1854           Echenique freed black slave veterans. Peru
1854           Ridge published Life of Joaquín MurietaCalifornia
1854           Methodists began Pacific Christian AdvocateOregon
1854           Burritt wrote essays on “Passive Resistance.”
1854           Thoreau published Walden.
1854.7.4     Abolitionist Garrison burned US Constitution. 1854
1854.7.4     Pro-slavery Knights of the Golden Circle began. 1854
1854.7.5     Castilla promised to abolish Indian tribute.
1854.7.13   US Navy bombarded Greytown, Nicaragua.
1854.7        Lawrence, Kansas was founded with $200,000. 1854
1854.7        First Republican convention met in Michigan. 1854
1854.7        Melville began publishing Israel Potter.
1854.8.5     US paid California $924,260 for its war debt.
1854.8.13   Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.9.5     New Canadian Parliament opened in Quebec. Canada
1854.9        Liberal-Conservative Party reformed Canada.
1854.10.7   Reeder began governing Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.10.16 Lincoln spoke on Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854.12.23 Dominican Republic passed a constitution.
1854-55      Abolitionists sent settlers & rifles to Kansas. 1854
1854-55      Know Nothing party won 51 seats in US House. 1854
1854-55      Colt sold 9,000 revolvers to British military. Kansas
1854-57      Liberal William Young governed Nova Scotia. British Provinces
1854-59       Captain-General Concha governed Cuba.
1854-61      Edmund Walker Head governed Canada.

1855.1.22   Chief Seattle spoke at a treaty ceremony. Washington Territory
1855.1.28   Panama railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2.6     Emerson urged abolitionists to free US slaves. Kansas
1855.2        Brazil sent Navy forces to Humaitá. Paraguay
1855.2.18   Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855.3.30   Pro-slavery Kansas gov’t is elected illegally.
1855.4.28   Massachusetts banned school segregation. Kansas North
1855           Peru compensated owners of freed slaves.
1855           Castilla reformed San Marcos University.
1855           Liberals began El Tiempo news in Bogotá. Colombia
1855           El Salvador published a Code of Commerce.
1855           Mormon priesthood excluded blacks. Kansas
1855           David Christy published Cotton Is KingKansas
1855           San Francisco executed 538 people. California
1855           Legal Rights blacks hired Chester Arthur. North
1855           Lydia Child wrote Progress of Religious Ideas.
1855           Longfellow published Song of Hiawatha.
1855           Whitman published Leaves of Grass.
1855.6        Walker led 60 men invading Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.7.4     New York was 13th state to ban alcohol. Kansas
1855.8.6     Nativists v. Catholics riot killed 20 in Louisville. Kansas
1855.8        Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8        Proslavery Kansas gov’t moved to Lecompton.
1855.8        Abbott Lawrence left $50,000 to Harvard U. Kansas
1855.8        Douglass wrote My Bondage & FreedomNorth
1855.8-9     President Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.9.3     US Army killed 86 Lakota at Ash Hollow. Native Tribes
1855.9.17   Panama became a state in New Granada.
1855.10      Canadian government returned to Toronto. Canada
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.11.14 Law & Order party began at Leavenworth. Kansas
1855.11      1,200 armed Missourians invaded Kansas.
1855.11.20 Negroes held a convention at Sacramento. California
1855.12.8   Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.12.15 Kansas voters approved Free Soil constitution.
1855-56      Rogue River War was fought in Oregon.
1855-57      General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57      Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57      Patricio Rivas was President of Nicaragua.
1855-57      President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58      Sarmiento edited El nacional.
1855-58      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-58      Yakima Wars were in Washington Territory.
1855-59      Stevens made US treaties with native tribes. Washington Territory
1855-62      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1        Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24   Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.1.24   Pres. Pierce criticized abolitionists in Kansas. 1856
1856.2        Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15   Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.2.25   American party named Fillmore for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.3.9     Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.3.12   Sen. Douglas’s report opposed abolitionists. 1856
1856.3        Rev. Beecher sent rifles with Bibles to Kansas. 1856
1856.4.15   A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama. Colombia
1856.4.11   Costa Ricans defeated filibusters in Nicaragua.
1856.4        Buford raised 300 men in Alabama for Kansas. 1856
1856.5.14   James Casey killed SF Supervisor James King. California
1856.5.19   Sumner spoke on “Crime Against Kansas.” Elections of 1856
1856.5.20   Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5.20   Pierce recognized Walker’s Nicaragua regime. 1856
1856.5.21   Atchison army sacked Lawrence, Kansas. 1856 South
1856.5.22   Brooks beat Sen. Sumner with a cane. Elections of 1856 South
1856.5.24   John Brown & sons killed 5 settlers. 1856 South
1856.5.28   Illinois & Lincoln formed a Republican Party.
1856.5-10   President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.4     John Brown’s 28 men captured 28 men. 1856
1856.6.6     Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico1856.6        Democrats nominated Buchanan for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6        Republicans nominated Frémont for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856           Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil libertie. Chile
1856           Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856           Peru banned trafficking in Asian workers.
1856           Guatemalans fought Walker in Nicaragua.
1856           1,300 Mormons went to Utah with handcarts.
1856           US bank credit was $1,042 million. Panic
1856           Canada made its Legislative Council elective.
1856           Canada exported 9,391,531 bushels of wheat.
1856           Emerson published English Traits.
1856.7.4     US troops broke up the Topeka legislature. 1856
1856.7.7     Lydia Child wrote to Senator Sumner.
1856.7.12   800 Salvadoran troops invaded Nicaragua.
1856.7        3 nations’ armies fought for Nicaragua.
1856.7.31   Pres. Pierce made Geary governor of Kansas. 1856
1856.7-11   Senator Douglas campaigned for Buchanan. Elections of 1856
1856.8.5     George Curtis spoke on liberty and slavery. Peacemakers
1856.8.7     US ceded land to the Seminoles. Native Tribes
1856.8        Chickasaws became an independent nation. Native Tribes
1856.8.30   Reid led 400 Missourians against Osawatomie. 1856
1856.9.10   Kansas Gov. Geary dissolved Woodson militia. 1856
1856.9.22   Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856.10      US sent troops to protect the Panama Railroad.
1856.10      Lydia Child published The Kansas Emigrants1856
1856.10      Railway connected Montreal to Toronto. Canada
1856.10.31  Arequipa rebelled &Peru’s navy mutinied.
1856.11.4   Buchanan was elected US President with 45%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.4   Frémont got 33% & Fillmore 21.5%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.11 Topeka constitution banned slavery in Kansas.
1856.12.8   600 met at Southern Commercial Convention. Elections of 1856
1856.12.10 Lincoln spoke to Republicans in Chicago. Elections of 1856
1856.12.15  Pope Pius IX condemned Juárez & Lerdo Law.
1856.12      John Brown visited Douglass at Rochester.
1856-57      Central American allies defeated Walker.
1856-58      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58      President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58      Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59      Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62      President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.1.15   Garrison spoke at Disunion Convention. 1857
1857.2.5     Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.14   Kansas Lecompton legislature limited voting.
1857.2        John Brown met Emerson & Thoreau.
1857.2.27   Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.3.4     40,000 attended Buchanan’s inauguration.
1857.3.4     Kansas Governor Geary resigned.
1857.3.6     US Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott case. South Buchanan
1857.3.9     New York reported on crowded tenant houses. Buchanan
1857.3.13   United States Senate adjourned. Kansas
1857.4.1     Melville published The Confidence-Man.
1857.4.17   Ohio Assembly protested Dred Scott case. Buchanan
1857.5.1     Walker surrendered to allied armies. Kansas
1857.5.4     3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857.5.11   Douglass criticized the Dred Scott decision.
1857.5.27   Robert J. Walker began governing Kansas.
1857.6.15   Kansas election excluded anti-slavery men.
1857.6        Illinois Central Railroad paid Lincoln $5,000.
1857.6.26   Lincoln criticized Kansas & Dred Scott decision.
1857.6.27   Scientific American warned whales are dying. Buchanan
1857.6.28   Kansas had more Anti-slavery men.
1857           Uruguay River became Brazil-Argentina border.
1857           José de Alencar wrote Diario de Rio de JaneiroBrazil
1857           Bello commented on the Chilean Civil Code.
1857           Chile’s Conservative Party was founded.
1857           Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857           Hinton Helper published Impending CrisisSouth
1857           Fitzhugh published Cannibals All! South
1857           4,932 US companies failed. Panic
1857           Bank of Upper Canada failed.
1857.8.9     Proslavery convention met at Knoxville. Kansas
1857.8.11   14 NY banks suspended specie payments.Panic
1857.9        Utah Militia killed about 130 settlers. Buchanan
1857.9.12   SS Central America sank with 425 people. Buchanan
1857.9        Price of US cotton fell from 16 cents to 9. Panic
1857.11      Atlantic Monthly began with Lowell as editor. Buchanan
1857.12.8   Pres. Buchanan defended his Kansas policy.
1857.12.9   Sen. Douglas exposed Kansas election fraud.
1857.12.15 Kansas Governor Robert J. Walker resigned.
1857.12      Juárez was elected Supreme Court president.
1857.12      Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857.12.29 James Douglas claimed BC gold for Britain. British Provinces
1857-58      US Army intervened in Utah.
1857-58      Northern states passed personal liberty laws. John Brown
1857-61      Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-61      Ospina was President of New Granada. Colombia
1857-67      President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1857-72      Benito Juárez was President of Mexico.
1858.1.4     Kansas voters rejected the Lecompton gov’t.
1858.1.19   Juárez set up government at Guanajuato.
1858.1.23   Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.1-4     Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2-3     John Brown wrote a constitution. Douglass
1858.2.7     Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.4     Sen. Hammond spoke on “Cotton Is King.” Buchanan
1858.3.6      Besieged Arequipa surrendered. Peru
1858.3.10   Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3        Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.”  Chile
1858.3        Dr. Rock said black people are beautiful. North
1858.4.6     President Buchanan pardoned Mormon rebels.
1858.4        Republicans won 8 elections in the North. Buchanan
1858.4        15,000 Mormons retreated from US Army. Buchanan
1858.4.25   Gov. Cumming & Young reconciled in Utah.Buchanan
1858.5.8     John Brown proclaimed a government.  Douglass
1858.5.10   Southern Convention discussed disunion. Buchanan
1858.5.11   Minnesota became a US state. 1858
1858.5        British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858.5        New Orleans jury acquitted William Walker. Kansas
1858.5.17   Nez Perce & Spokane defeated US Army. Buchanan
1858.6.16   Republicans nominated Lincoln for US Senate.
1858           Chilean Bilbao began editing El Grito Paraguayo.
1858           Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la ConstituciónChile
1858           United States & China negotiated treaties. Buchanan
1858           John L. Mason invented sealed jars. 1858
1858           Henry Clarke Wright wrote on birth control. 1858
1858           Brown’s Grits joined Rouges in Canada East.
1858           Canada adopted decimal monetary system. 
1858.7        Pike’s Peak gold rush lured 100,000. Colorado 1858
1858.7.24   Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates.
1858.8.2     Kansas voters denied Lecompton constitution.
1858.8.2     J. Douglas became British Columbia governor. British Provinces
1858.8.23   USS Dolphin captured Echo slave-ship. 1859
1858.8-10   Lincoln debated Douglas 7 times.
1858.9        Brownlow & Pryne debated slavery. Kansas
1858.10      Republicans made gains in US elections. Buchanan
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.10.25 NY Sen. Seward spoke on labor & slavery. Buchanan
1858.10.30 President Buchanan affirmed neutrality laws. Kansas
1858.11.28 Wanderer brought 487 slaves to Georgia. 1859
1858.12.6   Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12      Ohio tried 37 for freeing enslaved Price. North Kansas
1858.12.20 John Brown’s raid freed 11 Missouri slaves.North 
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-59      Julián Castro was President of Venezuela.
1858-61      Mexicans fought in the Reform War.
1858-61      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63      Granadine Confederation had a civil war.
1858-64      James Douglas governed British Columbia. Canada
1859.2.12   Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.14   Oregon became a US state. 1859
1859.2.20   Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.2.23   Texas Gov. Runnels advised peace w/ Indians. 1859
1859.2.24   Buchanan vetoed the Morill land-grant bill. 1859
1859.4.1     Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1859.4.5     Ohio jury convicted 2 who rescued Price. North Kansas
1959.4.6     US recognized Juárez government.
1859.4.18   Carl Schurz spoke on “True Americanism.” 1859
1859.4.29   Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859.5        South convention tried to revive slave trade. 1859
1859.5        John Brown met secret committee & raised $4,000.
1859.6        Comstock discovered silver near Virginia City. 1859
1859           Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government.
1859           Guatemala recognized British Belize.
1859           Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859           Vicksburg convention urged slave trade. South
1859           Tubman raised money for John Brown.
1859           Martin Delany published the novel BlakeDouglass
1859           4 major banks in Canada failed.
1859           Canada’s debt reached $54,142,044.
1859.7.4     Rhett urged a Southern Confederacy. 1859
1859.7.12   Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property.
1859.7        Kansas convention created a constitution. 1859
1859.8.16   United States & China ratified their treaty. 1859
1859.8.28   Edwin Drake discovered oil at Titusville. 1859
1859.10      US Attorney General Black defended slavery. 1859
1859.9.4      Gov. Borja surrendered Quito to triumvirs. Peru
1859.9        Lincoln made 3 speeches in Ohio. 1859
1859.9        David Terry killed Sen. Brockerick in a duel. 1859
1859.9.29   Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.9.30   Lincoln spoke on agriculture in Milwaukee. 1859
1859.11.2   John Brown was sentenced to death.
1859.11      Canada West demanded more Assembly seats.
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty.
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12      Victoria Bridge over St. Lawrence was done. Canada
1859.10.4    Castilla led Peruvian invasion of Guayaquil.
1859.10      Texas elected Sam Houston Governor. 1859
1859.10.16 John Brown led a raid at Harper’s Ferry. North
1859.10.17 New York Herald blamed abolitionists. Douglass
1859.10.23  Urquiza’s army defeated Buenos Aires. Argentina
1859.10.30 Thoreau eulogized John BrownDouglass
1859.11.11  Carlos López mediated a treaty for Argentina.
1859.12.3   Lincoln spoke at Leavenworth, Kansas. 1859
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty.
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12.19 Buchanan warned of North war to end slavery. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan called for military posts in Mexico. 1859
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-61      Liberal Tovar was President of Venezuela.
1859-61     Brazil Conservatives reversed electoral reforms.
1859-62      Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba.
1859-63     Venezuela suffered in the Federalist War.
1859-63     President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63     President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67     President Fabre Geffrard governed.

1860.1.10   Pemberton Mill collapsed killing 77 people. 1860
1860.1        Douglass lectured on John Brown at Edinburgh.
1860.1        Sen. Douglas had delegates from 6 NW states. Elections in 1860
1860.1.18   Sen. Brown introduced proslavery resolutions. 1860
1860.2.16   Chicago Tribune endorsed Lincoln for Pres. 1860
1860.2.27   Lincoln spoke at Cooper Union in New York. 1860
1860.2.29   US Senator Seward criticized John Brown. 1860
1860.3.5     Lincoln supported a shoe strike at Hartford. 1860
1860.3.5     Covode led a Congressional investigation. 1860
1860.3.28   The Liberator printed Loguen’s reply to Logue. North
1860.4.2     Pony Express began in St. Joseph, Missouri. 1860
1860.4.5     Lovejoy denounced slavery in US House. 1860
1860.4.23   Democrats convention began in Charleston. Elections in 1860
1860.4.30   USS Mohawk captured slave-ship Wildfire1860
1860.5.3     Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires.
1860.5.9     Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Elections in 1860
1860.5.18   Republican Party nominated Abe Lincoln. Elections in 1860
1860.6.4     Sen. Sumner spoke on “Barbarism of Slavery.” 1860
1860.6        Douglass helped 10 slaves escape to Canada.
1860.6.20   President Buchanan vetoed Homestead Bill.  1860
1860.6.23   Democrats in Baltimore nominated Douglas. Elections in 1860
1860.6.23   Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge. Elections in 1860
1860           Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860           Chileans took over Araucanía.
1860           Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860           United States sent troops to Panama.
1860           El Salvador got a new civil & criminal code.
1860           Ellis published the first dime novel Seth JonesWashington Territory
1860           Lydia Child wrote books on emancipation. North
1860           US Census counted 3,953,762 slaves. 1860
1860           US had 30,600 miles of railroads. 1860
1860           Ann Stephens wrote dime-novel Maleska1860
1860           Bartlett published Life of Abraham LincolnElections in 1860
1860           Emerson wrote The Conduct of Life.
1860           New York passed Women’s Property Act. Lucy Stone
1860           Elizabeth Stanton proposed divorce reforms.
1860.9.12   British Honduras executed WalkerElections in 1860
1860.9.30   Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.10.25 18-year-old Anna Dickinson spoke on slavery. 1860
1860.11.6   Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.11.6   17 states elected Lincoln US President. Elections in 1860
1860.11.9   Greeley urged peaceful response to secession. Late 1860
1860.12.3   Boston mob broke up Douglass rally on Brown. 1860
1860.12.3   Pres. Buchanan wrote about secession. Late 1860
1860.12.14 Douglass spoke on free speech at Boston.
1860.12.15 John P. Kennedy published The Border StatesLincoln
1860.12      Brazilians formed the Progressive League.
1860.12      Peru adopted a new Constitution.
1860.12.18 US Senate formed the Committee of 13. Late 1860
1860.12.20 Lincoln spokesman said disunion is treason. Late 1860
1860.12.20 South Carolina by a convention seceded. Late 1860 Lincoln
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1860.12.26 Major Anderson moved men to Fort Sumter.Late 1860
1860.12.26 South Carolina commissioners came to DC. Lincoln
1860.12.27 SC Commissioners demanded US forces leave.Late 1860
1860-62      Mitre was governor of Buenos Aires.
1860-64      Uruguay’s President Berro used fusion.
1861.1        Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1        Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.1.2     Maryland’s Hicks urged a central confederacy. Lincoln
1861.1.3     Missouri Gov. Jackson rallied slave states. Late 1860 Lincoln
1861.1.3     Senator Douglas made an appeal for peace. Secession
1861.1.4     Rev. Allen preached Secession is a right.
1861.1.8     Buchanan appealed to Congress for peace. Secession
1861.1.9     Star of the West retreated from Charleston. Late 1860
1861.1.9     US Marines garrisoned Fort McHenry. Secession
1861.1.9-11 Mississippi, Alabama & Florida seceded. Secession
1861.1.15   Cabinet urged Buchanan to defend forts. Secession
1861.1        Harriet Jacobs published her autobiography.
1861.1.17   Kentucky legislature voted against Secession.
1861.1.19   Georgia convention voted to secede. Secession
1861.1.19   Virginia proposed a peace convention. Secession
1861.1.21   Jefferson Davis & 4 others left the US Senate. Secession
1861.1.21   Dakota, Colorado & Nevada are US territories. Secession
1861.1.22   Seward spoke about a compromise plan. Secession
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.1.29   Free Kansas became a US state. Secession
1861.1.29   Louisiana force seized US Mint in New Orleans. Secession
1861.1.31   Washington Constitution stopped publishing. Late 1860
1861.2.7     Choctaw nation joined the Confederacy. Secession
1861.2.8     Confederate States of America (CSA) began. Secession
1861.2.9     CSA elected Jefferson Davis President. Secession
1861.2.9     Tennessee voters rejected Secession.
1861.2.11   Lincoln spoke to 20,000 at Indianapolis. Secession
1861.2        Cheyenne & Arapaho ceded land to the US. Native Tribes
1861.2        Dorothea Dix warned of conspiracy to kill Lincoln.
1861.2.17   Browning advised Lincoln not to begin war. Secession
1861.2.18   Davis said, “All we ask is to be left alone.” Secession
1861.2.18   Missouri rejected Secession.
1861.2.19   250,000 met Lincoln’s train in New York City. Secession
1861.2.22   CSA Congress voted to take Fort Sumter. Secession
1861.2.22   Lincoln in Philadelphia said war is not needed. Secession
1861.2.23   Texans voted to secede. Secession
1861.2.23   Lincoln secretly entered Washington. Secession
1861.2.28   North Carolina voters rejected secession. Secession
1861.2.28   Confederate Congress borrowed $25 million. Secession
1861.2.28   Pres. Davis appointed 3 commissioners. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.1     Creeks made free Negroes choose a master. Native Tribes
1861.3.1     US Congress rejected Crittenden peace plan. Secession
1861.3.2     US Morill Tariff Act passed. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.2     US established the Nevada Territory. California
1861.3.3     US Congress passed Constitution amendment. Secession
1861.3.3     Tsar Alexander freed 23 million Russian serfs. Secession
1861.3.4     25,000 attended Lincoln’s inauguration. March 1861
1861.3.6     CSA Congress authorized 100,000 volunteers. March 1861
1861.3        Confederacy set up Bureau of Indian Affairs. Native Tribes
1861.3.11   CSA Congress adopted a constitution. March 1861
1861.3.13   Lincoln told Seward not to meet CSA envoys. March 1861
1861.3.15   Louisiana sent $536,000 from US Mint to CSA. March 1861
1861.3.18   Santana returned Santo Dominingo to Spain.
1861.3.18   Arkansas convention opposed secession. March 1861
1861.3.18   Texas Governor Houston rejected the CSA. March 1861
1861.3.21   Missouri convention opposed secession 98-1. March 1861
1861.3.21   Bennett’s New York Herald criticized Lincoln. March 1861
1861.3.28   United States Senate adjourned. March 1861
1861.3.30   Lincoln feared war & collapsed with headache. March 1861
1861.4.1     Seward urged Lincoln to start a European war. War Begins
1861.4.4     Virginia convention voted not to secede. War Begins
1861.4.9     CSA Pres. Davis ordered attack on Ft. Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   US Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.13   Illinois approved $3.5 million for the military. War Begins
1861.4.15   Lincoln called up 75,000 militia. War Begins Civil War Atrocities
1861.4        Unitarian Bellows advised peaceful separation. War Begins
1861.4.17   Virginia convention voted to secede. War Begins
1861.4.19   Union force killed 12 civilians in Baltimore. War Begins
1861.4.21   Gen. Robert E. Lee led CSA Army of Virginia. War Begins
1861.4.22   Douglass urged enlisting Negro troops.
1861.4.22   YMCA delegates asked Lincoln to avoid war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.4.23   Dorothea Dix became US Army Nurses Superintendent.
1861.4.29   President Davis spoke to the Confederate Congress.
1861.4.29   Confederate Congress approved $50 million.
1861.4.29   Maryland House voted against secession. Confederate Congress
1861.5.3     Lincoln called 42,034 volunteers for 3 years. Mobilization
1861.5.3     CSA President Davis declared war. Mobilization
1861.5.4     Nichols in The Age warned against war. Mobilization
1861.5.6     Arkansas convention voted to secede. Mobilization
1861.5.9     US Naval Academy moved to Newport, RI. Mobilization
1861.5.10   Union Army took over the St. Louis arsenal. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Union force captured 700 militia in Missouri. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Missouri legislature armed Confederates. Mobilization
1861.5.13   Queen Victoria proclaimed British neutral. Mobilization
1861.5.13   CSA Congress approved drafting 400,000 men. Mobilization
1861.5        Douglass wrote “How to End the War.” Mobilization November-December 1861
1861.5        Lincoln obstructed newspapers opposing war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.5.16   Northern Presbyterians swore loyalty to USA. Mobilization
1861.5.18   Arkansas joined the Confederate States. Mobilization
1861.5.27   California decided to support the Union. Mobilization
1861.6.8     Tennessee voted to join the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.5.20   US Marshals confiscated telegrams. Mobilization
1861.5.20   North Carolina convention joined the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   CSA Congress moved the capital to Richmond. Mobilization
1861.5.22   Southern Presbyterians supported the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.23   Virginians voted for secession. Mobilization
1861.5.24   Union Gen. Butler called slaves “contraband.” Mobilization
1861.5.26   US SCJ Taney rejected habeas suspension. Mobilization
1861.5.31   US mail service to the South ended. Mobilization
1861.6.10   US put Dix in charge of military hospitals. June-July 1861
1861.6.11   Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.6.15   Union troops occupied Jefferson City, Missouri. June-July 1861
1861.6.19   Western Virginia elected Pierpont governor. June-July 1861
1861.6.26   NY Tribune urged US attack on Richmond. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861           New York raised 120,000 Union soldiers. June-July 1861
1861           5,000 fugitive slaves entered Kansas. January-February 1862
1861           Canada West had 11,223 Negroes.
1861           Wendell Phillips pleaded for woman suffrage. Mrs. Stanton
1861.7        Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.7        US Congress approved 500,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.7.21   US Army fled from the Bull Run Battle. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861.7.25   US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution. June-July 1861
1861.7.27   Gen. McClellan led US Army in Washington. June-July 1861
1861.7.31   Missouri convention elected Gamble governor. June-July 1861
1861.8.1     Confederate Baylor claimed Arizona Territory.
1861.8.4     McClellan said he needed 273,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.8.5     US Congress passed a personal income tax. August-October 1861
1861.8.6     US Congress passed the Confiscation Act. August-October 1861
1861.8.12   CSA made a treaty with several Indian tribes. August-October 1861
1861.8.14   CSA President Davis expelled foreigners. August-October 1861
1861.8.16   Lincoln banned trade with CSA “rebellion.” August-October 1861
1861.8.17   US Army began paying nurses a little. August-October 1861
1861.8.23   Secret Service arrested CSA spy Greenhow. August-October 1861
1861.8.30   Frémont declared martial law in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.5     Emancipation League began in Boston. Douglass
1861.9.11   Lincoln cancelled Frémont’s emancipation. August-October 1861
1861.9.17   Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18   Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.9.18   Lincoln arrested part of Maryland’s Assembly. August-October 1861
1861.9.20   3,000 US infantry surrendered in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.25   US Navy began enlisting “persons of color.” August-October 1861
1861.10.14 Lincoln extended habeas corpus suspension. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 Telegraph connected Denver to Sacramento. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 CSA defeated a Union force at Ball’s Bluff. August-October 1861
1861.10.24 US transcontinental telegraph began. 1860
1861.10.24 West Virginia voted for US statehoo. August-October 1861
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.11.1   General Henry Halleck replaced Frémont. August-October 1861
1861.11.1   US General Winfield Scott resigned. November-December 1861
1861.11.6   Confederate States held elections. November-December 1861
1861.11.8   US Navy arrested envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861.11.9   Union Army captured Beaufort, South Carolina. November-December 1861
1861.11      Julia Howe wrote “Battle Hymn” lyrics. John Brown November-December 1861
1861.11.22 CSA claimed authority over Indian Territory. November-December 1861
1861.12.2   Lincoln suspended habeas Corpus in Missouri. November-December 1861
1861.12.10 CSA admitted the state of Kentucky. November-December 1861
1861.12      US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12      British sent 11,000 troops to CanadaNovember-December 1861
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861.12.26 Lincoln freed CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861-62      Santana governed Santo Domingo. Dominican Republic
1861-63      Mosquera was Granadina Confed. President. Colombia
1861-63      Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64      Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65      3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65      García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-65      53,532 Canadians fought for US Union Army.
1861-65      About 755,000 died in the US Civil War. Lincoln’s Warr
1861-71      José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1861-71      Sen. Sumner was Foreign Relations chairman. Elections of 1856
1861-86      11 Liberal Presidents governed Colombia.
1861.1.1     US released CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. January-February 1862
1862.1.4      Hassaurek wrote about García Moreno.
1862.1.6-7  British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.1.13   Stanton replaced US War Secretary Cameron. January-February 1862
1862.1        Douglass criticized Lincoln’s slave policy.
1862.2.5     British ended ban on shipping weapons. January-February 1862
1862.2.13   West Virginia excluded blacks. January-February 1862
1862.2        Douglass in Boston & NY urged emancipation.
1862.2.16   CSA surrendered Ft. Donelson to U.S. Grant. January-February 1862
1862.2.20   Lincoln’s son Willie died of typhoid fever. January-February 1862
1861.2.23   Andrew Johnson became Tennessee governor. January-February 1862
1862.2.27   CSA began suspending habeas corpus. January-February 1862
1862.3.3     Gen. Halleck dismissed Grant for drunkenness. March-May 1862
1862.3.5     Lincoln urged gradual abolition of slavery. March-May 1862
1862.3.25   Douglass called for abolition of slavery in US.
1862.3.28   US defeated Confederates at Glorieta Pass. Arizona
1862.4.6-7  Shiloh battle killed 3,482 & wounded 16,420. March-May 1862
1862.4.7     US & British agreed to stop the slave trade. March-May 1862
1862.4.9     British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.4        US had 637,126 soldiers, CSA 410,395. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   US abolished slavery in Washington, DC. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   CSA conscripted white men aged 18 to 35. March-May 1862
1862.5.1     Butler & US Army took over New Orleans. March-May 1862
1862.5.5     Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.5.9     Gen. Hunter freed slaves in South Carolina. Tubman
1862.5.20   US Homestead Act gave settlers 160 acres. March-May 1862
1862.5.31   1,770 were killed & 8,343 wounded at 7 Pines. March-May 1862
1862.6.5     United States recognized Haiti and Liberia. June-July 1862
1862.6.9     CSA defeated Frémont’s army at Chattanooga. June-July 1862
1862.6        Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6        Samuel Cox of Ohio pleaded for civilized war. June-July 1862
1862.6        Stuart’s CSA cavalry reconnoitered US Army. June-July 1862
1862.6.16   Forey organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862.6.17   Generals Frémont & Beauregard retired. June-July 1862
1862.6.19   Slavery was banned in US Territories. June-July 1862
1862.6.25   7 Days’ Battle began near Richmond. June-July 1862
1862.6-7     CSA Army had 3,494 killed & 15,758 wounded. June-July 1862
1862           Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862           Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862           Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862           Buchanan wrote a book on his presidency. Secession
1862           US spent $500,000 to colonize slaves. March-May 1862
1862.7.1     Thad Stevens reported $800 million US debt. June-July 1862
1862.7.1     US Congress increased taxes. June-July 1862
1861.7.1     US funded railway Omaha to San Francisco. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     McClellan retreated to Harrison’s Landing. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     US Congress passed Morill Homestead Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. June-July 1862
1862.7.8     US passed the Anti-Bigamy Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.14   US Congress ended daily rum for sailors. June-July 1862
1862.7.15   Cochise warriors defeated California Column. Arizona
1862.7.16   France’s Napoleon III rejected CSA alliance. June-July 1862
1862.7.17   US Confiscation Act freed captured slaves. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   Grant was put in command of Western Army. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   US General Polk required a loyalty oath. Civil War Atrocities
1862.8.4     Indiana grand jury indicted 60 for treason. August-October 1862
1862.8.14   Lincoln talked with black leaders. August-October 1862
1862.8        CSA beat US Army at Bull Run (Manassas). August-October 1862
1862.8        Irish burned a tobacco factory in Brooklyn. August-October 1862
1862.8-12   Starving Sioux revolt was punished. Native Tribes August-October 1862  Atrocities
1862.8.25   US Army recruited blacks in South Carolina. August-October 1862
1862.8.30   CSA captured 4,300 US soldiers in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.4     General Lee’s army invaded Maryland. August-October 1862
1862.9.17   4,000 Union troops surrendered in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.17   Antietam battle killed 3,675, wounded 17,292. August-October 1862
1862.9.20   Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.22   Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. August-October 1862
1862.9.24   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in US. August-October 1862 Civil War Atrocities
1862.9.26   Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862.9.27   Free blacks in Louisiana formed a regiment. August-October 1862
1862.10.8   US Army defeated CSA at Perryville, KY. August-October 1862
1862.10-11 Democrats made gains in US elections. November-December 1862
1862.11.3   US Army sentenced 303 Santees to death. Native Tribes
1862.11.5   Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside. November-December 1862
1862.12.1   Lincoln proposed 3 unpopular amendments. November-December 1862
1862.12.4   Joseph E. Johnston led CSA forces in West. November-December 1862
1862.12.10 US Congress admitted West Virginia as a state. November-December 1862
1862.12      Lincoln approved the execution of 38 Santees. Native Tribes
1862.12      Burnside’s Fredericksburg campaign failed. November-December 1862
1862.12.23 Davis ordered black captives given to states. November-December 1862
1862-66      Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68      Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68      Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1862-70      Solano López was President of Paraguay.
1863.1.1     Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation began. January-February 1863
1863.1.3     Union forces drove CSA out of Murfreesboro. January-February 1863
1863.1.4     Lincoln canceled Grant’s expulsion of Jews. November-December 1862
1863.1.11   Union Army captured Ft. Hindman, Arkansas. January-February 1863
1863.1.13   Pennsylvania elected Buckalew over Cameron. January-February 1863
1863.1.14   Vallandigham: “Constitution-Peace-Reunion.” January-February 1863
1863.1        109th Illinois Regiment was arrested. January-February 1863
1863.1.25   Lincoln replaced Gen. Burnside with Hooker. January-February 1863
1863.1.31   Higginson commanded Negro volunteers. January-February 1863
1863.2.3     Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.2.5     Sherman had reporter Knox tried for spying. January-February 1863
1863.2        Union League Clubs began in New York. March-April 1863
1863.2.23   Guatemala’s Carrera invaded El Salvador again.
1863.2.24   US established the Arizona Territory. January-February 1863
1863.2.24   Douglass began recruiting blacks for US Army.
1863.2.25   US passed the National Bank Act. January-February 1863
1863.3.3     US established the Idaho Territory. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US enacted a military draft. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US founded the National Academy of Sciences. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US added a 10th Supreme Court justice. September-October 1864
1863.3.6     An angry mob attacked blacks in Detroit. March-April 1863
1863.3        Lee’s army was put on half rations. March-April 1863
1863.3-5     26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.3.21   Douglass published “Men of Color, to Arms!”
1863.3.27   Lincoln talked with 14 Indian chiefs. March-April 1863
1863.4.2     Thousands demanded food in Richmond. March-April 1863
1863.4.10   Pres. Davis urged people to grow vegetables. March-April 1863
1863.4        H. B. Stowe wrote about Sojourner Truth.
1863.4        Thurlow Weed raised $15,000 for elections. March-April 1863
1863.4        Union forces occupied Fort Gibson. March-April 1863
1863.4.24   Lincoln issued the Lieber Code. March-April 1863 Civil War Atrocities
1863.5.1     Grant’s army captured Port Gibson, MS. March-April 1863
1863.5.5     Burnside had Vallandigham arrested. May-July 1863
1863.5.8     Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.5.10   Wounded General Stonewall Jackson died. May-July 1863
1863.5.14   Women’s Loyal National League began. May-July 1863
1863.5        Lieber: No Party Now but All for Our CountryMarch-April 1863
1863.5        US & CSA armies fought at Chancellorsville. May-July 1863
1863.5        Grant’s army closed in on Vicksburg. May-July 1863
1863.5        Stanton led Loyal Women of the Nation. Susan B. Anthony
1863.5.17   Mexicans surrendered San Lorenzo to French.
1863.5.19   Lincoln banished Vallandigham to the CSA. May-July 1863
1863.5.26   Gold was discovered in Montana Territory. May-July 1863
1863.5.29   Spain recognized independent Guatemala.
1863.6.1     French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.1     Burnside had the Chicago Times shut down. May-July 1863
1863.6.2     Tubman led Union rescue of 756 slaves. January-February 1863
1863.6.7     US Army burned the Davis plantation. May-July 1863
1863.6.14   Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15   Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863.6        Brazil broke off relations with the British.
1863.6        5,000 blacks were in schools in South Carolina. March-April 1863
1863.6        Lincoln summoned 100,000 militia. May-July 1863
1863.6.20   West Virginia became a US state. May-July 1863
1863           Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863           Colorados & allies invaded Uruguay.
1863           Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863           Chile’s Radical Party began.
1863           Colombia adopted a new Constitution.
1863           US immigration increased to 176,282. November-December 1863
1863           US Gov’t spending increased to $715 million. November-December 1863
1863           US produced 2,611,000 barrels of petroleum. November-December 1863
1863.7.1     Surinam freed last 32,000 slaves.
1863.7.1-3  US armies defeated CSA armies at Gettysburg. May-July 1863
1863.7.13   Military draft in New York City provoked riots. May-July 1863
1863.7.17   US Army beat CSA Army at Honey Springs. Native Tribes
1863.7.18   54th Massachusetts assaulted Fort Wagner. May-July 1863
1863.8.12   British ship brought supplies to CSA. August-October 1863
1863.8.21   Quantrill’s raiders burned Lawrence, Kansas. August-October 1863
1863.9.1     Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9.3     Iowa cavalry killed about 300 native warriors. Native Tribes
1863.9        Rio de Janeiro attorneys questioned slavery. Brazil
1863.9        Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.9        US troops attacked Sioux at White Stone Hill. August-October 1863
1863.9        CSA captured Union troops at Chickamauga. August-October 1863
1863.10.1   Lincoln letter explained military policy. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   US began compensating owners for blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving Day. August-October 1863
1863.10      Union Army had 37,482 blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.17 Lincoln called for 300,000 more troops. August-October 1863
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.19 Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address. November-December 1863
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.11.25 Grant’s army beat Bragg’s at Missionary Ridge. November-December 1863
1863.12.6   Ecuador’s army invaded Colombia.
1863.12.8   2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863.12.8   Lincoln explained his amnesty policy. November-December 1863
1863.12.12 CSA stopped US rations for Union prisoners. November-December 1863
1863.12      Statue was placed on US Capitol dome. November-December 1863 January-February 1864
1863.12      Emerson spoke on “Fortune of the Republic.”
1863-65     General Pezet was President of Peru.
1863-66     President Jesús Jiménez governed Costa Rica.
1863-68      Falcón Zavarce was President of Venezuela.
1863-71      Dueñas was President of El Salvador.
1863-86      Panama isthmus had 26 governors.
1864.1.13   Douglass spoke to Women’s Loyal League.
1864.1.13   Sumner led Slavery & Freedmen Committee. January-February 1864
1864.1.14   Pedro II urged freeing of slave children.
1864.1.14   Songwriter Stephen Foster died. January-February 1864
1864.1        British Columbia formed a Legislative Council.
1864.1.15   Brazil’s Isabel married Count Gaston of Eu.
1864.1.22   French Navy helped take Veracruz.
1864.2.1     Lincoln called for conscription of 500,000 men. January-February 1864
1864.2.9     Women’s Loyal League turned in petitions. January-February 1864  Susan B. Anthony
1864.2.9     59 Union officers escaped from Libby Prison. January-February 1864
1864.2        Sherman’s army wage war in Mississippi. January-February 1864
1864.2.17   CSA Congress forced veterans to re-enlist. March-April 1864
1864.2.22   Arkansas got a Unionist government. January-February 1864
1864.2.22   Louisiana elected a Union governor. January-February 1864
1864.2.24   US Congress accepted conscientious objectors. January-February 1864
1864.2.26   Lincoln commuted sentences of deserters. January-February 1864
1864.3.4     Johnson became Tennessee’s Military Gov. March-April 1864
1864.3        Arkansas voters chose Union government. March-April 1864
1864.3.10   Lincoln put Grant in command of Union armies. March-April 1864
1864.3.16   CSA VP Stephens spoke on civil rights. March-April 1864
1864.4.9     Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.4.12   CSA killed surrendering soldiers at Fort Pillow. March-April 1864
1864.4.17   General Grant stopped prisoner exchanges. March-April 1864
1864.4.30   Lincoln pardoned 25 Sioux in Iowa. March-April 1864
1864.4-5     US Red River campaign failed in Louisiana. March-April 1864
1864.5.6     US & CSA had 28,699 casualties in Wilderness. May-June 1864
1864.5        Union Army captured 7,000 rebels. May-June 1864
1864.6.1-6  Cold Harbor battles had 18,000 casualties. May-June 1864
1864.6.8     National Union convention nominated Lincoln.  May-June 1864
1864.6.12   Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864.6.15   Union Army besieged Petersburg. May-June 1864
1864.6.15   US Congress passed equal pay for blacks. May-June 1864
1864.6        Canada’s Conservative government resigned.
1864.6.28   US Congress repealed Fugitive Slave Acts. May-June 1864
1864.6.30   US Congress passed Internal Revenue Act. May-June 1864
1864.6-12   Canadians considered confederation. Canada
1864           Paraguay’s Pres. López drafted 64,000 men.
1864           Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864           Guatemala combined Indians & ladinos.
1864           George P. Marsh published Man and NatureNovember-December 1864
1864           Nichols wrote Forty Years of American LifeNovember-December 1864
1864.7.4     US Congress encouraged immigration. July-August 1864
1864.7.20   Sherman’s army defeated Hood’s near Atlanta. July-August 1864
1864.7.30   Union troops assaulted Petersburg. July-August 1864
1864.8.5     US Navy defeated CS Navy in Mobile Bay. July-August 1864
1864.8        220 US prisoners died daily at Andersonville. May-June 1864
1864.8.30   Democrat Party nominated McClellan for Pres. July-August 1864
1864.8-10   Juárez retreated to Chihuahua.
1864.9.3     Sherman’s army occupied Atlanta. September-October 1864
1864.9.5     Louisiana’s constitution banned slavery. September-October 1864
1864.9.15   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in the US. September-October 1864
1864.9.21   International Industrial Assembly began. September-October 1864
1864.9.23   After Frémont withdrew, Blair resigned. September-October 1864
1864.9-10   Sheridan’s cavalry burned crops & barns. September-October 1864
1864.10.7   USS Wachusett captured CSS Florida by Brazil. September-October 1864
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay.
1864.10.12 US Chief Justice Taney died. September-October 1864
1864.10.13 Maryland voters abolished slavery. September-October 1864
1864.10.29 Sojourner Truth talked to President Lincoln.
1864.10.31 Nevada became a US state. September-October 1864
1864.11.7   Davis asked CSA for 40,000 slaves to fight. November-December 1864
1864.11.8   Lincoln won electoral college 212-21. November-December 1864
1864.11.29 Chivington led Sandy Creek massacre. Colorado November-December 1864
1864.12.6   Lincoln nominated Chase for US Chief Justice. September-October 1864
1864.12.6   Hay read Lincoln’s message to Congress. November-December 1864
1864.12.14 80,000 Paraguayans invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12      Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864.12.16 US Army led by Thomas occupied Nashville. November-December 1864
1864.12.17 US imposed passport controls on Canada.
1864.12.19 Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. November-December 1864
1864.12.21 Savannah surrendered to Sherman’s army. November-December 1864
1864-65      9,000 Navahos moved to Bosque Redondo. New Mexico
1864-66      Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.

1865.1    Argentina denied Paraguay’s army access.
1865.1.11   Missouri convention abolished slavery.  January-February 1865
1865.1.15   Confederates surrendered Fort Fisher.  January-February 1865
1865.1.16   Sherman designated land for former slaves.  January-February 1865
1865.1.23   CSA General Taylor replaced General Hood. January-February 1865
1865.1.27   Brazil declared war against Paraguay.
1865.1.27   Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.1.27   US Army killed 224 Shoshonis in Idaho. Native Tribes
1865.1.31   US House approved 13th amendment. January-February 1865
1865.2.3     Lincoln & Seward met CSA leaders on peace.  January-February 1865
1865.2.9     French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.9     Lee persuaded Davis to pardon deserters. January-February 1865
1865.2.12   Sherman’s army burned Orangeburg, SC. January-February 1865
1865.2        US Supreme Court admitted black John Rock. November-December 1864
1865.2.17   Columbia, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.18   Charleston, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.20   Montevideo surrendered to Brazil.
1865.2.23   Lincoln reminded a Chicago editor of war cry. Civil War Atrocities
1865.3.3     US began Relief of Freedmen & Refugees. March 1865
1865.3.4     Lincoln gave his 2nd inaugural address. March 1865
1865.3.11   Lincoln pardoned deserters who returned. March 1865
1865.3.13   CSA Congress approved use of Negro troops. March 1865
1865.3.18   Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.3        Sherman’s army defeated Johnston’s. March 1865
1865.3        US denounced Reciprocity Treaty with Canada
1865.3.25   US Army & Navy besieged Mobile, Alabama. March 1865
1865.3.28   Lincoln met with Grant, Sherman & Porter. March 1865
1865.4.1     Sheridan’s army defeated Picketts’ at 5 Forks. April-May 1865
1865.4.3     Davis & his cabinet left Richmond. April-May 1865
1865.4.9     Generals Grant & Lee agreed to end the war. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   Mobile’s mayor surrendered the city. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   CSA troops surrendered at Appomattox. April-May 1865
1865.4.13   Paraguay began a war against Argentina.
1865.4.14   John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln. April-May 1865
1865.4.15   Andrew Johnson became US President. April-May 1865
1865.4        Douglass spoke for voting rights of all.
1865.4.18   Sherman & Johnston made an armistice. April-May 1865
1865.4.26   Johnston surrendered all CSA forces. April-May 1865
1865.5.1     Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.5.1     President Johnson named a military tribunal. April-May 1865
1865.5.4     Argentina declared war on Paraguay.
1865.5.10   Michigan cavalry captured Jefferson Davis. April-May 1865
1865.5        Paraguayan Legion joined Argentina’s army
1865.5.22   Pres. Johnson ended the southern blockade. April-May 1865
1865.5.29   Johnson decreed general amnesty & pardon. April-May 1865
1865.6.11   Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865.6        Moreno had 24 prisoners executed.
1865           Bolivia & Peru made a treaty on Arica.
1865           Lydia Child helped publish The Freedman’s Book.
1865.7.7     Herold, Payne & Mrs. Surratt were hanged. April-May 1865
1865.7.15   Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.
1865.8         Paraguayan army captured Uruguaiana.
1865.8.17    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Yatay.
1865.9         Brazil drove foreigners from Rio Grande do Sul.
1865.9.18    5,545 Paraguayans surrendered.
1865.9.18    Honduras adopted a reformed constitution.
1865.9.18    Atlanta University was founded. July-October 1865
1865.9.25    Chile declared war against Spain.
1865.10       Southern states began passing Black Codes.  November-December 1865
1865.10.14   United States & Plains natives made treaties. Johnson
1865.11.10   Andersonville commandant Wirtz was hanged. November-December 1865
1865.12.2    Stevens urged Congress to run Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.4    Johnson sent Congress his annual message. November-December 1865
1865.12.8    Sen. Sumner suggested impeaching Johnson. November-December 1865
1865.12.14   Stevens became chairman of Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.18   13th Amendment abolished slavery. April-June 1865, November-December 1865
1865.12.24   Ku Klux Klan began at Pulaski, Tennessee. November-December 1865
1865-67       Carrión was President of Ecuador.
1865-68       Sarmiento was minister in the United States.
1865-70       Brazil had 168,000 killed in Paraguayan War.
1865-70       20,000 Argentines died in the Paraguayan War.
1865-70       Uruguay had 3,000 killed in Paraguayan War.
1865-70       591,000 people died in Paraguayan War. 
1865-70       Paraguay lost over 400,000 people in the war.
1865-71       General Cerna was President of Guatemala.
1866.1.12    Gen. Grant ordered Negroes protected. January-April 1866
1866.1.15    Florida passed a Vagrant Act. January-April 1866
1866.1         Peru’s President Prado declared war on Spain.
1866.2.5-6   Sen. Sumner spoke on liberty & equal rights. January-April 1866
1866.2.7      Black delegates talked with President Johnson. January-April 1866
1866.2.12    US began celebrating Lincoln’s birthday. January-April 1866
1866.2.22    Johnson spoke on Washington’s birthday.
1866.3         Only men with property voted in Cuba.
1866.3.26    Pres. Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act.
1866.3.31    Spanish ships bombarded Valparaíso. Chile
1866.4.9      US Congress over-rode the civil rights veto. January-April 1866
1866.5.2      Allies & Paraguayans suffered at Estero Bellaco.
1866.5.2      Peru’s army defeated Spaniards at Callao.
1866.5.24    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Tuyutí.
1866           Ranchers began Argentine Rural Society.
1866           Bolivia & Chile agreed to share Mejillones.
1866.7         French Committee petitioned Pedro II on slavery.
1866.7         Transatlantic cable reached Newfoundland. Peru
1866.7.19    Ross & Cherokees made a treaty with the US. May-July 1866
1866.7.23    US Congress reduced the Supreme Court. May-July 1866
1866.7.24    Tennessee was readmitted as a state. May-July 1866
1866.7.30    Riot & police killed 34 blacks in New Orleans. May-July 1866
1866.7-12    Chief Red Cloud led Indian attacks. August-December 1866
1866.8.14    National Union Convention backed Johnson. August-December 1866
1866.8         Pedro II appointed the Progressive Zacarias.
1866.8.20    Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended.
1866.8.20    60,000 formed the National Labor Union. August-December 1866
1866.8-9      President Johnson spoke in 9 states. 
1866.9.1-3   Allies defeated Paraguayans at Curuzú.
1866.9         Johnson began appointing Democrats. 
1866.9.22    Paraguayans defeated Allies at Curupaití. Brazil  Argentina1866.12.3    Johnson asked Congress to readmit states. 
1866.12.21   Sioux ambushed Fort Phil Kearney soldiers. August-December 1866
1866,1867    Allies defeated Paraguayans at Tuyutí. Brazil
1866-70       Bolivia sold Indians’ communal land.
1867.1.7      Congress sent impeachment to committee. January-March 1867
1867.1.8      Congress enfranchised blacks in Washington. January-March 1867
1867.1.        US Senate published report on lawless whites. Conventions
1867.1.15    Grant proposed districts for whites & Indians. Conventions
1867.1.29    Grant advised martial law for Texas. January-March 1867
1867.2.1      Grant warned of Indian or white extermination. Red Cloud’s War
1867.2.6      US Committee began impeachment hearings. January-March 1867
1867.2         Serapio Cruz led Liberal revolt in Guatemala.
1867.5         Pedro II spoke for slave emancipation.
1867.3.1      Nebraska became the 37th state. January-March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress passed the Reconstruction Act.
1867.3.2      US Congress revised federal taxes.  March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress chartered Howard University. March 1867
1867.3.23    Congress passed the 2nd Reconstruction Act.
1867.4.9      US purchased Alaska for $7.2 million. April-December 1867
1867.4         Ku Klux Klan became vigilantes. April-December 1867
1867.5.11    Jefferson Davis was released on bail. April-December 1867
1867.6         House committee rejected impeachment. April-December 1867
1867.6.25    5,000 Chinese railway workers went on strike. April-December 1867
1867           Mauá had more wealth than Brazil’s budget.
1867           Ayacucho Treaty gave Bolivia land from Brazil.
1867           700,000 blacks registered to vote in the South. April-December 1867
1867           Peabody Education Fund had $3.5 million. April-December 1867
1867           New York established free public schools. April-December 1867
1867           Abolitionists published Negro spirituals. April-December 1867
1867           Lydia Child wrote A Romance of the Republic.
1867.7.1     British made Canada a Dominion.
1867.7.1      Geologist Hayden wrote to the Land Office. April-December 1867
1867.7.1      US Army & Indians Snake War ended. April-December 1867
1867.7.19    Congress passed the 3rd Reconstruction Act.
1867.7.20    Johnson approved Indians peace commission. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.1      650 Cheyenne & Lakota resumed fighting. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.12    Johnson replaced Stanton with Grant. April-December 1867
1867.8         National Labor Union met in Baltimore. April-December 1867
1867.8         Cameron edited Working Man’s Advocate.April-December 1867
1867.9         National University of Colombia began.
1867.9         John Muir began a long walk and his journal. April-December 1867
1867.10.17   Albion Tourgée published his 10 principles. April-December 1867
1867.12.3    President Johnson denigrated Negroes. April-December 1867
1867.12.19   Comanches & Kiowas accepted land grant.  Red Cloud’s Warr
1867-68       Allies besieged Paraguay’s forces at Humaitá.
1867-68       10 states held constitutional Conventions.
1867-71       Guzmán was President of Nicaragua.
1867-73       Macdonald was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1868.1.8      The Revolution newspaper for women’s rights. Johnson
1868.1.13    US Senators supported Stanton over Johnson
1868.1         Betances et al wrote a Puerto Rico constitution.
1868.2         Starving Kiowas & Comanches raided Texas. Red Cloud’s War
1868.2         New York endorsed Grant for president. Elections
1868.2.19    Uruguay’s President Flores was murdered.
1868.2.21    Johnson replaced Stanton with Thomas.
1868.2.24    House of Representatives impeached Johnson.
1868.3.2      US & Utes made a treaty with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868.3.5      US Senate trial of President Johnson began.
1868.3.11    Congress passed the 4th Reconstruction Act. 1868
1868.3.11    Samuel Tilden spoke for Democrats. Elections
1868.3.21    Ku Klux Klan founder Forest visited Columbus. 1868
1868.3.30    Ku Klux Klan murdered George Ashburn .1868
1868.4.29    US & Sioux made a treaty at Fort Laramie. Red Cloud’s War
1868.5         Dun estimated Vanderbilt’s worth $50 million. 1868
1868.5.16    US Senate acquitted President Johnson.
1868.5.21    Republican Convention nominated Grant. Elections
1868.5.30    Decoration Day holiday began. 1868
1868.6.1      Navaho Wars ended with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868.6-12    López had 596 people killed in Asunción.
1868            Sarmiento published Life of Horace Mann.
1868           US wheat prices fell from $4 a bushel to 67¢. 1868
1868           US had about 250,000 prostitutes. 1868
1868           Lydia Child wrote “An Appeal for the Indians.”
1868.7.9      Democrats nominated Seymour & Blair. Elections
1868.7.14    Pedro II replaced Liberals with Conservatives.
1868.7.20    14th Amendment was ratified. 1868
1868.7.28    US stopped restricting Chinese immigration. 1868
1868.6         Congress found 373 freed slaves were killed. 1868
1868.8         2,000 Indians were on the war path. Red Cloud’s War
1868.8.16    Earthquake killed 20,000 in Ibarra & Otavalo. Ecuador
1868.9.23    Revolutionaries took over Lares, Puerto Rico.
1868.9.25    10th Cavalry rescued besieged soldiers. Red Cloud’s War
1868.10.10   Céspedes freed 30 slaves in Cuba.
1868.10.28   US Army shot dead negotiating Black Kettle. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.3    Electoral College 214-80 made Grant President. Elections
1868.11.23   Indian Affairs Commission published a report. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.27   Custer’s cavalry killed 175 Indians at Washita. Red Cloud’s War
1868.12.9    Johnson’s message called for popular elections. 1868
1868.12.11   Brazil’s army defeated Paraguayans at Avay.
1868.12.25   Woodhull predicted Vanderbilt’s stock rising. 1868
1868-71       Peru’s Finance Minister Piérola aided the rich.
1868-72       President Lorenzo Batlle governed Uruguay.
1868-72       José Balta was President of Peru.
1868-74       Sarmiento was President of Argentina.
1868-78       Ten Years War cost Cuba $300 million.
1869.1.12    National Convention of Colored Men began. 1869
1869.1         Allies occupied Asunción. Paraguay
1869.1.19    Mrs. Stanton spoke for woman suffrage.
1869.2.26    US Congress passed the 15th amendment. 1869
1869.2-3      Harvard Pres. Eliot wrote “New Education.” Universities
1869.3.4      Ulysses S. Grant became US President.
1869.3.4      James G. Blaine became House Speaker. 1869
1869.3         US Congress removed Georgia members. 1869
1869.3         US national debt was $2.8 billion. 1869
1869.3.15    US required 3 states to pass voting rights. 1869
1869.3.18    Gold fell to $130 per ounce. 1869
1869.3.19    Allies ordered López property confiscated.
1869.3.19    General Veintemilla led a revolt in Guayaquil. Ecuador
1869.4.10    US treaty with Sioux & Plains Indians began. 
1869.4.13    Grant hired a native Indian Affairs Commissioner.
1869.4.17    Wyoming Territory was organized. 1869
1869.4.17    US Army killed 35 “Dog Soldiers” (Indian).
1869.5.10    Transcontinental Railroad was completed. 1869
1869.5.13    Stanton & Anthony opposed 15th Amendment.
1869.5.15    National Woman Suffrage Association began.
1869.5.19    US Gov’t workers got 8-hour day at same pay. 1869
1869.6.9      Ecuador’s 8th Constitution was approved. Ecuador
1869.6-8      Powell explored Grand Canyon & Colorado River. 1869
1869           Juan Montalvo began El Joven LiberalEcuador
1869           Death rate of freedmen was reduced to 2%. 1869
1869           Hayes was re-elected Governor of Ohio.
1869           Tweed made Chester Arthur a NY tax counsel.
1869           Hyatt invented industrial plastic from cellulose. Inventions
1869           Beecher sisters began a women’s magazine. Inventions
1869           Harper’s Minnie’s Sacrifice described slavery .Woman’s
1869           Mark Twain published The Innocents Abroad.
1869.7.14    Grant declared neutrality to Cuban rebels.
1869.7         Henry Adams & C Adams wrote “A Chapter of Erie.”
1869.7.22    Allies chose a triumvirate to govern Paraguay.
1869.8.12    Brazil’s army wiped out 1,600 Paraguayans
1869.8         Peru & Spain signed a friendship treaty.
1869.9.1      National Prohibition Reform Party began. 1869
1869.9.24    Gould & Fisk’s gold price caused Black Friday.1869 Railroad
1869.10.1    Decouds began publishing La RegeneraciónParaguay
1869.10.2    Triumvirate abolished slavery in Paraguay.
1869.10       Henry Adams wrote “Civil Service Reform.” 1869
1869.11       American Woman Suffrage Association began.
1869.11.30   Mississippi & Texas got better constitutions. 1869
1869.12.9    Uriah Stephens began secret Knights of Labor. 1869
1869.12.10   Wyoming Territory gave women the vote. 1869
1869.12       US Congress imposed martial law on Georgia. 1869
1869.12       Grant named 3 men to the US Supreme Court.
1869.12       Colored National Labor Union met in DC. 1869 1870
1869.12       Grant asked Congress to act on Ku Klux Klan. 1870
1868-70       North Carolina Gov. Holden suppressed KKK. Grant
1869-72       Col. Grierson implemented Grant’s peace policy.
1869-74       Nissage was President of Haiti.
1869-95       José Martí worked for Cuban Revolution.
1870.1.1      Nicaragua got a new constitution.
1870.1.10    Rockefellers began the Standard Oil Company.
1870.1.15    Haiti executed ex-President Salnave.
1870.1         Mitre began La Nación in Buenos Aires. Argentina
1870.1.23    US Army killed 173 Piegan people. Grant
1870.2.1      William James decided on a moral path.
1870.2         Utah Territory gave women the right to vote. Suffrage
1870.2.25    Hiram Revels was the first black US Senator. 1870
1870.2.25    Olmstead wrote “Unplanned Growth of Cities.”  Learning
1870.3.1      Allies killed Paraguay’s President LópezBrazil Argentina
1870.3.2      Frederick Douglass wrote “Mixed Schools.” Grant
1870.3.7      Triumvirate ordered schools in Paraguay
1870.3.30    15th Amendment on voting rights became law. 1870
1870.4.11    Urquiza was assassinated. Mitre  Argentina
1870.4.30    William James declared his belief in free will.
1870.5.6      Pedro II argued for free labor in farming.
1870.5.14    Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly began.
1870.5.31    US Congress passed first Enforcement Act. 1870
1870.6.13    Grant opposed intervening in Cuba.
1870.6         Union Pacific RR paid Chinese $32.50 a month. Railroad
1870.6.16    Chief Red Cloud spoke at Cooper Union. Indian
1870.6.20    Peace treaty ended the Paraguayan War.
1870.6.22    US Congress founded US Department of Justice. 1870
1870           Typographers formed first union in Uruguay.
1870           Paraguay abolished slavery.
1870           Cevallos completed his History of Ecuador.
1870           US Freedmen’s Bureau had 247,333 students. Grant
1870           Ku Klux Klan defeated Republicans in elections. 1870
1870           US railroad investments were $2.5 billion. Capitalism
1870           Mary Baker wrote “The Science of Man.” 
1870           Michigan U. began accepting female students. Universities
1870           Emerson published Society and SolitudeLearning
1870.7.14    US Naturalization Act became law. 1870
1870.7.15    Manitoba became a province of Canada.
1870.9.6      Women began voting in the Wyoming Territory. Suffrage
1870.9         Douglass started editing New National Era1870 Learning
1870.9         J. S. Morgan loaned France $50 million.
1870.9.23    Italians sacked La Regeneración’s office. Paraguay
1870.10.13   Mexican Congress granted amnesty to traitors.
1870.10       Henry Adams wrote “New York Gold Conspiracy.”
1870.11.20   Paraguay convention signed a Constitution.
1870.11.25   Rivarola was elected President of Paraguay.
1870.12       5 Indian Territory nations made a constitution.
1870.12.29   Paraguay issued 100,000 pesos paper money.
1870-71       US Census counted 38,925,598 people in the US. 1870
1870-76       Tomás Guardia was President of Costa Rica.
1870-77       Guzmán Blanco was President of Venezuela.
1871.1.11    Victoria Woodhull petitioned the US Congress. 
1871.1         US stopped weapons sales to France & Prussia. 1871
1871.1.26    Corrientes militia defeated rebels in Argentina.
1871.1-5      Argentina suffered a yellow fever epidemic.
1871.2         El Salvador invaded Honduras.
1871.2.28    Grant signed 2nd Act to enforce voting rights.
1871.3.3      US Congress passed Indian Appropriation Act. 1871
1871.4.6      Audain wrote in Gazette du PeupleHaiti
1871.4         Paraguay Congress approved agriculture colony.
1871.4         Woodhull began running for US President.
1871.5.8      United States & Britain signed a treaty. 1871
1871.5.17    Pedro II’s daughter became Regent of Brazil.
1871.3         Race riot in Mississippi killed about 30 blacks. 1871
1871.3.22    Democrats removed Gov. Holden. 1871
1871.4         Alexander Graham Bell began teaching the deaf.
1871.4         Charles Adams wrote “An Erie Raid.” Henry Adams
1871.4.20    US passed 3rd Enforcement Act against KKK. 1871
1871.5.11    Woodhull spoke to the Suffrage Association.
1871.5.24    US Senate approved a treaty with Britain. 1871
1871           Chile banned a President succeeding himself.
1871           Guatemala Liberals led a revolution.
1871           Drexel, Morgan & Company formed.
1871           Henry George wrote “Our Land & Land Policy.”
1871           Quaker Mill Co. made oatmeal. Inventions
1871           Luther Burbank improved many plants. Inventions
1871           Julia Howe began a woman’s peace crusade.
1871           James Clarke wrote Ten Great Religions.
1871.7.8      New York Times exposed Tweed’s corruption.
1871.9.28    Brazil enacted the Law of Free Birth.
1871.10.2    US arrested Brigham Young for polygamy. 1871
1871.10.12   Mexico adopted the metric system.
1871.10.12   Douglass published “The Labor Question.” 1871
1871.10       Chicago fire killed about 300 people. 1871
1871.10       Grant sent 7th Cavalry to South Carolina. 1871
1871.10.17   El Salvador adopted a democratic constitution.
1871.10.17   Grant suspended habeas corpus in 9 counties.
1871.11.6    Triple Allies agreed on a treaty. Paraguay
1871.11       Grant made Arthur the NY Port Collector.
1871.11.17   National Rifle Association began in New York. 1871
1871.11.19   Violence upset Paraguay’s elections.
1871.11.20   Woodhull spoke on social freedom & free love.
1871.12.4    Grant criticized slavery in Cuba & Puerto Rico.
1871.12.7    Costa Rica adopted a very liberal Constitution.
1871.12.11   Grant approved Civil Service Commission rules.
1871-72       Pedro II traveled in Europe for 10 months.
1871-72       General Morales was President of Bolivia.
1871-72       Douglass led National Colored Labor Union. 1871 1872
1871-73       Garcia Granados was President of Guatemala.
1871-74       Jovellanos was President of Paraguay.
1871-75       Council President Rio Branco reformed Brazil.
1871-75       Vicente Cuadra was President of Nicaragua.
1871-75       Garfield was Chairman of Appropriations.
1871-76       Errázuriz Zañartu was President of Chile.
1871-81       Howells edited the Atlantic Monthly.
1872.1.1-2   Standard Oil made $2.5 million in 2 days. Rockefeller
1872.1         Paraguay lost territory to Brazil in a treaty.
1872.2.26    Most railroad freight rates doubled. Rockefeller
1872.3.1      Grant approved Yellowstone National Park.
1872.3.2      Rebellion led by Porfirio Díaz was defeated. Mexico
1872.3.8      Paraguay Congress borrowed £2,000,000.
1872.3.25    El Salvador & Guatemala invaded Honduras.
1872.5.3      Liberal Republican Party Convention met. 1872
1872.5-6     Guatemala & El Salvador fought Honduras.
1872.6.1      Grant pardoned secessionists.
1872.6.6      Republican Party nominated Grant again.
1872.6.6      Equal Rights Party nominated Woodhull.
1872.6.10    US Congress ended the Freedmen’s Bureau. 1872
1872           Brazil’s census revealed widespread illiteracy.
1872           Acevedo wrote Profession of a Rationalist FaithUruguay
1872           Guatemala expelled the Jesuits.
1872           New York Port payroll was $1,800,000. Arthur
1872           Brace wrote The Dangerous Classes of NYMonopolies
1872           Buffalo hunters sent 1,200,000 hides east. Railroad
1872           P. T. Barnum’s Circus began in Brooklyn. Railroad
1872           Montgomery Ward sold products in a catalog. Inventions
1872           Julia Howe advised a Mother’s Day for Peace.
1872           Frothingham wrote The Religion of Humanity.
1872           Moody provided lessons for Sunday schools.  Religion
1872           Mark Twain published Roughing It.
1872.7.10    Democratic Party nominated Greeley. 1872
1872.7         Alexander Graham Bell published “Visible Speech.”
1872.7.18    Douglass wrote U. S. Grant and Colored People1872
1872.9.4      Dana exposed Crédit Mobilier scandal. 1872
1872.11.2    Woodhull accused Rev. Beecher of adultery.
1872.11.2    Comstock had Woodhull & Claflin arrested.
1872.11.5    Grant won 29 of 35 states in the election.
1872.11.26   Anthony was arrested for voting at Rochester.
1872.12       US Congress ended the federal income tax. 1872
1872.12.18   Nación Paraguaya began publishing. Paraguay
1872-73       Many more Klansmen were convicted. 1872
1872-76       Manuel Pardo was Peru’s civilian President.
1872-76       Lerdo de Tejada was President of Mexico.
1872-76       Frank & Jesse James robbed banks, railroads.
1873.1.14    Louisiana had 2 governors disputing an election. 1873
1873.3.4      US Congress raised their salaries. 1873
1873.3.6      Grant ordered US Army to avoid Indian hostilities.
1873.3.22    Gen. Caballero urged a revolution in Paraguay.
1873.3.23    Spain freed 31,635 slaves in Puerto Rico.
1873.4.1      US Coinage Act went into effect. 1873
1873.4.13    Whites killed blacks in the Louisiana militia. 1873
1873.4.18    Brazil’s Paulista Republican Party began.
1873.5.28    Grant talked with Sioux chiefs.  
1873.6         Jury found Woodhull & Claflin not guilty.
1873.6.18    Paraguay’s army defeated Caballero’s rebels.
1873.6.19    Susan B. Anthony spoke at her sentencing.
1873           Brazil had 1,566,416 slaves.
1873           Principistas entered Uruguay’s legislature.
1873           Sarmiento established a national bank.
1873           Navaho Reservation population fell to 2,000. Indian
1873           Farmers’ Grange had 800,000 members. 1873
1873           United States had 70,784 miles of railroadsHayes
1873           Carnegie began producing steel.
1873.8.26    Nicaragua, Guatemala & El Salvador allied.
1873.9.13    British paid US $15.5 million for war damage. Grant
1873.9         Grant sent 5,000 troops to Louisiana.
1873.9         Financial panic spread in the United States. 1873
1873.10       Liberals began La Nueva Era in Ecuador.
1873.10       AAW for women began. Suffrage  Howe Willard
1873.11       Tweed was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
1873.12.13   Paraguay & Uruguay signed a peace treaty.
1873.12       Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen began. Railroad Union
1873.12       Mark Twain & Warner published The Gilded Age.
1873.12.23   Woman’s Christian Temperance Union began.
1873-74       Adolfo Ballivián was President of Bolivia.
1873-76       Ignacio González was Dominican President.
1873-78       Mackenzie was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1873-78       US bankruptcies went from 5,183 to 10,478. 1873
1873-85       Rufino Barrios was President of Guatemala.
1874.1         Bell organized a convention on visible speech.
1874.2         National Grange issued Declaration of Purpose. Monopolies
1874.3.15    National Autonomist Party began in Argentina.
1874.4.17    Brazil’s troops defeated Paraguayan rebels. 
1874.6         Treasury Secretary Bristow reduced inflation. 1874
1874.6.22    Arthur’s salary was reduced by $44,000.
1874           Brazil ended military conscription.
1874           Transatlantic cable connected Brazil to Europe. 
1874           Varela published La Educación del PuebloUruguay
1874           Chile & Bolivia agreed on the border.
1874           Julia Ward Howe published Sex and Education.
1874.7.4      Eads bridge over Mississippi was completed. 1873
1874.9.14    3,500 White Leaguers attacked New Orleans. 1874
1874.9.17    5,000 US troops defeated the Leaguers. 1874
1874.10.2    Montalvo published La dictadura perpetuaEcuador
1874.10       Grant learned of the whisky tax fraud.
1874.10       Fiske published Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy.
1874.11       Democrats gained 94 House seats to control it. 1874
1874.11.18   WCTU had a national convention in Cleveland. Willard
1874.12.14   Comstock Act banned obscenity in the mail. Grant
1874.12       Riots & martial law at Vicksburg killed many. 1874
1874-76       Tomás Frías was President of Bolivia.
1874-76       Ponciano Leiva was President of Honduras.
1874-77       Gill was President of Paraguay.
1874-80       Avellaneda was President of Argentina.
1875.3.1      Grant signed a Civil Rights Act.
1875.3.5      Diplomacy ended a US-Spain dispute. Grant
1875.3.13    Grant approved moving warriors to the Plains.
1875.3.28    Minor v. Happersett ruled 9-0 against voting. Suffrage
1875.4.27    Gómez demanded revolutionary reforms. Cuba
1875.5.20    Paraguay ceded Chaco territory to Argentina.
1875.5.31    US & Hawaii agreed to a Reciprocity Treaty. Grant
1875           Northwest Territories got a government. Canada
1875           Pardo nationalized Peru’s nitrate industry.
1875           Mexico added a Senate to the Congress.
1875           Hayes was elected Ohio governor again.
1875           McCrary wrote a treatise on American elections. Hayes
1875           Blackwell wrote The Sexes Throughout NatureSuffrage
1875           Henry James published Roderick Hudson.
1875.7.1      Paraguay’s National Bank began.
1875.7.1      Decoud began publishing La ReformaParaguay
1875.8.6      García Moreno was shot dead.
1875.9.30    Grant spoke on education at Des Moines.
1875.10       Mary Baker published The Science of Health.
1875.12.9    Antonio Borrero became President of Ecuador.
1875-76       Indian tribes revolted in Argentina.
1875-79       Chamorro Alfaro was President of Nicaragua.
1876.3.7      Alexander Graham Bell got a telephone patent.
1876.3.27    US v. Cruikshank weakened 14th Amendment. Grant
1876.3.27    US v. Reese weakened 15th Amendment. Grant 1876
1876.3-11    Díaz led a revolt in Mexico.
1876.4.11    Hayes explained his pardoning principles.
1876.4.12    Canada’s Indian Act dominated the tribes.
1876.5.10    Centennial Exposition began in Philadelphia. 1876
1876.6         Republicans nominated Hayes for President. 1876
1876.6.22    Brazil’s troops left Paraguay.
1876.6.25    Custer & 263 men were killed at Little Bighorn. Grant
1876.6.27    Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden. 1876
1876           Gov. Hayes sent militia to protect a coal mine.
1876           Willard began editing WCTU’s Union Signal.
1876           Henry Adams wrote Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law.
1876           Mark Twain wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
1876.7.4      Anthony accused US of persecuting women.
1876.8.1      Colorado became a state. 1876
1876.10.9    Juan Montalvo published Bulletin of PeaceEcuador
1876.11.7    Tilden had 184 electoral votes, Hayes had 166. 1876
1876.12.14   Veintemilla’s army defeated Borrero’s forces. Ecuador
1876.12.14   US Congress debated a bipartisan commission. 1876
1876-77       Pedro II traveled to United States & Europe.
1876-79       Mariano Ignacio Prado was President of Peru.
1876-80       Uruguay Pres. Latorre imposed military law.
1876-80       General Hilarión Daza was President of Bolivia.
1876-81       Liberal Aníbal Pinto was President of Chile.
1876-83       Aurelio Soto was President of Honduras.
1876-85       Rafael Zaldívar was President of El Salvador.
1877.1.1      Howells published his biography of Hayes.
1877.1.4      Cornelius Vanderbilt left his son $95 million. Railroad
1877.1.10    US Congress proposed an Electoral Commission. Hayes
1877.1.29    Grant approved the Electoral Commission. Hayes
1877.2.9      Electoral Commission said Hayes won Florida.
1877.2.26    Grant met with Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee. United States
1877.2.28    Electoral Commission said Hayes won S. Carolina.
1877.3.1      Munn v. Illinois upheld Granger legislation. United States
1877.3.2      Electoral Commission said Hayes won 185-184.
1877.3.3      Haggin & Tevis got California land cheap. 1877
1877.3.5      President Hayes gave his inaugural address.
1877.3.6      US Senate confirmed all Hayes nominations.
1877.3.12    William Evarts became US Secretary of State. 1877
1877.3         Railroad owners colluded to reduce wages.
1877.3.21    National Farmer’s Alliance was organized. Unions
1877.3.22    Hayes declined to use force in Louisiana.
1877.3.30    Archbishop of Quito died of poisoned wine. Ecuador
1877.4.10    Hayes withdrew troops from South Carolina.
1877.4.12    President Gill was shot dead on a street. Paraguay
1877.4         Northern Cheyenne surrendered.
1877.4.20    Indian agent Clum arrested 17 Apaches.
1877.4.24    Hayes withdrew troops from Louisiana.
1877.4-5      Hayes government reformed customshouses.
1877.5.7      US Army defeated Lakota & Cheyenne.
1877.5.17    First telephone switchboard was set up. Bell
1877.6.15    Gen. Howard ordered the Nez Perces to move.
1877.6         Interior Sec. Schurz investigated Indian Bureau. 1877
1877.6         Pinkerton wrote Molly Maguires & Detectives1877
1877.6.22    Hayes banned political assessments.
1877.6.28    Veintemilla suspended the 1862 Concordat.
1877.6-10    US Army & Nez Perces fought battles.
1877           Hayes appointed 48 blacks from Louisiana.
1877           All former Confederate states leased prisoners. 1877
1877           Lewis H. Morgan published Ancient SocietyLearning
1877           Henry James published The American.
1877.7.1      Democrats refused to fund the US military. 1877
1877.7.8      US Army defeated Bannock, Shoshone, Paiutes. Ponca
1877.7.9      Bell Telephone Company began in Boston.
1877.7         US Congress funded public works in Louisiana. 1877
1877.7         US troops killed 30 people in Chicago strike. 1877
1877.7.16    Railroad worker strikes began.
1877.7.18    Hayes sent troops to disperse strikers. Railroad
1877.7.20    Maryland militia killed 10 strikers at Baltimore. Railroad
1877.7.21    Socialist Parsons spoke to 6,000 in Chicago. 1877
1877.7.21    Pennsylvania national guard killed 14 strikers. Railroad
1877.7-8      Jay Commission reformed election politics. 1877
1877.8         Uruguay got the Law of Common Education.
1877.9.4      Chief Crazy Horse was captured & killed. Cheyenne
1877.9         Hayes made a good-will tour in the South.
1877.10.5    Nez Perce Chief Joseph surrendered.
1877.10.17   Hayes approved the Southern Pacific Railroad.
1877.11.29   US Senate confirmed Justice John Harlan. 1877
1877.11.29   Edison recorded a voice & played it back.
1877.12.3    Hayes urged reforms for Indians. Nez Perce
1877-78       Banks in Chile collapsed.
1877-78       Republicans barely controlled US Senate 37-37. 1877
1877-78       Democrats controlled the US House 155-136. 1877
1877-80       Díaz was President of Mexico.
1877-82       Tomás Guardia was President of Costa Rica.
1878.1.3      Knights of Labor agreed on purposes.
1878.1.5      Pedro II appointed a Liberal leader.
1878.1         United States & Samoans made a treaty for Pago Pago.
1878.1.28    First commercial telephone switchboard began. Bell
1878.2.28    Congress passed Silver Purchase over a veto. 1878
1878.3-4      Hayes government made peace with Mexico.
1878.4         Hampton Institute accepted Indian students. Cheyenne
1878.5         Hayes had pardoned 284 people.
1878.5.31    Ecuador completed its 9th Constitution.
1878.5.31    US Congress reduced greenbacks’ circulation. 1878
1878.6.18    US Posse Comitatus Act became law. 1878
1878           Women began attending universities in Chile.
1878           US Congress funded Native American police. Cheyenne
1878           10,000 businesses failed in the United States.
1878           Gronlund wrote The Coming Revolution.
1878           Remington typewriters used a shift key. Inventions
1878           Child published Aspirations of the World.
1878           Royce got a Ph.D. at John Hopkins University.
1878           Powell published a report on arid lands. Learning
1878           Henry James H. James wrote The Europeans & Daisy Miller
1878.7.11    Hayes suspended Customs collector Arthur. 1878
1878.7.15    Lincoln County feud began in New Mexico Territory. 1878
1878.8.15    Paraguay elected Bareiro the President.
1878.8.21    Lawyers began the American Bar Association.  1878
1878.10.15  Edison Electric Light Company began.
1878.11.5    Democrats gained control of the US Senate. 1878
1878.11.12   Hayes settled a Paraguay & Argentina dispute.
1878.11       US Pres. Hayes ruled on Chaco for Paraguay
1878.11.16   Peru’s ex-President Pardo was assassinated.
1878.12.2    Hayes reported a $20,799,552 surplus.
1878.12       Chile ceded Patagonia & Straits to Argentina.
1878.12       Pulitzer bought the St. Louis DispatchLearning
1878-91       Macdonald was Canada’s Prime Minister.
1878-92       Debs edited the Firemen’s Magazine.
1879.1.1      US began redeeming legal tender notes. 1879
1879.2.14    Chile attacked Antofagasta, Bolivia.  Peru
1879.2         Brazil reform limited voting to the literate. 
1879.3.1      Hayes vetoed the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1879.3         Merger formed National Bell Telephone Co.
1879.3         Ann Lockwood was sworn in to US Courts. Suffrage
1879.3.18    Hayes-summoned Congress began.
1879.4.5      Chile declared war on Bolivia & Peru.
1879.4.29    Hayes vetoed the Army bill.
1879.4.29    Rockefeller was accused of having a monopoly.
1879.5.12    Standing Bear & Poncas won their case.
1879.5         St. Patrick’s Cathedral opened in New York. Religion
1879.5.21    Peru’s iron Huáscar sank Chile’s Esmeralda.
1879.6         Hayes signed an Army bill without riders.
1879           Canada raised tariffs as much as 35%.
1879           General Roca led suppression of Indians.
1879           Knights of Labor accepted blacks & women.
1879           Echo Farms Dairy carried milk in glass bottles. Inventions
1879           Gair made paper bags & cardboard boxes. Inventions
1879           Henry Adams wrote The Life of Albert Gallatin.
1879           George Washington Cable published Old Creole Days
1879.9.29    Utes killed agent Meeker & 34 others. 1877-80
1879.10.31   Liberals gained a majority in Brazil’s election.
1879.11.1    Carlisle Indian Industrial School began. 1877-80
1879-98       Willard was WCTU president.
1879.11.7    Ritter patented a cash register. Inventions
1879.11.19   9,500 Chilean troops occupied port of Pisagua. 
1879.11.27   Peruvians defeated Chileans at Tarapacá. Peru
1879.12.1    Hayes reported the economy was growing.
1879.12.11   Guatemala Assembly approved a constitution.
1879-81       Piérola was President of Peru.
1879-83       Zavala Solís was President of Nicaragua.
1879-84       Guzmán Blanco was President of Venezuela.
1879-86       Decoud was Paraguay’s Foreign Minister.
1879-88       Lysius Salomon was President of Haiti.
1880.1         Chile’s army invaded Arica & Tacna.
1880.1         Henry George published Progress and Poverty.
1880.1.27    Edison got a patent for his electric light.
1880.3         Mark Twain published A Tramp Abroad.
1880.3.30    Hayes opened NY Metropolitan Museum of Art.
1880.5.18    Edison tested his electric locomotive.
1880.5.26    Chile defeated Peru in Tacna battle.
1880.6.5      Garfield nominated John Sherman in Chicago.
1880.6.7      Chile’s army defeated Peruvians at Arica.
1880.6.7      Republicans nominated James Garfield. Elections
1880.6.7      New Yorker Arthur was chosen as VP.
1880.6         US Census counted 50,189,209 people. 1880
1880.6.24    Democrats nominated General Hancock. Elections
1880           Swift shipped beef in refrigerated railway cars. Inventions
1880           Berlitz began a language school in Boston. Learning
1880           Delany published Principia of EthnologyLearning
1880           Henry Adams published Democracy anonymously.
1880           George Washington Cable published The Grandissimes.
1880.7.3      US agreed to Madrid Treaty on Morocco. 1880
1880.7.4      New California constitution included initiatives. 1880
1880.7.12    Garfield accepted the Republican nomination.
1880.8.4      Arthur met with Garfield & Conkling men.
1880.8.11    General Sherman declared that war is hell. 1880
1880.9.4      Senate made Caballero Paraguay’s President.
1880.9.17    NY Civil Service Reform Association began. Garfield
1880.9-11    Hayes traveled around the United States.
1880.9-11    Arthur ran the New York campaign.
1880.11.2    Garfield defeated Hancock 214-155. Elections
1880.11.2    Republicans held the Senate again 37-37. Elections
1880.11.2    Republicans regained the House 151-128. Elections
1880.11.17   US diplomats made 2 treaties with China. 1880
1880.12.6    Hayes asked for education funding.
1880.12       Henry James published Washington Square.
1880.12.17   Morgan backed Edison Electric Illuminating Co.
1880.12.20   Blaine agreed to be US Secretary of State. Garfield
1880-82       Mapuche uprising led to Chile selling their land.
1880-84       General Campero was President of Bolivia.
1880-84       González Flores was President of Mexico.
1880-86       General Roca was President of Argentina.
1880-1906   Argentina’s Autonomy Party controlled elections.
1881.1         New York Senate elected Platt a US Senator. 1881
1881.1.17    Chile army took Lima & Peru surrendered.
1881.1.24    Springer v. United States upheld income tax. 1881
1881.2.1      Hayes accepted the Poncas’ decisions.
1881.2.11    VP Arthur hosted a dinner in New York. 1881
1881.2.22    Hayes banned alcohol sales at military bases.
1881.2.28    Garfield picked Levi Morton as Navy Secretary.
1881.3.4      Garfield was inaugurated as US President.
1881.3         Garfield reduced US bonds’ interest to 3.5%.
1881.3.13    Garfield learned Tsar Alexander II was killed.
1881.3.18    Arthur’s votes made 39 Senators chairmen.  Garfield
1881.3.20    Garfield met with Senator Conkling for 3 hours.
1881.3.22    Garfield named 5 New Yorkers for Conkling.
1881.3.24    US Senate accepted Robertson as NY collector. 1881
1881.4.7      Spain promised Cubans equal rights.
1881.4.14    Arthur asked Garfield to replace Robertson.
1881.4         Giteau asked Garfield for a job every day.
1881.4         Democrats’ filibusters blocked Republicans. 1881
1881.5.4      Blaine got Garfield to withdraw 5 NY Stalwarts.
1881.5.5      Garfield withdrew New York nominees.
1881.5         Giteau was not allowed in the White House. 1881
1881.5         George Beard wrote American Nervousness.  Learning
1881.5.16    New York’s Senators Conkling & Platt resigned. 1881
1881.5.18    Senators confirmed Robertson as NY collector. 1881
1881.5.21    Barton began American branch of Red Cross. Women Reformers
1881.5.24    VP Arthur went with Conkling to Albany.  1881
1881.6         Blaine worked on Latin American issues. 1881
1881           Readjusters helped blacks in Virginia. Garfield
1881           Garfield appointed over 2,000 Readjusters.
1881           Garfield made Douglass deeds recorder in DC.
1881           Helen H. Jackson criticized US Indian policies. United States
1881           History of Woman Suffrage was published. Women Reformers
1881           Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society began. Religion
1881           Mrs. Eddy published Science and Health.
1881           Mark Twain wrote The Prince and the Pauper.
1881           Henry James published Portrait of a Lady.
1881.7.1      Garfield named diplomats so he could leave.
1881.7.2      Giteau shot President Garfield in the back. Assassination
1881.7.4      Towns held prayer meetings. Assassination
1881.7.4      Booker T. Washington began Tuskegee Institute.
1881.7.13    Garfield’s pulse was down to 90.
1881.7         Paraguay’s National University began.
1881.7         Chile & Argentina agreed on a treaty.
1881.7         Schurz wrote about Indian problems. 1881
1881.7.19    Chief Sitting Bull & his son surrendered. 1881
1881.7.22    New York Senate elected 2 US Senators. Assassination
1881.8.8      Doctors operated on Garfield again.
1881.8         Garfield was very weak & signed only 1 paper.
1881.8.27    Julia Sand wrote Garfield urging reforms.
1881.8.31    US Army killed the prophet Nakaidoklini. 1881
1881.9.4      Edison lit up 400 electric lamps in New York.
1881.9.19    President Garfield died of infections.
1881.9.20    Arthur took the Presidential oath in NY. Assassination
1881.9.20    Hurlbut negotiated for a naval station in Peru. 1881
1881.9.22    Arthur was sworn in again at the Capitol.
1881.10.8    Arthur refused to replace Collector Robertson.
1881.10.22   Boston Symphony Orchestra began. Inventions
1881.11.7    Giteau’s trial began with 5 prosecutors. Assassination
1881.11.22   Secretary of State Blaine reprimanded Hurlbut. 1881
1881.11.29   Blaine proposed a Latin American conference. 1881
1881.12.6    Arthur sent a detailed message to Congress.
1881.12.19   Blaine resigned; Grant advised Frelinghuysen. 1881
1881-86       Santa María was President of Chile.
1881-1908   Benjamin Tucker published periodical Liberty.  Religion
1881-1916   Royce taught philosophy at Harvard.
1882.1.2      Standard Oil Trust was organized. Rockefeller
1882.1.2      Grover Cleveland became Mayor of Buffalo.
1882.2.25    US Congress passed the Reapportionment Act. 1882
1882.3.26    Veintemilla assumed dictatorial powers.
1882.3.29    McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus.  Religion
1882.4.4      Arthur vetoed stopping Chinese immigration.
1882.4.26    Arthur sent troops to Arizona to stop crimes.
1882.4.28    John Fox Slater Fund began with $1 million. 1882
1882.5.3      E. Morgan got Arthur to sign Chinese Exclusion. 1882
1882.5.15    Arthur approved a tariff commission.
1882.5.15    Republicans reduced tariffs. 1882
1882.5         Chinese Exclusion Act will be law for 10 years. Railroad
1882.5.22    US signed a commercial treaty with Korea. 1882
1882.6.3      Bell transmitted by a wireless telephone.
1882.6.30    Convicted Giteau was hanged in prison. Assassination
1882           Chile secularized marriage, birth & death.
1882           Donnelly wrote Atlantis: Antediluvian World.
1882           Prohibition Party opposed all monopolies. Temperance
1882           Herbert Spencer visited the United States. Social Darwinism
1882           William James became a Theosophist.
1882           Roosevelt published The Naval War of 1812Learning
1882           Howells published A Modern Instance.
1882.8         US Congress overrode veto on Rivers funding. 1882
1882.10       Press revealed Arthur has Bright’s disease.
1882.12.4    Arthur asked for more tariff reductions.
1882.12.20   US Navy asked for & got 4 new ships. 1882
1882-99       French attempts to build Panama Canal failed.
1883.1.1      Cleveland became Governor of New York.
1883.1.11    Restorers led by Alfaro took over Quito. Ecuador
1883.1.16    Arthur approved US Civil Service Commission.
1883.1.19    Roselle, New Jersey got electric lights.
1883.3.3      US Congress passed the “Mongrel Tariff Act.” 1883
1883.4         Arthur visited Georgia & Florida & got malaria.
1883.5         Arthur attended opening of Brooklyn Bridge.
1883.5         Mark Twain published Life on the Mississippi.
1883.5.24    Brooklyn Bridge spanned 1,585 feet. Inventions
1883           Nabuco de Araújo published O AbolicionismoBrazil
1883           Costa Rica gave Keith 800,000 acres.
1883           Cleveland & Roosevelt worked on NY reforms.
1883           Spreckels gained a sugar monopoly.
1883           Henry George published Social Problems.
1883           Armour Refrigerator Line transported meat. Inventions
1883           Westinghouse used natural gas pipelines. Inventions
1883           US telegraph extended to Brazil. Inventions
1883           Julius Schmid made condoms from lamb guts. Inventions
1883           Willard published Woman and Temperance.
1883           Ward published Dynamic Sociology.
1883           The monthly Christian Science Journal began.
1883.7.10    Chilean soldiers defeated Peruvians in Peru.
1883.7         US Navy sent ships to western Madagascar. 1883
1883.8         Arthur fished in Yellowstone National Park.
1883.8.21    Mayo Clinic hired Sisters of Saint Francis. Inventions
1883.10.15   Justice Harlan dissented on 5 civil rights cases. 1883
1883.10.22   New York Metropolitan Opera House opened. Inventions
1883.10.23   Peru gave Tacna to Chile in Ancón Treaty.
1883.11.1    Retiring Gen. Sherman wrote about the West. 1883
1883.11.6    Democrats used a race riot to regain Virginia. 1883
1883.12.4    Arthur rejected a naval arms race.
1883.12.17   Supreme Court upheld Indian independence. 1883
1883-87       Adán Cárdenas was President of Nicaragua.
1883-88       Caamaño was President of Ecuador.
1883-91       Luis Bográn was President of Honduras.
1884.2         Arthur stopped US arms trafficking.
1884.3.6      Suffragists demanded Arthur let women vote.
1884.3         Chile & Bolivia made a peace treaty.
1884.3         Royce lectured on “Ideals of Right Conduct.” 
1884.4.4      Bolivia ceded coast land to Chile.
1884.4         US recognized the Congo State of Leopold II. 1884
1884.5.4      Ida B. Wells pleaded in court for equal rights. 1884
1884.5.17    US Congress created Alaska Territory for gold. 1884
1884.6.6      Republicans nominated Blaine for President. 1884
1884.6         Lloyd wrote “Monopoly and Social Control.”
1884           Brazil Liberals regained a majority.
1884           Sarmiento promoted publishing of many books.
1884           US operated 163 schools for Indians. 1884
1884           T. T. Fortune wrote on land, labor & politics. Monopolies
1884           Gronlund wrote Co-operative Commonwealth.
1884           Mergenthaler patented his linotype machine. Inventions
1884           California banned hydraulic mining. Inventions
1884           William Jenny designed a 10-story “skyscraper.”  Inventions
1884           William Halsted used cocaine as an anesthetic. Inventions
1884           H. H. Jackson published the novel RamonaWomen Reformers
1884           John Fiske wrote The Destiny of Man.
1884           American Society for Psychical Research began. William James
1884           Russell Conwell began Temple University.
1884.7.6      Cleveland railway ran on electricity. Railroad
1884.7.10    Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland1884
1884.7.16    Booker T. Washington spoke to educators.
1884.7.21    Story broke that single Cleveland had a son.  1884
1884.8         Chilean troops left Peru.
1884.8.27    General Cáceres led guerrilla attack on Lima.
1884.10.6    Navy War College was founded at Newport. 1884
1884.10       Ward published “Mind as a Social Factor.”
1884.10.31   McCulloch became US Treasury Secretary. 1884
1884.11.3    Elk v. Wilkins decided Indians are not citizens. 1884
1884.11.4    Cleveland won Electoral College 219-182. 1884
1884.12.16   World’s Cotton Centennial Exposition began. 1884
1884-88       Wealthy Pacheco was President of Bolivia.
1884-1911   Díaz was President of Mexico again.
1884-1933   Brazil accepted 6,077,000 immigrants.
1885.1.4      Dr. Grant successfully removed an appendix. Inventions
1885.1         Royce wrote Religious Aspect of Philosophy.
1885.1         George Washington Cable wrote “The Freedman’s Case in Equity.”
1885.2.21    Washington Monument was completed. 1884 Inventions
1885.2.25    Congress banned wire fences on public land. West
1885.2.27    Arthur opened Indian land to white settlers.
1885.2.28    Barrios proclaimed Central America. Guatemala
1885.2.28    Foran Act banned indentured service.  1885 Unions
1885.2-3      Jay Gould cut railroad workers’ pay by 10%.
1885.3.3      Pres. Arthur approved 2 cruisers & 2 gunboats.
1885.3.4      President Cleveland was inaugurated.
1885.3.13    Cleveland told settlers to stay off Indian land.
1885.3         50,000 coal miners were on strike. 1886
1885.3         John Fiske wrote “Manifest Destiny.”
1885.3.18    Métis & Riel proclaimed a government. Canada
1885.3.31    Barrios led invasion of El Salvador. Guatemala
1885.3-4      US Navy intervened in Colón, Panama.
1885.4.3      Cleveland opened public land to settlers.
1885.4.15    Guatemala restored diplomatic relations.
1885.4.17    Cleveland reversed Arthur’s Indian policies.
1885.6.25    Cleveland wrote that he did not favor friends.
1885           United States had 7.5% unemployment. 1885
1885           Cleveland approved Interstate Commerce Act.
1885           Cleveland grew gold reserve to $151 million.
1885           Animal Husbandry Bureau found Salmonella1885
1885           US had 325,000 Civil War pensioners. Cleveland
1885           American Economic Association began. Monopolies
1885           Arthur Hadley wrote Railroad Transportation
1885           Paper was made from ground-up wood. Inventions
1885           Baltimore electric trolley used overhead wires. Inventions
1885           Johnson brothers applied antiseptic methods. Inventions
1885           H. H. Jackson published Century of DishonorWomen Reformers
1885           William James published his father’s works.
1885           Henry Beecher wrote Evolution and Religion.
1885           Howells published The Rise of Silas Lapham.
1885           Howells published Indian Summer.
1885           Mark Twain wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
1885.7.11    Paraguay passed a law on Chaco land.
1885.7.20    Canada imposed a head tax on the Chinese.
1885.8.8      Over 1 million attended Grant’s funeral parade. United States
1885.9.28    Brazil freed older slaves with conditions.
1885.9.30    Immigrants killed 28 Chinese in Wyoming. 1885
1885.11.3    Whites in Seattle expelled 150 Chinese. 1885
1885.11       National Tariff Reform League began. United States
1885.12.3    Peru’s President Iglesias resigned.
1885.12.8    Cleveland favored friendly foreign relations.
1885.12.8    William Vanderbilt left his son $200 million. Railroad
1885.12.12   Cleveland criticized lies in newspapers.
1885.12       Ely spoke on “The Needs of the City.” Learning
1885.12       Mark Twain published Grant’s Memoirs.
1885-86       Republicans controlled US Senate 37-34. 1885
1885-86       Democrats controlled US House 182-141. 1885
1885-90       Soto Alfaro was President of Costa Rica.
1885-90       Menéndez was President of El Salvador.
1885-92       Barillas Bercián was President of Guatemala.
1886.1.4      Cleveland urged independent gov’t. branches.
1886.1         Brazil Conservatives regained a majority.
1886.2         National Christian Science Association began.
1886.3         Treasury Dept. reduced customs fraud. 1886
1886.3.25    Geronimo & Chiricahua accepted 2-year exile. Indians
1886.4         Cleveland asked for better labor relations.
1886.5.1      100,000 trade unionists demanded 8-hour day.  1886
1886.5.4      Police fought workers in Haymarket riot.  1886
1886.5.10    US Supreme Court gave corporations equal rights. 1886
1886.5.10    Yiek Mo v. Hopkins defended Chinese rights. 1886
1886.6.2      Cleveland got married in the White House.
1886.6.16    Battle y Ordóñez began publishing El Día.
1886            Peru gave Michael P. Grace a rich contract.
1886           90% of California farm workers were Chinese.  1886
1886           Strikes in the US doubled since 1885.  1886
1886           Cleveland approved 5 cruisers & 2 battleships.
1886           Cleveland reduced fraud against Indians.
1886           Rockefeller began the Natural Gas Trust.
1886           Carnegie published Triumphant Democracy.
1886           Colored Farmers’ National Alliance began. Unions
1886           Willard wrote How to Win: A Book for Girls.
1886           Ethical Culture Societies began in big cities. Evolution
1886           Royce wrote a history of California 1846-56.
1886           Ely published The Labor MovementLearning
1886           Coit began a settlement house in New York. Learning
1886           Henry James published The Bostonians.
1886.7         Knights of Labor had 729,000 members. 1886 Strike
1886.7         Huntington urged capitalists & workers to talk. Religion
1886.9.4      Geronimo surrendered & was taken to Florida. West
1886.9.28    Brazil banned whipping as a punishment.
1886.10.28   Statue of Liberty was dedicated in New York. 1886
1886.11       Democrats lost House seats, still led 167-152. 1886
1886.11.18   Chester Arthur died. United States
1886-90       Celman was President of Argentina.
1886-90       Patricio Escobar was President of Paraguay.
1886-90       Cáceres was President of Peru.
1886-91       Balmaceda was President of Chile.
1886-94       Núñez Moledo was President of Colombia.
1886-94       Colombia mistreated Panama.
1887.1         Blizzard killed 200 people & millions of cattle. West
1887.1         Felt invented a calculating machine with keys. Inventions
1887.1.20    US planned naval base at Pearl Harbor, Oahu. 1887
1887.2.8      Dawes Act allotted tribal land to families. West
1887.2.16    Cleveland vetoed the Texas Seed bill.
1887.2.20    Cardinal Gibbons talked to Pope Leo XIII. Religion
1887.3.2      US Hatch Act funded colleges & agriculture. 1887
1887.3.3      US Tenure of Office Act was repealed. 1886 1887
1887.3.3      Edmunds-Tucker Act banned polygamy. 1887
1887.3.3      Anne Sullivan taught Helen Keller language. Bell
1887.4.7      Interstate Commerce Act became law. 1887
1887.4.10    Catholic University of America began.  1887 Religion
1887.4.17    Roger Mills argued for tax reform. 1887
1887.5.19    Mills tax bill passed House, but not the Senate. 1887
1887           Brazil still had 723,419 slaves.
1887           Chilean Radicals began the Democratic Party.
1887           N. Martínez criticized concertaje labor laws. Ecuador
1887           Drought reduced corn production. 1887
1887           Florida segregated blacks on railways. 1887
1887           James Hudson wrote Railways & the RepublicRailroad Union
1887.7.6      King Kalākaua signed a Hawaiian constitution. 1887
1887.8.25    Caballeros founded the Colorado Party. Paraguay
1887.10.10   Edison Phonograph Company was organized.
1887.11.11   Illinois hanged 4 Haymarket anarchists. 1886
1887.11.23   Louisiana forces killed striking workers. 1887
1887.12.6    Cleveland asked for lower tariffs.
1887-88       Ill Pedro II visited Europe.
1887-99       Ulises Heureaux was Dominican President.
1888.2.27    Railway brotherhoods went on strikeRailroad Union
1888.3.5      Union began a boycott of the CB&Q Railroad. Strike
1888.3.6      Regent Isabel’s cabinet resigned. Brazil
1888.3.12    US & Chinese signed a treaty in Washington. 1888
1888.5.13    Brazil’s Golden Law freed all the slaves.
1888.6.6      Democrats renominated Cleveland.
1888.6.19    Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison1888
1888           Catholic University of Chile was founded.
1888           Mark Hanna raised $100,000 for Republicans. 1888
1888           Republicans gave $150,000 to NY bosses. 1888
1888           Bellamy wrote Looking Backward.
1888           Donnelly published Great Cryptogram.
1888           Knights of Labor had 260,000 members. Strike
1888           Parker Brothers sold toys & board games. Inventions
1888           Eastman began selling the Kodak camera. Inventions
1888           Willard published Woman in the Pulpit.
1888           Bryce wrote The American CommonwealthLearning
1888           Arnold wrote Civilization in the United StatesLearning
1888.7.13    US planned a Latin American conference. 1888
1888.9.28    Isabel vowed obedience to Pope Leo XIII. Brazil
1888.10.8    Conformist Chief Justice Waite began 22 years. 1888
1888.11.8    Harrison won Electoral College 233-168. 1888
1888.11.8    Republicans gained the US House 179-152. Harrison
1888.12       Cleveland criticized the wealthy.
1888-89       Chile abolished taxes on income & estates.
1888-89       Railroad workers were on strike.
1888-92       Conservative Arce was President of Bolivia.
1888-92       Flores Jijón was President of Ecuador.
1889.1.1      Wovoka had a vision & began Ghost Dance. Indians
1889.1.2      Banking houses met to reduce competition.  Capitalism
1889.1.10    Cleveland sent 2 warships to Samoa.
1889.2.10    Harrison opened Sioux land to settlers. Oklahoma Territory
1889.2         Carnegie wrote on trusts.
1889.2.22    Montana, Washington & 2 Dakotas joined US. Cleveland
1889.3.2      Harrison opened Cherokee land to settlers.  Oklahoma
1889.3         Brazil established a War College.
1889.3.3      Cleveland approved Indian land for settlers. 1889
1889.3.4      President Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated.
1889.3.5      US Senate confirmed 8 cabinet officers. 1889
1889.3.12    Harrison gave Indian land to settlers.
1889.4.22    50,000 people claimed land in Oklahoma. 1889
1889.5.2      US made Indian land Oklahoma Territory1889
1889.6         Carnegie wrote “Wealth” & urged charity.
1889           Brazil produced 57% of the world’s coffee.
1889           US Navy captured 8 Canadian ships. 1889
1889           US Army had 25,582 men & 11% desertion. United States
1889           Singer made electric sewing machines. Inventions
1889           David Wells wrote Recent Economic ChangesInventions
1889           Bicycles with 2 equal wheels were sold. Inventions
1889           Gray patented a coin-operated telephone. Inventions
1889           Otis Company installed first electric elevator. Inventions
1889           Willard published Glimpses of Fifty Years
1889           Central Conference of American Rabbis began. Religion
1889           Wilson in The State urged general welfare. Learning
1889           Blair published The Prosperity of the SouthLearning
1889.12       Conservative Brewer joined Supreme Court. 1889
1889.3.15    US & Germany lost ships in cyclone at Samoa. 1889
1889.5.31    Flood in Johnstown, Pennsylvania killed 2,208. 1889
1889.6.5      Clara Barton led 50 nurses to help Johnstown. 1889
1889.6.14    US, Germany & British governed Samoa. 1889
1889.7.1      Harrison sent Douglass as minister to Haiti.
1889.7.8      Dow & Jones published their industrial average. Monopolies
1889.8.7      Balmaceda chose a new cabinet led by Prats.
1889.8.31    Brazil’s Liberals regained a large majority.
1889.9         Douglass represented US at Santo Domingo. 1889
1889.9         Jane Addams & Gates founded Hull House.
1889.10.2    US hosted Latin American conference. 1889
1889.10.2    Blaine called for no armies in America. 1889
1889.10.15   Carl Schurz warned about future US forests. 1889
1889.11       Oliveira Viana published Setting of the EmpireBrazil
1889.11       Harrison approved admission of 4 states.
1889.11.15   Deodoro’s rebels took over Brazil’s government.
1889.11.17   Pedro II & his family left Brazil.
1889.12.3    Deodora had 5 jurists write a constitution. Brazil
1889.12.3    Harrison laid out his legislative agenda.
1889.12.15   Indian police killed Chief Sitting Bull.  US
1889.12       Mississippi restricted voting to keep blacks out. 1889
1889.12      Mark Twain wrote Connecticut Yankee in Arthur’s Court.
1889.12.19   Gen. Miles warned US gov’t. of treaty fraud. US
1889.12.29   US Army killed many Sioux at Wounded Knee.
1889-90       Republicans controlled the US Senate 38-37. 1889
1889-91       Frederick Douglass advised Haitians.
1889-91       Henry Adams wrote History of the US 1801-1817. Learning
1889-96       Hyppolite was President of Haiti.
1890.1.7      Brazil declared church & state separate.
1890.1.15    Sioux surrendered at White Clay Creek. Wounded Knee
1890.1         European influenza pandemic infected the US. United States
1890.1.25    United Mine Workers of America organized. Unions
1890.2.14    Republicans changed the US House rules. 1890
1890.2.18    NWSA & AWSA merged to form NAWSA.  Women Reformers
1890.3.3      US Supreme Court let Mississippi segregate. 1890
1890.3         US granted a 20-year lease to hunt seals.  1891
1890.3.20    Senate blocked federal aid to public schools. 1890
1890.3.24    US Supreme Court overruled Munn v. Illinois1890
1890.6         Brazil decree excluded Africans & Asians.
1890.6.22    Carlos Ezeta’s coup killed President Menéndez. El Salvador
1890.6.27    Harrison made the Dependent Pension Act law.
1890           British owned 70% of Chile’s nitrates.
1890           Peru exempted mining industry from taxes.
1890           US Census counted 248,253 Native Americans. 1890
1890           US railroad investments were $10 billion. Capitalism
1890           J. P. Morgan inherited $15 million.
1890           Riis published How the Other Half Lives.
1890           Donnelly publishedCaesar’s Column.
1890           Kellogg began Sanitas Food with Granola. Inventions
1890           WCTU led by Willard had 160,000 members. Women Reformers
1890           General Federation of Women’s Clubs formed.
1890           Irish Lease gave 61 speeches in Kansas. Women Reformers
1890           Woodward wrote Manual Training in Education.  Learning
1890           George Washington Cable published The Negro Question.
1890           Howells published A Hazard of New Fortunes.
1890.7.2      Harrison made the Sherman Antitrust Act law.
1890.7.2      US joined Slave Trade Convention in Brussels. 1890
1890.7.3      Idaho & Wyoming were admitted as states. 1890
1890.7         Dockworkers in Iquique began a strike. Chile
1890.7.14    Harrison approved the Silver Purchase Act.
1890.7.29    Harrison opposed lotteries in the mail.
1890.8         US Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act. 1890
1890.9         US opened 900,000 acres to white settlers. 1890
1890.9-10    US established 2 National Parks in California.  1890
1890.10.1    Harrison made the McKinley Tariff bill law.
1890.10       William James wrote Principles of Psychology
1890.11       Mary Baker Eddy wrote Retrospection & Introspection
1890,1892    Mahan published Influence of Sea Power books. Learning
1890-94       Uruguay President Herrera reduced military.
1890-94       Juan González was President of Paraguay.
1890-94       Constitutional Bermúdez was Peru’s President.
1891.1.8      Cleveland spoke on democracy.
1891.1.10    American Sugar Refining Co. reorganized. 1891
1891.1         Brazil’s stock market crashed.
1891.1         Alem spoke to Civic Union Party convention. Argentina
1891.1         Congress rebelled against Balmaceda.
1891.1.21    Brazil’s 6 ministers resigned.
1891.2.11    Muñoz Rivera began editing La DemocraciaPuerto Rico
1891.2         Senate blocked Lodge’s Federal Elections Bill. 1890
1891.2.25    Brazil Assembly elected Deodoro President.
1891.3.3      Judiciary Act created 9 Circuit Appeal Courts. 1891
1891.3.14    Murder of police chief led to killing 11 Italians. 1891
1891.3         US Congress created forest reserves. 1891
1891.4-5      Harrison traveled to the west coast.
1891.5.19    National Union Conference met in Cincinnati. 1891
1891.6.8      Laurier spoke about John Macdonald.
1891.6.26    Radicals & nationals split the Civic Union Party. Argentina
1891           Uruguay’s Banco Nacional collapsed.
1891           Balmaceda’s forces lost the civil war in Chile.
1891           Haiti’s public debt reached $25 million.
1891           4 more states enacted Jim Crow laws. 1891
1891           Coca-Cola had sugar, coca leaves & caffeine. Monopolies
1891           Typhoid killed 2,000 people in Chicago. Pullman’s Company
1891           Whitcomb Judson invented the zipper. Inventions
1891           Strowger invented a rotary dial telephone. Inventions
1891           A St. Paul company sold electric ovens. Inventions
1891.7         Francis Parker spoke to teachers at Chautauqua.
1891.9.19    Balmaceda shot himself dead. Chile
1891.10.16   117 US sailors fought in a Chile bar-room. 1891
1891.11.1    La Unión newspaper appealed to immigrants. Argentina
1891.11       Deodoro dissolved Assembly & resigned. Brazil
1891.12.9    Harrison wrote a long message to Congress.
1891-92       US made several reciprocity treaties. 1891
1891,1893    Matto de Turner wrote Indole and Heredity.  Peru
1891,1893    Cone published Gospel Criticism books. Religion
1891-96       Admiral Jorge Montt was President of Chile.
1892.1         Debs spoke to a large labor rally in Chicago.
1892.2.12    US made Lincoln’s birthday a holiday. 1892
1892.2         Donnelly wrote the People’s Party platform.
1892.2.29    Harrison accepted a treaty with Canada.
1892.3.2      Ohio Supreme Court convicted Standard Oil. Rockefeller
1892.4.19    Harrison promised Indian land to settlers.
1892.5.5      Geary Act renewed Chinese exclusion. Railroad
1892.5.5      President Harrison approved Chinese exclusion.
1892.5         Mark Twain published The Claimant.
1892.5.21    Ida B. Wells wrote Free Speech editorial on lynching.
1892.6.4      Harrison accepted Blaine’s resignation.
1892.6.10    Republicans nominated Harrison again.
1892.6.22    Democrats nominated Cleveland again. 1892
1892           Chile enacted Communal Autonomy.
1892           Morgan organized General Electric Company.
1892           Rockefeller gave away $1,350,000.
1892           Havemeyer’s Sugar Trust controlled 98%. Monopolies
1892           Duryea brothers tested a rotary-engine buggy. Inventions
1892           Froelic invented a gas-powered tractor. Inventions
1892           Macy & Company sold pasteurized milk. Inventions
1892           Royce published Spirit of Modern Philosophy.
1892           Abbott published The Evolution of ChristianityReligion
1892           Baptists began Brotherhood of the Kingdom. Religion
1892           Henry Adams gave $1,000 to Columbia U. library.
1892.7.4      People’s Party nominated James Weaver. 1892
1892.7.6      Pinkerton agents battled striking steelworkers. 1892
1892.7.11    Harrison sent troops to Idaho silver mines.
1892.7.12    Pennsylvania sent 8,500 militia to Homestead. 1892
1892.7.14    Harrison spoke to National Educational Assoc.
1892.7         Lockout & strike closed Homestead Steel.
1892.7.23    Idaho miners went back to work for same pay. 1892
1892.8         27 died over a Tennessee coal strike. 1892
1892.9         Harrison nursed his wife & wrote for workers.
1892.10.12   Children pledging allegiance to the US began. 1892
1892.10.15   Land of Crow people was opened to settlers. 1892
1892.10       Rice told Page that Parker’s school was best.
1892.10.23   World Columbian Exposition began in Chicago. 1892
1892.10.25   Harrison’s wife died of tuberculosis.
1892.11.8    Cleveland won Electoral College vote 277-145. 1892
1892.11.8    Democrats retained control of Congress. 1892
1892.11       Ida B. Wells published Southern Horrors on lynch law.
1892.12.6    Harrison reviewed his accomplishments.
1892-95       Luis Sáenz Peña was President of Argentina.
1892-95       Luis Cordero was President of Ecuador.
1892-96       Conservative Baptista was President of Bolivia.
1892-98       Joaquín Crespo was President of Venezuela.
1892-98       Reina Barrios was President of Guatemala.
1893.1.4      United States granted amnesty to polygamists. 1893
1893.1.6      Great Northern Railway is finished to Seattle. Railroad
1893.1.12    Hawaii’s cabinet resigned. 1893
1893.1.14    Queen Lili’uokalani proclaimed a constitution. 1893
1893.1.14    Provisional government replaced Hawaii’s Queen. 1893
1893.1.16    US Marines landed in Honolulu. 1893
1893.1.17    Americans supported Dole’s government. 1893
1893.2.1      Minister Stevens proclaimed a US protectorate. 1893
1893.2.2      Harrison named a Democrat to Supreme Court.
1893.2.13    Ida B. Wells lectured in Boston on lynching.
1893.2.14    US signed a treaty annexing Hawaii. 1893
1893.2         American Railway Union (ARU) began.
1893.2.23    Railroad bankruptcies began in the US. 1893
1893.3.1      US Diplomatic Appropriations Act passed. 1893 Cleveland
1893.3.4      Cleveland gave his inaugural address.
1893.3.9      Cleveland canceled annexation of Hawaii. 1893
1893.3.25    US Supreme Court ruled against union leaders. United States
1893.4.6      New Mormon Temple opened in Salt Lake City. Religion
1893.4.13    ARU & Northern RR workers began a strike.
1893.4.13    Gen. Coxey began a protest march in Ohio. Debs
1893.4.18    ARU & strike leaders met at St. Paul.
1893.4.21    125,000 United Mine Workers went on strike. Debs
1893.5.5      Panic began at the New York Stock Exchange. 1893
1893.6.9      200 executives met at St. Paul, Minnesota. 1893
1893.6.26    Darrow persuaded Altgeld to pardon convicts. Cleveland
1893.6.27    Silver price fell to 77 cents an ounce. 1893
1893.6.30    Altgeld sent 300 militiamen to help railroads. Cleveland
1893           Brazil law made recent immigrants citizens.
1893           Argentina renegotiated its foreign debt.
1893           Council of Women of Canada began.
1893           US had 966,012 Civil War pensioners. United States
1893           642 banks & 194 railroads failed. 1893
1893           16,000 businesses became bankrupt. 1893
1893           Josiah Strong wrote The New EraMonopolies
1893           Pullman Corporation had 2,573 palace cars.
1893           Williams performed first open-heart surgery. Inventions
1893           John Hopkins U began a Medical School. Inventions
1893           Woman of the Century included 1,470 women.
1893           Ward wrote The Psychic Factors of Civilization.
1893.7.1      Cleveland had secret surgery for cancer.
1893.7.3      Cleveland met with cabinet and sent troops.
1893.7.6      Mobs damaged 150 boxcars, burned 700 cars. Strike
1893.7.9      Cleveland sent Navy, Marines & Army.
1893.7.12    Knights of Labor advised arbitration. Strike
1893.7.12    Henry George spoke to 10,000 in New York. Strike
1893.7.12    Turner spoke on the American frontier. Learning
1893.7.26    US Labor Commission investigation began. Strike
1893.8.7      Cleveland called Congress to repeal Silver Act.
1893.8         15% of US workers were unemployed. 1893
1893.8.16    William J. Bryan gave an influential speech. 1893
1893.8.27    Pullman was criticized for refusing arbitration. Strike
1893.9.16    100,000 settlers got lots in the Cherokee Strip. 1893
1893.10.20   Northern Pacific Railroad declared bankruptcy. 1893
1893.10.26   Ida B. Wells & Douglass protested Chicago Exposition.
1893.10.30   US Congress repealed the Silver Act. 1893
1893.11.5    Selden patented an automobile clutch. Inventions
1893.12.4    Cleveland gave his report to US Congress.
1893.12.7    Cleveland handed Hawaiian crisis to Congress.
1893.12       American Federation of Labor wanted 8-hr day. 1893
1893.12.18   Cleveland advised Congress on Hawaii.
1893.12.30   US repealed the Silver Purchase Act. 1894
1893-95       Brazil suffered in the Federalist Revolution.
1893-95       Civil Service Commissioner Roosevelt stayed. 1893
1893-1909   Santos Zelaya was President of Nicaragua.
1894.1.4      Cleveland granted amnesty to polygamists.
1894.1.8      Chicago fire damaged Columbian Exposition. 1894
1894.1         US Navy ended rebel blockade in Brazil.
1894.1         US Gov’t gold reserve fell to $69 million. 1894
1894.2.8      US repealed the 1871 Enforcement Act. 1894
1894.2.20    Anthony & Stanton spoke to Senate committee. Women Reformers
1894.3.25    US planned to coin 55,150,000 silver dollars. 1894
1894.3.29    Cleveland vetoed the silver coinage.
1894.4.20    100,000 coal workers went on Strike.
1894.4.28    160,000 United Mine workers were on Strike.
1894.5.1      Many unemployed marched in Washington DC. Debs
1894.5.1      Great Northern Railway strike succeeded.
1894.5-7      Ida B. Wells gave speeches in Britain.
1894.6.12    400 American Railway Union delegates met.
1894.6         Douglass published The Lesson of the Hour1894
1894.6.26    Pullman strike & boycott began.
1894.6.28    US made September Labor Day a holiday. 1894 Union
1894           Javier Prado wrote Estado SocialChile
1894           Nicaragua incorporated the Mosquito Reserve.
1894           US farm mortgages totaled $2.2 billion. 1894
1894           Kansas & Nebraska had drought, foreclosures. 1894
1894           Boston began Immigration Restriction League. 1894
1894           Lloyd wrote Wealth Against CommonwealthSocial Control
1894           Pullman gave dividends while wages fell 25%.
1894           Hershey developed a chocolate bar. Inventions
1894           NAWSA demanded equal pay for equal work. Women Reformers
1894           Addams read Kingdom of God Is Within You.
1894           Muir published The Mountains of CaliforniaLearning
1894           Howells published A Traveler from Altruria.
1894           Francis Parker published Talks on Pedagogics.
1894           Mark Twain published Pudd’nhead Wilson.
1894.7.3      US Senate passed the Wilson Tariff Bill. 1894
1894.7.4      Hawaii became a republic. 1894
1894.7.4      US troops arrived in Chicago to protect mail. strike
1894.7.5      Chicago railway strike became a riot.
1894.7.5      Gov. Altgeld mobilized 3,000 state militia. strike
1894.7.6      Chicago strike riot caused $340,000 damage.
1894.7.10    US Marshal Arnold arrested Debs. ARU Strike
1894.7.11    Debs & ARU began a General Strike.
1894.7.12    Debs asked AFL & Gompers to mediate. ARU Strike
1894.7.30    NY Herald Tribune printed Ida B. Wells on lynching.
1894.8         Pullman Co. rehired 1,900 employees.
1894.8.18    Carey Act granted land to Idaho & Wyoming. 1894
1894.8.27    Wilson Tariff Bill & income tax became law. 1894
1894.9.4      12,000 garment workers went on strike in NY. 1894
1894.11.5    Brazil made a friendship treaty with Japan.
1894.11.6    Republicans gained the US House 253-93. 1894
1894.11       US Treasury sold bonds to raise gold reserve.  1894
1894.11.20   Nicaragua incorporated the Bluefields. 
1894.11.22   US & Japan agreed to a commercial treaty. 1894
1894.12.3    Cleveland reported on foreign policy & gold.
1894.12.12   Carl Schurz spoke on civil service reforms. 1894
1894.12.31   US Gov’t. had only $31 million in gold. 1894
1894-95       Democrats led US Senate 40-39-5. 1894
1894-98       Egusquiza was President of Paraguay.
1894-98       Caro was President of Colombia.
1894-98       Gutiérrez was President of El Salvador.
1894-99       Policarpo Bonilla was President of Honduras.
1894-1902   Yglesias Castro was President of Costa Rica.
1895.1.21    US Courts let American Sugar be a monopoly. 1895
1895.2.8      J. P. Morgan raised US gold to $107,550,000. 1895
1895.2         Farmers Alliance argued people lost $8 million.1895
1895.2.20    Frederick Douglass died. 1895
1895.2.21    New York World wrote Morgan got $5 million. 1895
1895.3.8      Spanish gunboat attacked USS Alliance1895
1895.3.17    Piérola’s rebels attacked Lima; 2,500 died. Peru
1895.4.8      US Supreme Court canceled US income tax. 1894
1895.5.27    US Supreme Court approved Chinese exclusion. 1895
1895.6.10    Sen. Lodge urged Monroe Doctrine use force. 1895
1895.6.12    Cleveland declared neutrality on Cuban revolt.
1895.6         Taylor wrote “A Piece-Rate System of Wages.” Inventions
1895           Leguía began South American Insurance Co. Peru
1895           France sent Alfred Dreyfus to Devil’s Island. French Guiana
1895           Guatemala had 33 newspapers.
1895           Carnegie gave Pittsburgh a $25-million library.
1895           Wilbur Atwater calculated calories from food. Inventions
1895           Hartford Rubber Works made pneumatic tires. Inventions
1895           C. W. Post began the Postum Cereal Co. Inventions
1895           Over 300 motorcars were sold. Inventions
1895           Ward & Bates wrote “America the Beautiful.” Inventions
1895           Stanton published The Woman’s Bible.
1895           Anti-Saloon League became national. Temperance
1895           Ida B. Wells published A Red Record on lynching.
1895           George D. Herron published Christian StateReligion
1895           Mrs. Eddy abolished pastors & retained Readers.
1895           Mark Twain published his book on Joan of Arc.
1895.7.20    Cleveland advised British to use arbitration.
1895.8.23    Treaty ended Brazil’s Federalist Revolution.
1895.8.26    Tesla made electric power from Niagara Falls. Inventions
1895.9.18    Booker T. Washington spoke in Atlanta. 1895
1895.10.8    Work began to make Ohio River navigable. 1895
1895.11.5    Utah granted women the right to vote. 1895
1895.11       Ward wrote “Plutocracy and Paternalism.” 
1895.12.2    Cleveland on his foreign & financial policies.
1895.12.7    British said Monroe Doctrine is illegal. 1895
1895.12       Bolivia ceded territory to Chile.
1895-99       Piérola was President of Peru.
1895-1901   Eloy Alfaro was President of Ecuador.
1896.1.4      United States made Utah a state. 1895
1896.1.29    Grubbe used X-rays on breast cancer. Inventions
1896.2.5      Plan raised US gold, gave Morgan $33 million. 1896
1896.2.20    Senator Lodge urged support for Cuban rebels. 1896
1896.3         Cleveland warned that Republicans would win.
1896.3.16    US Supreme Court set Texas-Oklahoma border. 1896
1896.3.16    Lodge backed a literacy requirement. 1896
1896.3.27    First long-distance phone call Boston to NY. Bell
1896.4.4      Cleveland offered to mediate for Spain & Cuba.
1896.4.23    Edison’s Vitascope projector showed movies.
1896.5.6      Samuel Langley flew a model airplane. Inventions
1896.5.18    Plessy v. Ferguson approved race segregation. 1896
1896.5.18    Justice Harlan wrote a dissent on Plessy1896
1896.5.29    Prohibition Party nominated Baptist Levering. 1896
1896.6.4      Henry Ford tested his Quadricycle. Inventions
1896.6.16    Republicans nominated Gov. William McKinley. Elections
1896.6.28    Justo began the Socialist Party in Argentina.
1896           Uruguay’s teachers got a pension fund.
1896           Chile’s military spending was 48 million pesos.
1896           Mariano H. Cornejo taught sociology. Peru
1896           Villarán taught law and philosophy. Peru
1896           Socialist leader De Leon edited The PeopleSocial Control
1896           Sousa’s El Capitan ran on Broadway 112 times. Inventions
1896           B. Adams wrote Law of Civilization & DecayLearning
1896           G. W. Carver began teaching at Tuskegee Institute.
1896.7.4      Socialist Labor Party nominated Matchett. Elections
1896.7.10    Democrats nominated William J. Bryan. Elections
1896.8.16    Gold was discovered in the Yukon Territory. 1896
1896.6-11    Republican Party raised $3.5 million. Elections
1896.9.15    Central America Republic was ratified. El Salvador
1896.10.1    US Postal Office began Rural Free Delivery. 1896
1896.10.10   Delegates elected Alfaro Interim President.
1896.11.3    McKinley won Electoral College vote 271-176. Elections
1896.11.3    Republicans held US Senate 48-32. Elections
1896.11.3    Republicans held US House 206-124. Elections
1896.11       Brazil’s force led to an 11-month war in Bahia.
1896.12.7    Cleveland advised peace with Cuba.
1896.12.28   Iglesias began Regional Workers Federation. Puerto Rico
1896-99       Conservative Fernández was Bolivia President.
1896-1901   Errázuriz Echaurren was President of Chile.
1896-1902   Simon Sam was President of Haiti.
1896-1911   Laurier was Canada’s Prime Minister.

Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020, 2023 by Sanderson Beck

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1844
Chronology of America to 1845-96
Chronology of Latin America to 1935
Chronology of United States to 1896
Chronology of Canada to 1935

World Chronology to 30 BC

World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830


BECK index