BECK index

North & South America

Chronological Index of Events


World Chronology to 1830
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830

Chronology of Latin America to 1865

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1787-1829

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1850 1855 1860 1865

(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

1844-45  President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45      President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48      Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62      Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.
1845.1.4     California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1.4     Creeks & Seminoles made a treaty. Native
1845.1        Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1        Congress set date for US Presidential elections. Polk
1845.1.21   Giddings warned US would assume Texas debt. Polk
1845.1.31   Senator Douglas proposed Nebraska Territory. Polk
1845.1.28   Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2        Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2        Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2        Canada’s Parliament granted general amnesty.
1845.2.15   Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22   Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27   Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1     Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.4     Polk began 4-year US Presidency.
1845.3.6     Polk made Buchanan Secretary of State.
1845.3        Frémont reported on western exploration. Polk
1845.3.28   Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.3.31   Robert Owen wrote open letter “To Capitalists.” Polk
1845.5-6     Fires burned two-thirds of Quebec City. Canada
1845.6.1     Frémont began his 3rd expedition in St. Louis. Polk
1845.6.4     President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.8     Ex-President Andrew Jackson died. Polk
1845.6.15   Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6        Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass published.
1845.6.23   Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24   Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845           Frederick Douglass autobiography is published.
1845           Sarmiento published Civilization and BarbarismArgentina
1845           Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845           British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845           Cuba outlawed the slave trade.
1845           5,000 Americans took the Oregon Trail west. Polk
1845           Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845           Porter began weekly Scientific AmericanPolk
1845           Elias Howe got patents for a sewing machine. Polk
1845           Deere made a plow with a steel moldboard. Polk
1845           Burritt edited Advocate of Peace.
1845           Margaret Fuller published Woman in the 19th Century.
1845           Dorothea Dix wrote Remarks on Prisons.
1845.7.4     Sumner spoke on “True Grandeur of Nations.”  Peacemakers
1845.7.5     Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7        Worcester printed Cherokee & Choctaw books. Native Tribes
1845.7        Franklin’s Arctic expedition disappeared. Canada
1845.7.28   Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8.10   US founded the Smithsonian Institution in DC. Polk
1845.8        Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.9.8     Col. Hitchcock criticized US aggression. Polk
1845.9        Knickerbocker Base Ball Club made rules. Polk
1845.10.10 US Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis. Polk
1845.10      Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.10.17 Douglass criticized Irish Methodists.
1845.11.6   Washington Union demanded all of Oregon. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war. 
1845.12.2   Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state.
1845-47      Henry David Thoreau lived by Walden Pond.
1845-47      José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845.47      Earl Charles Cathcart governed Canada.
1845-49      Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49      Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50      English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2     Pres. Paredes vowed to defend MexicoPolk
1846.1.13   Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande.
1846.1-2     Brigham Young married 20 women.
1846.1-5     Douglass spoke to Presbyterians in Scotland.
1846.1-7     President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2        Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2        Oregon Spectator began publishing. 
1846.2.17   Young organized Mormons at Israel Camp.
1846.2.19   Henderson became Governor of Texas. Polk
1846.2.21   Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5     Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12   Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3        Melville published Typee.
1846.3.28   US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2     Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4        US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk
1846.4.18   Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23   Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25   Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.4.30   Mormons dedicated their Nauvoo Temple.
1846.5.8     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10   Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11   President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12   US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18   US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14   Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15   US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23   Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846           Echeverría published Manual of Moral InstructionArgentina
1846           Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846           Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846           Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846           1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846           106,000 Irish immigrated into the US.
1846           Chickasaws adopted a constitution. Native Tribes
1846           Wilmot proposed banning slavery in territories. Black Progress
1846           Canadian Parliament got control of revenues. Canada
1846           Canada West established Board of Education.
1846           Canada exported 3,312,000 bushels of wheat.
1846           Maine was first state to prohibit alcohol. Peace
1846           Ballou published Christian Non-Resistance.
1846           Whittier published Voices of FreedomLongfellow
1846.7.4     Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7     Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9     Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7        O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23   Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.23   Thoreau was arrested for not paying a tax.
1846.7.24   Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.3     Jacksonian Grier joined US Supreme Court. Polk
1846.8.6     United States & Cherokees signed a treaty. Native Tribes
1846.8.9     Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15   US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17   Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.17   Douglass & Garrison talked to Chartist Lovett.
1846.8.29   Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12   General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9        800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22  Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22   Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24   Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10      Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.10      Morton used ether gas in painless surgery. Polk
1846.11.8   Samuel May gave a sermon on women’s rights. Polk
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6   Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846.12.28 Iowa became a US state. Polk
1846-47      President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-47      400 Mormons died at the Winter Quarters.
1846-49      Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1846-52      John Harvey governed Nova Scotia. Canadian Union
1847.1.2     Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8     US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11   US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13   Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14   Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1        Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24   US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3     Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2.19   Sen. Calhoun defended slaveholder “rights.” Polk
1847.2-3     87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23   US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1     Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1     Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.5     Jones v. Van Zandt upheld US slavery. Polk        
1847.3.9     Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3        Melville published Omoo.
1847.3.21   Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21   Santa Anna resumed Presidency in MexicoPolk
1847.3.29   US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.3.30   Douglass spoke at London Tavern.
1847.4.10   Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18   Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23   Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtresHaiti
1847.5.1     American Medical Association was founded. Polk
1847.5.15   US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847           Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847           Parkman began publishing his Oregon TrailPolk
1847           Missouri banned teaching blacks to read. South
1847           Canada’s grain market collapsed.
1847           Canada changed duties on US & Britain.
1847           90,000 poor Irish immigrated into Canada.
1847           Lucy Stone graduated from Oberlin College.
1847           Longfellow published Evangeline.
1847.7.24   Young led Mormons to Great Salt Lake. Polk
1847.7-8     Douglass, Garrison toured Pennsylvania, Ohio.
1847.8.20   US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22   Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23   US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14   Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16   Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16   President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.11.29 Suffering Cayuse murdered settlers. Oregon
1847.12.3   Douglass began publishing The North Star.
1847.12.15 Polk vetoed Wisconsin Territory improvements.
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847.12.24 Cass favored popular sovereignty in territories. Polk
1847-48      Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48      José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49      Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52      President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1847-54      Earl of Elgin governed Canada.
1847-57      Coffin helped runaway slaves in Cincinnati. Black Progress
1848.1        British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12   Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13   President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24   Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31   US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6     President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2     Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.2.23   Ex-President John Quincy Adams died. 1848 US Election
1848.3.10   US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3        Pennsylvania limited daily work to 10 hours. 1848 US Election
1848.3        Gilliam led attack against Cayuse. Oregon
1848.3.17   Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2     Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.4.17   US Navy recaptured 78 fugitive slaves. 1848 US Election
1848.4.24   Chicago Board of Trade began. 1848 US Election
1848.5.12   Brannan announced gold find in San Francisco. Gold Rush
1848.5        Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5        US Congress paid Frémont’s debts. Gold Rush
1848.5.25   Democrats nominated Cass for President. 1848 US Election
1848.5.29   Wisconsin became the 30th state in the US. 1848 US Election
1848.5.30   US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6        Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for President. 1848 US Election
1848.6        Dorothea Dix wrote her memorial to the US Congress.
1848.6.28   Free Soil Party nominated Van Buren for Pres.1848 US Election
1848.6-12   Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848           French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848           Many fled from potato blights to the US. 1848 US Election
1848           Lowell published his satirical Biglow Papers1848 US Election
1848           University of Mississippi began classes. 1848 US Election
1848           Citizens Union urged equality for blacks. 1848 US Election
1848           Blacks organized Free Soil Party at Buffalo. 1848 US Election
1848           Rhode Island rejected US Fugitive Slave Law. 1848 US Election
1848           New Brunswick accepted Harvey’s reforms. Canada
1848           Noyes & others began the Oneida community.
1848.7.14   Douglass was at Women’s Rights conference.
1848.7        Papineau began publishing L’AvenirCanada
1848.7.18   Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.7.19   Woman’s rights conference met at Seneca. 1848 US Election Mrs. Stanton
1848.7.28   The North Star supported women’s rights. Douglass
1848.8.9     Ojibway chief Peau spoke to Canadians. Canada
1848.8.14   US established Oregon Territory. 1848 US Election
1848.8.30   Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848.9        Natural Sciences Academy began in US. 1848 US Election
1848.9        Burritt went to Brussels Int’l Peace Congress.
1848.9        Whitman began editing Brooklyn Freeman.
1848.11.7   US elected Zachary Taylor President. 1848 US Election
1848.11.7   New York helped Taylor win Presidency. Douglass
1848.12.5   Polk’s annual message fostered a gold rush. 1848 US Election
1848-51      President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52      Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55      Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1848-81      John Noyes led the Oneida community. 1848 US Election
1849.1.11   Associated Press wire service began. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Giddings proposed banning slavery in DC. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Amelia Bloomer began publishing The Lily1848 US Election
1849.1        Parliament in Montreal allowed use of French. Canada
1849.2.16   President Polk reinstated Frémont. California
1849.3.3     US Interior Dept. & Minnesota Territory began. 1848 US Election
1849.3.5     General Zachary Taylor became US President. 1848 US Election
1849.3        Melville published Mardi.
1849.4.25   Elgin accepted the Rebellion Losses Bill. Canada
1849.5.5     A mob attacked Douglass in New York City.
1849.5.10   New York City riot killed 25 people. Taylor
1849.5.28   Sumner spoke on “The War System.”  Peacemakers
1849.6.15   Ex-President James K. Polk died of cholera. 1848 US Election
1849.6.26   Canada stopped excluding foreign ships.
1849           Sarmiento published De la Educación ComúnArgentina
1849           Calhoun wrote Disquisition on Government1848 US Election
1849           Kellogg published Labor and Other CapitalTaylor
1849           US established the Minnesota Territory. Native Tribes
1849           Young excluded Africans as Mormon priests.
1849           Garnet began the African Civilization Society. Black Progress
1849           Avery funded a College for Negroes. Black Progress
1849           Baldwin reformed Canada’s Chancery Court. Canada
1849           Canada guaranteed railway bonds. Canada
1849           US was at the World Peace Congress in Paris. Peacemakers
1849           Thoreau published “Civil Disobedience.”
1849           Emerson published his essay “War.”
1849.7.25   Kingston conference debated US annexation. Canada
1849.8.26   Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.8.30   US Army killed Navajo Chief Narbona. Taylor
1849.8-9     Navaho & Zunis fought each other. New Mexico
1849.9        Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
1849.9        Melville published Redburn.
1849.9.27   Santa Fé convention approved a constitution. Taylor
1849.9.28   US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10      Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.13 Californians ratified a constitution. Taylor
1849.11.14 Fox sisters held a public séance in Rochester. Taylor
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849.12.4   Sumner challenged segregated schools. Taylor Black Progress
1849.12      Democrats controlled the US Congress. Taylor
1849.12.17 Lucretia Mott gave her “Discourse on Women.”
1849-51      Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-51      John Geary governed San Francisco. California
1849-53      López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53      President José López governed New GranadaPanama
1849-58      Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59      President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica.

1850.1        Melville published White Jacket.
1850.1.29   Sen. Clay proposed compromise resolutions. Whigs
1850.2.2     Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.2.15   Rep. Horace Mann defended abolitionists. Black Progress
1850.2.17   Texans claimed El Paso. Whigs
1850.2.20   Thaddeus Stevens spoke in the US Congress. Whigs
1850.3.4     Sen. Calhoun’s last speech was read. Whigs
1850.3.7     Sen. Webster defended the Union. Whigs
1850.3.11   Sen. Seward spoke on freedom & equality. Whigs
1850.3.13   Sen. Douglas spoke on territories. Whigs
1850.3        Hawthorne published The Scarlet Letter.
1850.3.31   John Calhoun of South Carolina died. Whigs
1850.4.9     US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.4.13   California passed Foreign Miners’ Tax Act
1850.4.17   Sen. Foote pointed a pistol at Sen. Benton. Whigs
1850.4.19   Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was signed. Whigs
1850.4.22   California bound Indians to labor contracts.
1850.5.10   Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850.5.15   US Dragoons killed 175 Pomos at Clear Lake. Indian
1850.5        New Mexico Territory ratified a constitution. Whigs
1850.5        Narrative of Sojourner Truth was published.
1850.5.18   López-led filibusters invaded Cuba. Whigs
1850.6.3     Delegates of 9 slave states met at Nashville. Whigs
1850           Rio de Janeiro had 200,000 people. Brazil
1850           Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis. Argentina
1850           Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850           New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850           Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850           Livermore’s War with Mexico Reviewed.  Polk Peacemakers
1850           Sumner led US Peace Congress Committee. Taylor
1850           670 US Negroes emigrated to Liberia. Census of 1850
1850           US had 23,191,876 people & 3,204,313 slaves. Census of 1850
1850           US & Canada had about 500,000 “Indians.” Census of 1850
1850           American League of Colored Laborers began. Black Progress
1850           Canada ended primogeniture.
1850           Emerson published Representative Men.
1850           Women began wearing “bloomers.” Mrs. Stanton
1850.7.10   Millard Fillmore became US President.
1850.7        Margaret Fuller died in a shipwreck. Emerson
1850.7.17   Daniel Webster gave his last speech in Senate. Fillmore
1850.7.22   Senator Clay warned against civil war. Fillmore
1850.7.25   Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.6     Pres. Fillmore declared New Mexico Territory.
1850.8.21   2,000 met at Fugitive Slave Convention. Douglass
1850.8.23   US Senate passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Fillmore
1850.8.31   Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4     Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law.
1850.9.9     California became a US state. Fillmore
1850.9.10   Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1850.9        Fillmore signed the Great Compromise bills.
1850.9.28   US banned the flogging of sailors. Fillmore
1850.9-12   3,000 blacks fled from US to Canada. Fillmore
1850.10.23 Women organized for rights at Worcester. Fillmore
1850.11.12 Nashville convention accepted compromise. Census of 1850
1850.12.1   Parker spoke on “The State of the Nation.” Census of 1850
1850.12.2   Fillmore declared friendly relations. Census of 1850
1850.12.20 California elected Senators Gwin & Fremont.
1850-51      Barnum paid Jenny Linn $1,000 per concert. Census of 1850
1850-59      1,865,786 Irish & Germans came to the US. 1854
1851.1.7     California Gov. Burnett predicted genocide.
1851.1.9     Central American Union began.
1851.2        H. B. Stowe had a vision in church.
1851.2.15   Abolitionists freed Shadrach Minkins. Census of 1850 Black Progress
1851.2.26   US & Portugal settled a financial dispute. Fillmore
1851.3        Asahel Bush began Oregon Statesman.
1851.4.10   Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851.4        Massachusetts elected Sumner to US Senate. Fillmore
1851.5.3     Fire burned most of San Francisco. California
1851.5.3     Emerson criticized the Fugitive Slave Act.
1851.5.8     Sojourner Truth was at Woman’s Rights Convention. Mrs. Stanton
1851.5.19   Railroad connected east US to Great Lakes. Fillmore
1851.6.2     Maine was the first state to ban alcohol. Fillmore
1851.6        Danish planters compensated slaveowners. West Indies
1851.6        Frederick Douglass’ Paper began publishing.
1851.6       Uncle Tom’s Cabin began serialization.
1851           Ecuador abolished slavery.
1851           Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851           Indiana & Iowa banned Negro immigration. Fillmore
1851           Greeley serialized Marx’s RevolutionFillmore
1851           Chickasaw Academy opened with 60 students. Native Tribes
1851           Canadian leaders Baldwin & Lafontaine quit. Canada
1851           Susan B. Anthony & Stanton began temperance society.
1851           Hawthorne wrote The House of Seven Gables.
1851.7.23   Sioux ceded land to Iowa & the US. Fillmore Native Tribes
1851.8.3     López led filibuster invasion of Cuba. Fillmore
1851.8.16   Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.9.7     Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9        Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.9.17   8 tribal nations & US made Ft. Laramie Treaty. Native Tribes
1851.8.12   Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8        Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.9-11   Douglass aided fugitive slaves.
1851.10.1   Abolitionists freed Jerry Henry in Syracuse. Black Progress
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851.10      Virginia approved a liberal constitution. Fillmore
1851.10      Melville published Moby Dick.
1851.12.2   Pres. Fillmore reaffirmed friendly relations.
1851.12      Tubman led slaves to Ontario, Canada.
1851,1855  Mármol published his novel AmaliaArgentina
1851-52      President Arista tried to govern Mexico.
1851-52      US made 18 treaties with Indians in California.
1851-53      José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-55      José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-55      Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-57      Schoolcraft published books on Indian tribes. Kansas
1851-57      Brigham Young governed Utah Territory.
1851-61      Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65      94,000 Portuguese emigrated to Brazil.
1851-65      Pres. Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1852.1.1     New Granada abolished slavery.
1852.1.7     Liberated Kossuth visited the White House. Fillmore
1852.1.8     Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.1.28   Giddings of Ohio spoke for equality & peace. Fillmore
1852.3.20   H. B. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s CabinFillmore Black Progress
1852.5.1     Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partidaArgentina
1852.5.3     California spent $600,000 to fight Indians.
1852.5        Douglass opposed dissolving the Union.
1852.5        United States Senator Rhett resigned over secession.
1852.6        Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852.6        Telegraph connected Santiago to Valparaiso. Chile
1852.6        Gerrit Smith opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. Black Progress
1852.6.29   “Great Compromiser” Henry Clay died. Fillmore
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers.Argentina
1852           Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. New Granada
1852           About 20,000 Chinese came to California.
1852           Utah approved indentured Indian children.
1852           Delaney published book on US colored people. Black Progress
1852           Free Soil Party nominated Sen. Hale for Pres. Black Progress
1852           Kentucky excluded black immigrants. South
1852           Autographs of Freedom was published. Douglass
1852           Caltharine Parr Traill wrote Canadian CrusoeCanada
1852           Lucy Stone advocated tax resistance.
1852           Hawthorne wrote The Blithedale Romance.
1852.7.5     Douglass spoke to Anti-Slavery Ladies. Fillmore
1852.7.6     Lincoln gave eulogy on Henry Clay.
1852.8        Melville published Pierre.
1852.8.26   Sumner spoke on “Freedom National.” Fillmore
1852.9.11   The Columbian weekly began at Olympia.  Washington Territory
1852.9        Argentine Liberals revolted against López.
1852.10.7   Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852.10      Chickasaws began Wapanucka Female Inst. Native Tribes
1852.10.24 Daniel Webster died of cirrhosis. Fillmore
1852.11.2   Democrat Pierce defeated Whig Scott for Pres. Fillmore
1852.8.11   Douglass spoke to Free Democratic Party.
1852-55      Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55      President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56      José María Urbina was President of Ecuador.
1853.1.6     Pierce’s son died in a railway accident.
1853.1        B&O railway was finished to Wheeling, Ohio. Pierce
1853.1-2     Pres. Ceballos governed Mexico for 33 days.
1853.2        Douglass visited Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1853.3.2     US Congress passed Washington Territory.
1853.3.3     US created the Washington Territory. Pierce
1853.3.15   Uncle Tom’s Cabin play opened. 1853
1853.4        Abolitionists appealed for women’s rights. Pierce
1853.4.19   US Vice President William King died. Pierce
1853.5.11   Douglass spoke to reformers in New York City.
1853.5-6     Slave Anthony Burns was arrested & returned. North
1853.6.1     Elizabeth Stanton spoke on women’s rights.
1853           Alberdi & Gutiérrez influenced a constitution. Argentina
1853           British recognized Urquiza in Argentina.
1853           Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853           New Granada’s constitution increased voting.
1853           Panama got a liberal constitution.
1853           Brace began Children’s Aid Society in NY. Pierce
1853           25,000 Chinese people lived in San Francisco. Pierce
1853           783 blacks emigrated from US to Liberia. North
1853           Society of Progressive Friends began. North
1853           Hildreth published his Theory of PoliticsNorth
1853           Dew & others wrote Pro-Slavery ArgumentSouth
1853           Northup’s 12 Years a Slave was published.
1853           Susan B. Anthony spoke at NY teachers convention.
1853           Stowe published A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853.7.6-8  National Council of Colored People began. Pierce North
1853.7.27   8 chiefs & US signed a treaty at Ft. Atkinson. Native Tribes
1853.9        US bought tribal land in Oregon for settlers. Pierce
1853.11.11 M. C. Douglass was fined for teaching blacks. North
1853.12.13 Senator Dodge proposed Nebraska Territory. Pierce
1853.12      Democrats had majorities in the US Congress. Pierce
1853.12.21 Cincinnati rioted against a Catholic Archbishop.Pierce
1853.12.30 Mexico sold Gadsden Purchase to US. Pierce New Mexico
1853-55      Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55      President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55      Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed. 1854
1853-56      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1853-57      Stevens governed Washington Territory.
1854.1.4     Senator Douglas introduced the Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.1        William Walker claimed Sonora in Mexico. Pierce
1854.1        Oregon banned selling weapons & ammunition.
1854.1.26   Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.1-5     US Congress debated Kansas-Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.2.12   Parker preached for abolition of slavery. North
1854.2        Nicaragua got a constitution.
1854.2        Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.2        Massachusetts granted $1 million to NEEAC. 1854
1854.3.4     Emerson opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. North
1854.3.18   People freed arrested slave Glover in Racine. North
1854.3.23   Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854.3.31   US Commodore Perry opened ports in Japan. 1854
1854.4        New England Emigration Aid Society began. North
1854.5.3     Pierce vetoed Dix Bill for the Indigent Insane. 1854
1854.5        Sauk and Fox ceded land to the United States. Native Tribes
1854.5.30   Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854.5-12   8,000 people moved to the Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.6.2     Abolitionists freed fugitive slave Burns. 1854
1854.6.5     Canada & US agreed on a Reciprocity Treaty.
1854.6.17   Nativists gathered in New York City. 1854
1854.6-8     US-Canada Treaty agreed on fishing. 1854
1854           Ridge published Life of Joaquín MurietaCalifornia
1854           Methodists began Pacific Christian AdvocateOregon
1854           Burritt wrote essays on “Passive Resistance.”
1854           Thoreau published Walden.
1854.7.4     Abolitionist Garrison burned US Constitution. 1854
1854.7.4     Pro-slavery Knights of the Golden Circle began. 1854
1854.7.13   US Marines burned San Juan, Nicaragua.
1854.7.13   Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.7        Lawrence, Kansas was founded with $200,000. 1854
1854.7        First Republican convention met in Michigan. 1854
1854.7        Melville began publishing Israel Potter.
1854.8.5     US paid California $924,260 for its war debt.
1854.9.5     New Canadian Parliament opened in Quebec. Canada
1854.9        Liberal-Conservative Party reformed Canada.
1854.9.17   Panama became a nation.
1854.10.7   Reeder began governing Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.10.16 Lincoln spoke on Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854-55      Abolitionists sent settlers & rifles to Kansas. 1854
1854-55      Know Nothing party won 51 seats in US House. 1854
1854-55      Colt sold 9,000 revolvers to British military. Kansas
1854-57      Liberal William Young governed Nova Scotia. British Provinces
1854-61      Edmund Walker Head governed Canada.

1855.1.22   Chief Seattle spoke at a treaty ceremony. Washington Territory
1855.1.28   Panamanian railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2.6     Emerson urged abolitionists to free US slaves. Kansas
1855.2        Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855.3.30   Pro-slavery Kansas gov’t is elected illegally.
1855.4.28   Massachusetts banned school segregation. Kansas North
1855           Mormon priesthood excluded blacks. Kansas
1855           David Christy published Cotton Is KingKansas
1855           San Francisco executed 538 people. California
1855           Legal Rights blacks hired Chester Arthur. North
1855           Lydia Child wrote Progress of Religious Ideas.
1855           Longfellow published Song of Hiawatha.
1855           Whitman published Leaves of Grass.
1855.6        Walker led 60 men invading Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.7.4     New York was 13th state to ban alcohol. Kansas
1855.8.6     Nativists v. Catholics riot killed 20 in Louisville. Kansas
1855.8        Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8        Proslavery Kansas gov’t moved to Lecompton.
1855.8        Abbott Lawrence left $50,000 to Harvard U. Kansas
1855.8        Douglass wrote My Bondage & FreedomNorth
1855.8-9     President Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.9.3     US Army killed 86 Lakota at Ash Hollow. Native Tribes
1855.10      Canadian government returned to Toronto. Canada
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.11.14 Law & Order party began at Leavenworth. Kansas
1855.11      1,200 armed Missourians invaded Kansas.
1855.11.20 Negroes held a convention at Sacramento. California
1855.12.8   Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.12.15 Kansas voters approved Free Soil constitution.
1855.12      Emperor Faustin attacked Santo Domingo again.
1855-56      Rogue River War was fought in Oregon.
1855-57      Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57      General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57      President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58      Sarmiento edited El nacionalArgentina
1855-58      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-58      Yakima Wars were in Washington Territory.
1855-59      Stevens made US treaties with native tribes. Washington Territory
1855-62      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1        Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24   Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.1.24   Pres. Pierce criticized abolitionists in Kansas. 1856
1856.2        Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15   Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.2.25   American party named Fillmore for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.3.9     Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.3.12   Sen. Douglas’s report opposed abolitionists. 1856
1856.3        Rev. Beecher sent rifles with Bibles to Kansas. 1856
1856.4.15   A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama.
1856.4        Buford raised 300 men in Alabama for Kansas. 1856
1856.5.14   James Casey killed SF Supervisor James King. California
1856.5.19   Sumner spoke on “Crime Against Kansas.” Elections of 1856
1856.5.20   Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5.20   Pierce recognized Walker’s Nicaragua regime. 1856
1856.5.21   Atchison army sacked Lawrence, Kansas. 1856 South
1856.5.22   Brooks beat Sen. Sumner with a cane. Elections of 1856 South
1856.5.24   John Brown & sons killed 5 settlers. 1856 South
1856.5.28   Illinois & Lincoln formed a Republican Party.
1856.5-10   President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.4     John Brown’s 28 men captured 28 men. 1856
1856.6.6     Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6        Democrats nominated Buchanan for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6        Republicans nominated Frémont for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856           Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil libertie. Chile
1856           Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856           1,300 Mormons went to Utah with handcarts.
1856           US bank credit was $1,042 million. Panic
1856           Canada made its Legislative Council elective.
1856           Canada exported 9,391,531 bushels of wheat.
1856           Emerson published English Traits.
1856.7.4     US troops broke up the Topeka legislature. 1856
1856.7.7     Lydia Child wrote to Senator Sumner.
1856.7.31   Pres. Pierce made Geary governor of Kansas. 1856
1856.7-11   Senator Douglas campaigned for Buchanan. Elections of 1856
1856.8.5     George Curtis spoke on liberty and slavery. Peacemakers
1856.8.7     US ceded land to the Seminoles. Native Tribes
1856.8        Chickasaws became an independent nation. Native Tribes
1856.8.30   Reid led 400 Missourians against Osawatomie. 1856
1856.9.10   Kansas Gov. Geary dissolved Woodson militia. 1856
1856.9.22   Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856.10      Lydia Child published The Kansas Emigrants1856
1856.10      Railway connected Montreal to Toronto. Canada
1856.11.4   Buchanan was elected US President with 45%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.4   Frémont got 33% & Fillmore 21.5%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.11 Topeka constitution banned slavery in Kansas.
1856.12.8   600 met at Southern Commercial Convention. Elections of 1856
1856.12.10 Lincoln spoke to Republicans in Chicago. Elections of 1856
1856.12      John Brown visited Douglass at Rochester.
1856-57      Central American allies defeated Walker. Nicaragua
1856-58      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58      President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58      Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59      Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62      President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.1.15   Garrison spoke at Disunion Convention. 1857
1857.2.5     Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.14   Kansas Lecompton legislature limited voting.
1857.2        John Brown met Emerson & Thoreau.
1857.2.27   Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.3.4     40,000 attended Buchanan’s inauguration.
1857.3.4     Kansas Governor Geary resigned.
1857.3.6     US Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott case. South Buchanan
1857.3.9     New York reported on crowded tenant houses. Buchanan
1857.3.13   United States Senate adjourned. Kansas
1857.4.1     Melville published The Confidence-Man.
1857.4.17   Ohio Assembly protested Dred Scott case. Buchanan
1857.5.1     Walker surrendered to allied armies. Nicaragua Kansas
1857.5.4     3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857.5.11   Douglass criticized the Dred Scott decision.
1857.5.27   Robert J. Walker began governing Kansas.
1857.6.15   Kansas election excluded anti-slavery men.
1857.6        Illinois Central Railroad paid Lincoln $5,000.
1857.6.26   Lincoln criticized Kansas & Dred Scott decision.
1857.6.27   Scientific American warned whales are dying. Buchanan
1857.6.28   Kansas had more Anti-slavery men.
1857           José de Alencar published his novel O GuaraniBrazil
1857           Argentina had 1.1 million people.
1857           Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857           Hinton Helper published Impending CrisisSouth
1857           Fitzhugh published Cannibals All! South
1857           4,932 US companies failed. Panic
1857           Bank of Upper Canada failed.
1857.8.9     Proslavery convention met at Knoxville. Kansas
1857.8.11   14 NY banks suspended specie payments.Panic
1857.9        Utah Militia killed about 130 settlers. Buchanan
1857.9.12   SS Central America sank with 425 people. Buchanan
1857.9        Price of US cotton fell from 16 cents to 9. Panic
1857.11      Atlantic Monthly began with Lowell as editor. Buchanan
1857.11.25 William Walker led invasion of Nicaragua. Kansas
1857.12.8   Pres. Buchanan defended his Kansas policy.
1857.12.9   Sen. Douglas exposed Kansas election fraud.
1857.12.15 Kansas Governor Robert J. Walker resigned.
1857.12      Juárez was elected Supreme Court president. Mexico
1857.12      Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857.12.29 James Douglas claimed BC gold for Britain. British Provinces
1857-58      US Army intervened in Utah.
1857-58      Northern states passed personal liberty laws. John Brown
1857-60      Fernando Cotoner governed Puerto Rico.
1857-61      Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-67      President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1858.1.4     Kansas voters rejected the Lecompton gov’t.
1858.1.19   Juárez set up government at Guanajuato. Mexico
1858.1.23   Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.2-3     John Brown wrote a constitution. Douglass
1858.1-4     Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2.7     Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.4     Sen. Hammond spoke on “Cotton Is King.” Buchanan
1858.3.10   Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3        Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.”  Chile
1858.3        Julián Castro led revolution in Venezuela.
1858.3        Dr. Rock said black people are beautiful. North
1858.4.6     President Buchanan pardoned Mormon rebels.
1858.4        Republicans won 8 elections in the North. Buchanan
1858.4        15,000 Mormons retreated from US Army. Buchanan
1858.4.25   Gov. Cumming & Young reconciled in Utah.Buchanan
1858.5.4     Juárez moved his government to Veracruz. Mexico
1858.5.8     John Brown proclaimed a government.  Douglass
1858.5.10   Southern Convention discussed disunion. Buchanan
1858.5.11   Minnesota became a US state. 1858
1858.5        British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858.5        New Orleans jury acquitted William Walker. Kansas
1858.5.17   Nez Perce & Spokane defeated US Army. Buchanan
1858.6.16   Republicans nominated Lincoln for US Senate.
1858           Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la ConstituciónChile
1858           US Congress passed pensions for war widows. Mexican Cession
1858           United States & China negotiated treaties. Buchanan
1858           John L. Mason invented sealed jars. 1858
1858           Henry Clarke Wright wrote on birth control. 1858
1858           Brown’s Grits joined Rouges in Canada East.
1858           Canada adopted $US decimal system.
1858.7        Pike’s Peak gold rush lured 100,000. Colorado 1858
1858.7.24   Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates.
1858.8.2     Kansas voters denied Lecompton constitution.
1858.8.2     J. Douglas became British Columbia governor. British Provinces
1858.8.23   USS Dolphin captured Echo slave-ship. 1859
1858.8-10   Lincoln debated Douglas 7 times.
1858.9        Brownlow & Pryne debated slavery. Kansas
1858.10      Republicans made gains in US elections. Buchanan
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.10.25 NY Sen. Seward spoke on labor & slavery. Buchanan
1858.10.30 President Buchanan affirmed neutrality laws. Kansas
1858.11.28 Wanderer brought 487 slaves to Georgia. 1859
1858.12.6   Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12      Ohio tried 37 for freeing enslaved Price. North Kansas
1858.12.20 John Brown’s raid freed 11 Missouri slaves.North 
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-60      Mexican Civil War was fought.
1858-61      Ospina was New Granada’s President.
1858-61      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63      Granadine Confederation had a civil war. New Granada
1858-72      President Juárez governed Mexico.
1859.2.12   Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.14   Oregon became a US state. 1859
1859.2.20   Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.2.23   Texas Gov. Runnels advised peace w/ Indians. 1859
1859.2.24   Buchanan vetoed the Morill land-grant bill. 1859
1859.4.1     Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1859.4.5     Ohio jury convicted 2 who rescued Price. North Kansas
1959.4.6     US recognized Juárez government. Mexico
1859.4.18   Carl Schurz spoke on “True Americanism.” 1859
1859.4.29   Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859.5        South convention tried to revive slave trade. 1859
1859.5        John Brown met secret committee & raised $4,000.
1859.6        Comstock discovered silver near Virginia City. 1859
1859           Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government. Chile
1859           Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859           Vicksburg convention urged slave trade. South
1859           Tubman raised money for John Brown.
1859           Martin Delany published the novel BlakeDouglass
1859           4 major banks in Canada failed.
1859           Canada’s debt reached $54,142,044.
1859.7.4     Rhett urged a Southern Confederacy. 1859
1859.7.12   Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property. Mexico
1859.7        Kansas convention created a constitution. 1859
1859.8.16   United States & China ratified their treaty. 1859
1859.8.28   Edwin Drake discovered oil at Titusville. 1859
1859.10      US Attorney General Black defended slavery. 1859
1859.9        Lincoln made 3 speeches in Ohio. 1859
1859.9        David Terry killed Sen. Brockerick in a duel. 1859
1859.9.29   Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.9.30   Lincoln spoke on agriculture in Milwaukee. 1859
1859.11.2   John Brown was sentenced to death.
1859.11      Canada West demanded more Assembly seats.
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty. Mexico
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12      Victoria Bridge over St. Lawrence was done. Canada
1859.10      Texas elected Sam Houston Governor. 1859
1859.10.16 John Brown led a raid at Harper’s Ferry. North
1859.10.17 New York Herald blamed abolitionists. Douglass
1859.10.30 Thoreau eulogized John BrownDouglass
1859.12.3   Lincoln spoke at Leavenworth, Kansas. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan warned of North war to end slavery. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan called for military posts in Mexico. 1859
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-62      Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba
1859-63      President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63      President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67      President Fabre Geffrard governed Haiti.

1860.1.10   Pemberton Mill collapsed killing 77 people. 1860
1860.1        Douglass lectured on John Brown at Edinburgh.
1860.1        Sen. Douglas had delegates from 6 NW states. Elections in 1860
1860.1.18   Sen. Brown introduced proslavery resolutions. 1860
1860.2.16   Chicago Tribune endorsed Lincoln for Pres. 1860
1860.2.27   Lincoln spoke at Cooper Union in New York. 1860
1860.2.29   US Senator Seward criticized John Brown. 1860
1860.3.5     Lincoln supported a shoe strike at Hartford. 1860
1860.3.5     Covode led a Congressional investigation. 1860
1860.3.28   The Liberator printed Loguen’s reply to Logue. North
1860.4.2     Pony Express began in St. Joseph, Missouri. 1860
1860.4.5     Lovejoy denounced slavery in US House. 1860
1860.4.23   Democrats convention began in Charleston. Elections in 1860
1860.4.30   USS Mohawk captured slave-ship Wildfire1860
1860.5.3     Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentina
1860.5.9     Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Elections in 1860
1860.5.18   Republican Party nominated Abe Lincoln. Elections in 1860
1860.6.4     Sen. Sumner spoke on “Barbarism of Slavery.” 1860
1860.6        Douglass helped 10 slaves escape to Canada.
1860.6.20   President Buchanan vetoed Homestead Bill.  1860
1860.6.23   Democrats in Baltimore nominated Douglas. Elections in 1860
1860.6.23   Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge. Elections in 1860
1860           Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860           Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860           Ellis published the first dime novel Seth JonesWashington Territory
1860           Lydia Child wrote books on emancipation. North
1860           US Census counted 3,953,762 slaves. 1860
1860           US had 30,600 miles of railroads. 1860
1860           Ann Stephens wrote dime-novel Maleska1860
1860           Bartlett published Life of Abraham LincolnElections in 1860
1860           Emerson wrote The Conduct of Life.
1860           New York passed Women’s Property Act. Lucy Stone
1860           Elizabeth Stanton proposed divorce reforms.
1860.9.12   British Honduras executed Walker. Nicaragua Kansas Elections in 1860
1860.9.30   Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.10.25 18-year-old Anna Dickinson spoke on slavery. 1860
1860.11.6   Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.11.6   17 states elected Lincoln US President. Elections in 1860
1860.11.9   Greeley urged peaceful response to secession. Late 1860
1860.12.3   Boston mob broke up Douglass rally on Brown. 1860
1860.12.3   Pres. Buchanan wrote about secession. Late 1860
1860.12.14 Douglass spoke on free speech at Boston.
1860.12.15 John P. Kennedy published The Border StatesLincoln
1860.12.18 US Senate formed the Committee of 13. Late 1860
1860.12.20 Lincoln spokesman said disunion is treason. Late 1860
1860.12.20 South Carolina by a convention seceded. Late 1860 Lincoln
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1860.12.26 Major Anderson moved men to Fort Sumter.Late 1860
1860.12.26 South Carolina commissioners came to DC. Lincoln
1860.12.27 SC Commissioners demanded US forces leave.Late 1860
1861.1.2     Maryland’s Hicks urged a central confederacy. Lincoln
1861.1.3     Missouri Gov. Jackson rallied slave states. Late 1860 Lincoln
1861.1.3     Senator Douglas made an appeal for peace. Secession
1861.1.4     Rev. Allen preached Secession is a right.
1861.1.8     Buchanan appealed to Congress for peace. Secession
1861.1.9     Star of the West retreated from Charleston. Late 1860
1861.1.9     US Marines garrisoned Fort McHenry. Secession
1861.1.9-11 Mississippi, Alabama & Florida seceded. Secession
1861.1.15   Cabinet urged Buchanan to defend forts. Secession
1861.1        Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1        Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1        Harriet Jacobs published her autobiography.
1861.1.17   Kentucky legislature voted against Secession.
1861.1.19   Georgia convention voted to secede. Secession
1861.1.19   Virginia proposed a peace convention. Secession
1861.1.21   Jefferson Davis & 4 others left the US Senate. Secession
1861.1.21   Dakota, Colorado & Nevada are US territories. Secession
1861.1.22   Seward spoke about a compromise plan. Secession
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.1.29   Free Kansas became a US state. Secession
1861.1.29   Louisiana force seized US Mint in New Orleans. Secession
1861.1.31   Washington Constitution stopped publishing. Late 1860
1861.2.7     Choctaw nation joined the Confederacy. Secession
1861.2.8     Confederate States of America (CSA) began. Secession
1861.2.9     CSA elected Jefferson Davis President. Secession
1861.2.9     Tennessee voters rejected Secession.
1861.2.11   Lincoln spoke to 20,000 at Indianapolis. Secession
1861.2        Cheyenne & Arapaho ceded land to the US. Native Tribes
1861.2        Dorothea Dix warned of conspiracy to kill Lincoln.
1861.2.17   Browning advised Lincoln not to begin war. Secession
1861.2.18   Davis said, “All we ask is to be left alone.” Secession
1861.2.18   Missouri rejected Secession.
1861.2.19   250,000 met Lincoln’s train in New York City. Secession
1861.2.22   CSA Congress voted to take Fort Sumter. Secession
1861.2.22   Lincoln in Philadelphia said war is not needed. Secession
1861.2.23   Texans voted to secede. Secession
1861.2.23   Lincoln secretly entered Washington. Secession
1861.2.28   North Carolina voters rejected secession. Secession
1861.2.28   Confederate Congress borrowed $25 million. Secession
1861.2.28   Pres. Davis appointed 3 commissioners. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.1     Creeks made free Negroes choose a master. Native Tribes
1861.3.1     US Congress rejected Crittenden peace plan. Secession
1861.3.2     US Morill Tariff Act passed. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.2     US established the Nevada Territory. California
1861.3.3     US Congress passed Constitution amendment. Secession
1861.3.3     Tsar Alexander freed 23 million Russian serfs. Secession
1861.3.4     25,000 attended Lincoln’s inauguration. March 1861
1861.3.6     CSA Congress authorized 100,000 volunteers. March 1861
1861.3        Confederacy set up Bureau of Indian Affairs. Native Tribes
1861.3.11   CSA Congress adopted a constitution. March 1861
1861.3.13   Lincoln told Seward not to meet CSA envoys. March 1861
1861.3.15   Louisiana sent $536,000 from US Mint to CSA. March 1861
1861.3.18   Santana returned Santo Domingo to Spain.
1861.3.18   Arkansas convention opposed secession. March 1861
1861.3.18   Texas Governor Houston rejected the CSA. March 1861
1861.3.21   Missouri convention opposed secession 98-1. March 1861
1861.3.21   Bennett’s New York Herald criticized Lincoln. March 1861
1861.3.28   United States Senate adjourned. March 1861
1861.3.30   Lincoln feared war & collapsed with headache. March 1861
1861.4.1     Seward urged Lincoln to start a European war. War Begins
1861.4.4     Virginia convention voted not to secede. War Begins
1861.4.9     CSA Pres. Davis ordered attack on Ft. Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   US Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.13   Illinois approved $3.5 million for the military. War Begins
1861.4.15   Lincoln called up 75,000 militia. War Begins Civil War Atrocities
1861.4        Unitarian Bellows advised peaceful separation. War Begins
1861.4.17   Virginia convention voted to secede. War Begins
1861.4.19   Union force killed 12 civilians in Baltimore. War Begins
1861.4.21   Gen. Robert E. Lee led CSA Army of Virginia. War Begins
1861.4.22   Douglass urged enlisting Negro troops.
1861.4.22   YMCA delegates asked Lincoln to avoid war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.4.23   Dorothea Dix became US Army Nurses Superintendent.
1861.4.29   President Davis spoke to the Confederate Congress.
1861.4.29   Confederate Congress approved $50 million.
1861.4.29   Maryland House voted against secession. Confederate Congress
1861.5.3     Lincoln called 42,034 volunteers for 3 years. Mobilization
1861.5.3     CSA President Davis declared war. Mobilization
1861.5.4     Nichols in The Age warned against war. Mobilization
1861.5.6     Arkansas convention voted to secede. Mobilization
1861.5.9     US Naval Academy moved to Newport, RI. Mobilization
1861.5.10   Union Army took over the St. Louis arsenal. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Union force captured 700 militia in Missouri. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Missouri legislature armed Confederates. Mobilization
1861.5.13   Queen Victoria proclaimed British neutral. Mobilization
1861.5.13   CSA Congress approved drafting 400,000 men. Mobilization
1861.5        Douglass wrote “How to End the War.” Mobilization November-December 1861
1861.5        Lincoln obstructed newspapers opposing war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.5.16   Northern Presbyterians swore loyalty to USA. Mobilization
1861.5.18   Arkansas joined the Confederate States. Mobilization
1861.5.27   California decided to support the Union. Mobilization
1861.6.8     Tennessee voted to join the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.5.20   US Marshals confiscated telegrams. Mobilization
1861.5.20   North Carolina convention joined the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   CSA Congress moved the capital to Richmond. Mobilization
1861.5.22   Southern Presbyterians supported the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.23   Virginians voted for secession. Mobilization
1861.5.24   Union Gen. Butler called slaves “contraband.” Mobilization
1861.5.26   US SCJ Taney rejected habeas suspension. Mobilization
1861.5.31   US mail service to the South ended. Mobilization
1861.6.10   US put Dix in charge of military hospitals. June-July 1861
1861.6.11   Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.6.15   Union troops occupied Jefferson City, Missouri. June-July 1861
1861.6.19   Western Virginia elected Pierpont governor. June-July 1861
1861.6.26   NY Tribune urged US attack on Richmond. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861           New York raised 120,000 Union soldiers. June-July 1861
1861           5,000 fugitive slaves entered Kansas. January-February 1862
1861           Canada West had 11,223 Negroes.
1861           Wendell Phillips pleaded for woman suffrage. Mrs. Stanton
1861.7        Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.7        US Congress approved 500,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.7.21   US Army fled from the Bull Run Battle. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861.7.25   US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution. June-July 1861
1861.7.27   Gen. McClellan led US Army in Washington. June-July 1861
1861.7.31   Missouri convention elected Gamble governor. June-July 1861
1861.8.1     Confederate Baylor claimed Arizona Territory.
1861.8.4     McClellan said he needed 273,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.8.5     US Congress passed a personal income tax. August-October 1861
1861.8.6     US Congress passed the Confiscation Act. August-October 1861
1861.8.12   CSA made a treaty with several Indian tribes. August-October 1861
1861.8.14   CSA President Davis expelled foreigners. August-October 1861
1861.8.16   Lincoln banned trade with CSA “rebellion.” August-October 1861
1861.8.17   US Army began paying nurses a little. August-October 1861
1861.8.23   Secret Service arrested CSA spy Greenhow. August-October 1861
1861.8.30   Frémont declared martial law in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.5     Emancipation League began in Boston. Douglass
1861.9.11   Lincoln cancelled Frémont’s emancipation. August-October 1861
1861.9.17   Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18   Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.9.18   Lincoln arrested part of Maryland’s Assembly. August-October 1861
1861.9.20   3,000 US infantry surrendered in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.25   US Navy began enlisting “persons of color.” August-October 1861
1861.10.14 Lincoln extended habeas corpus suspension. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 Telegraph connected Denver to Sacramento. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 CSA defeated a Union force at Ball’s Bluff. August-October 1861
1861.10.24 US transcontinental telegraph began. 1860
1861.10.24 West Virginia voted for US statehoo. August-October 1861
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.11.1   General Henry Halleck replaced Frémont. August-October 1861
1861.11.1   US General Winfield Scott resigned. November-December 1861
1861.11.6   Confederate States held elections. November-December 1861
1861.11.8   US Navy arrested envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861.11.9   Union Army captured Beaufort, South Carolina. November-December 1861
1861.11      Julia Howe wrote “Battle Hymn” lyrics. John Brown November-December 1861
1861.11.22 CSA claimed authority over Indian Territory. November-December 1861
1861.12.2   Lincoln suspended habeas Corpus in Missouri. November-December 1861
1861.12.10 CSA admitted the state of Kentucky. November-December 1861
1861.12      US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12      British sent 11,000 troops to CanadaNovember-December 1861
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861.12.26 Lincoln freed CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861-62      Santana governed Santo Domingo.
1861-63      Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64      Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65      3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65      García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-65      About 755,000 died in the US Civil War. Lincoln’s Warr
1861-71      José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1861-71      Sen. Sumner was Foreign Relations chairman. Elections of 1856
1861.1.1     US released CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. January-February 1862
1862.1.6-7  British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.1.13   Stanton replaced US War Secretary Cameron. January-February 1862
1862.1        Douglass criticized Lincoln’s slave policy.
1862.2.5     British ended ban on shipping weapons. January-February 1862
1862.2.13   West Virginia excluded blacks. January-February 1862
1862.2        Douglass in Boston & NY urged emancipation.
1862.2.16   CSA surrendered Ft. Donelson to U.S. Grant. January-February 1862
1862.2.20   Lincoln’s son Willie died of typhoid fever. January-February 1862
1861.2.23   Andrew Johnson became Tennessee governor. January-February 1862
1862.2.27   CSA began suspending habeas corpus. January-February 1862
1862.3.3     Gen. Halleck dismissed Grant for drunkenness. March-May 1862
1862.3.5     Lincoln urged gradual abolition of slavery. March-May 1862
1862.3.25   Douglass called for abolition of slavery in US.
1862.3.28   US defeated Confederates at Glorieta Pass. Arizona
1862.4.6-7  Shiloh battle killed 3,482 & wounded 16,420. March-May 1862
1862.4.7     US & British agreed to stop the slave trade. March-May 1862
1862.4.9     British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.4        US had 637,126 soldiers, CSA 410,395. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   US abolished slavery in Washington, DC. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   CSA conscripted white men aged 18 to 35. March-May 1862
1862.5.1     Butler & US Army took over New Orleans. March-May 1862
1862.5.5     Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.5.9     Gen. Hunter freed slaves in South Carolina. Tubman
1862.5.20   US Homestead Act gave settlers 160 acres. March-May 1862
1862.5.31   1,770 were killed & 8,343 wounded at 7 Pines. March-May 1862
1862.6.5     United States recognized Haiti and Liberia. June-July 1862
1862.6.9     CSA defeated Frémont’s army at Chattanooga. June-July 1862
1862.6        Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6        Samuel Cox of Ohio pleaded for civilized war. June-July 1862
1862.6        Stuart’s CSA cavalry reconnoitered US Army. June-July 1862
1862.6.16   Foley organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862.6.17   Generals Frémont & Beauregard retired. June-July 1862
1862.6.19   Slavery was banned in US Territories. June-July 1862
1862.6.25   7 Days’ Battle began near Richmond. June-July 1862
1862.6-7     CSA Army had 3,494 killed & 15,758 wounded. June-July 1862
1862           Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862           Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862           Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862           Buchanan wrote a book on his presidency. Secession
1862           US spent $500,000 to colonize slaves. March-May 1862
1862.7.1     Thad Stevens reported $800 million US debt. June-July 1862
1862.7.1     US Congress increased taxes. June-July 1862
1861.7.1     US funded railway Omaha to San Francisco. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     McClellan retreated to Harrison’s Landing. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     US Congress passed Morill Homestead Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. June-July 1862
1862.7.8     US passed the Anti-Bigamy Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.14   US Congress ended daily rum for sailors. June-July 1862
1862.7.15   Cochise warriors defeated California Column. Arizona
1862.7.16   France’s Napoleon III rejected CSA alliance. June-July 1862
1862.7.17   US Confiscation Act freed captured slaves. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   Grant was put in command of Western Army. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   US General Polk required a loyalty oath. Civil War Atrocities
1862.8.4     Indiana grand jury indicted 60 for treason. August-October 1862
1862.8.14   Lincoln talked with black leaders. August-October 1862
1862.8        CSA beat US Army at Bull Run (Manassas). August-October 1862
1862.8        Irish burned a tobacco factory in Brooklyn. August-October 1862
1862.8-12   Starving Sioux revolt was punished. Native Tribes August-October 1862  Atrocities
1862.8.25   US Army recruited blacks in South Carolina. August-October 1862
1862.8.30   CSA captured 4,300 US soldiers in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.4     General Lee’s army invaded Maryland. August-October 1862
1862.9        Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.17   4,000 Union troops surrendered in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.17   Antietam battle killed 3,675, wounded 17,292. August-October 1862
1862.9.22   Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. August-October 1862
1862.9.24   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in US. August-October 1862 Civil War Atrocities
1862.9.26   Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862.9.27   Free blacks in Louisiana formed a regiment. August-October 1862
1862.10.8   US Army defeated CSA at Perryville, KY. August-October 1862
1862.10-11 Democrats made gains in US elections. November-December 1862
1862.11.3   US Army sentenced 303 Santees to death. Native Tribes
1862.11.5   Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside. November-December 1862
1862.12.1   Lincoln proposed 3 unpopular amendments. November-December 1862
1862.12.4   Joseph E. Johnston led CSA forces in West. November-December 1862
1862.12.10 US Congress admitted West Virginia as a state. November-December 1862
1862.12      Lincoln approved the execution of 38 Santees. Native Tribes
1862.12      Burnside’s Fredericksburg campaign failed. November-December 1862
1862.12.23 Davis ordered black captives given to states. November-December 1862
1862-66      Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68      Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68      Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1863.1.1     Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation began. January-February 1863
1863.1.3     Union forces drove CSA out of Murfreesboro. January-February 1863
1863.1.4     Lincoln canceled Grant’s expulsion of Jews. November-December 1862
1863.1.11   Union Army captured Ft. Hindman, Arkansas. January-February 1863
1863.1.13   Pennsylvania elected Buckalew over Cameron. January-February 1863
1863.1.14   Vallandigham: “Constitution-Peace-Reunion.” January-February 1863
1863.1        109th Illinois Regiment was arrested. January-February 1863
1863.1.25   Lincoln replaced Gen. Burnside with Hooker. January-February 1863
1863.1.31   Higginson commanded Negro volunteers. January-February 1863
1863.2.3     Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.2        Union League Clubs began in New York. March-April 1863
1863.2.24   US established the Arizona Territory. January-February 1863
1863.2.24   Douglass began recruiting blacks for US Army.
1863.2.25   US passed the National Bank Act. January-February 1863
1863.3.3     US established the Idaho Territory. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US enacted a military draft. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US founded the National Academy of Sciences. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US added a 10th Supreme Court justice. September-October 1864
1863.3.6     An angry mob attacked blacks in Detroit. March-April 1863
1863.3        Lee’s army was put on half rations. March-April 1863
1863.3.21   Douglass published “Men of Color, to Arms!”
1863.3.27   Lincoln talked with 14 Indian chiefs. March-April 1863
1863.3-5     26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.4.2     Thousands demanded food in Richmond. March-April 1863
1863.4.10   Pres. Davis urged people to grow vegetables. March-April 1863
1863.4        H. B. Stowe wrote about Sojourner Truth.
1863.4        Thurlow Weed raised $15,000 for elections. March-April 1863
1863.4        Union forces occupied Fort Gibson. March-April 1863
1863.4.24   Lincoln issued the Lieber Code. March-April 1863 Civil War Atrocities
1863.5.1     Grant’s army captured Port Gibson, MS. March-April 1863
1863.5.5     Burnside had Vallandigham arrested. May-July 1863
1863.5.8     Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.5.10   Wounded General Stonewall Jackson died. May-July 1863
1863.5.14   Women’s Loyal National League began. May-July 1863
1863.5        Lieber: No Party Now but All for Our CountryMarch-April 1863
1863.5        US & CSA armies fought at Chancellorsville. May-July 1863
1863.5        Grant’s army closed in on Vicksburg. May-July 1863
1863.5        Stanton led Loyal Women of the Nation. Susan B. Anthony
1863.5.19   Lincoln banished Vallandigham to the CSA. May-July 1863
1863.5.26   Gold was discovered in Montana Territory. May-July 1863
1863.2.5     Sherman had reporter Knox tried for spying. January-February 1863
1863.6.1     French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.1     Burnside had the Chicago Times shut down. May-July 1863
1863.6.2     Tubman led Union rescue of 756 slaves. January-February 1863
1863.6.7     US Army burned the Davis plantation. May-July 1863
1863.6.14   Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15   Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863.6        5,000 blacks were in schools in South Carolina. March-April 1863
1863.6        Lincoln summoned 100,000 militia. May-July 1863
1863.6.20   West Virginia became a US state. May-July 1863
1863           Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863           Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863           Dutch abolished slavery in Surinam. West Indies
1863           US immigration increased to 176,282. November-December 1863
1863           US Gov’t spending increased to $715 million. November-December 1863
1863           US produced 2,611,000 barrels of petroleum. November-December 1863
1863.7.1-3  US armies defeated CSA armies at Gettysburg. May-July 1863
1863.7.13   Military draft in New York City provoked riots. May-July 1863
1863.7.17   US Army beat CSA Army at Honey Springs. Native Tribes
1863.7.18   54th Massachusetts assaulted Fort Wagner. May-July 1863
1863.8.12   British ship brought supplies to CSA. August-October 1863
1863.8.21   Quantrill’s raiders burned Lawrence, Kansas. August-October 1863
1863.9.1     Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9.3     Iowa cavalry killed about 300 native warriors. Native Tribes
1863.9        Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.9        US troops attacked Sioux at White Stone Hill. August-October 1863
1863.9        CSA captured Union troops at Chickamauga. August-October 1863
1863.10.1   Lincoln letter explained military policy. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   US began compensating owners for blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving Day. August-October 1863
1863.10      Union Army had 37,482 blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.17 Lincoln called for 300,000 more troops. August-October 1863
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.19 Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address. November-December 1863
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.11.25 Grant’s army beat Bragg’s at Missionary Ridge. November-December 1863
1863.12.8   2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863.12.8   Lincoln explained his amnesty policy. November-December 1863
1863.12.12 CSA stopped US rations for Union prisoners. November-December 1863
1863.12      Statue was placed on US Capitol dome. November-December 1863 January-February 1864
1863.12      Emerson spoke on “Fortune of the Republic.”
1863-66      President Jesús Jimenez governed Costa Rica.
1864.1.13   Douglass spoke to Women’s Loyal League.
1864.1.13   Sumner led Slavery & Freedmen Committee. January-February 1864
1864.1.14   Songwriter Stephen Foster died. January-February 1864
1864.1        British Columbia formed a Legislative Council.
1864.1.22   French Navy helped take Veracruz. Mexico
1864.2.1     Lincoln called for conscription of 500,000 men. January-February 1864
1864.2.9     Women’s Loyal League turned in petitions. January-February 1864  Susan B. Anthony
1864.2.9     59 Union officers escaped from Libby Prison. January-February 1864
1864.2        Sherman’s army wage war in Mississippi. January-February 1864
1864.2.17   CSA Congress forced veterans to re-enlist. March-April 1864
1864.2.22   Arkansas got a Unionist government. January-February 1864
1864.2.22   Louisiana elected a Union governor. January-February 1864
1864.2.24   US Congress accepted conscientious objectors. January-February 1864
1864.2.26   Lincoln commuted sentences of deserters. January-February 1864
1864.3.4     Johnson became Tennessee’s Military Gov. March-April 1864
1864.3        Arkansas voters chose Union government. March-April 1864
1864.3.10   Lincoln put Grant in command of Union armies. March-April 1864
1864.3.16   CSA VP Stephens spoke on civil rights. March-April 1864
1864.4.9     Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.4.12   CSA killed surrendering soldiers at Fort Pillow. March-April 1864
1864.4.17   General Grant stopped prisoner exchanges. March-April 1864
1864.4.30   Lincoln pardoned 25 Sioux in Iowa. March-April 1864
1864.4-5     US Red River campaign failed in Louisiana. March-April 1864
1864.5.6     US & CSA had 28,699 casualties in Wilderness. May-June 1864
1864.5        Union Army captured 7,000 rebels. May-June 1864
1864.6.1-6  Cold Harbor battles had 18,000 casualties. May-June 1864
1864.6.8     National Union convention nominated Lincoln.  May-June 1864
1864.6.12   Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864.6.15   Union Army besieged Petersburg. May-June 1864
1864.6.15   US Congress passed equal pay for blacks. May-June 1864
1864.6        Canada’s Conservative government resigned.
1864.6.28   US Congress repealed Fugitive Slave Acts. May-June 1864
1864.6.30   US Congress passed Internal Revenue Act. May-June 1864
1864.6-12   Canadians considered confederation. Canada
1864           Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864           George P. Marsh published Man and NatureNovember-December 1864
1864           Nichols wrote Forty Years of American LifeNovember-December 1864
1864.7.4     US Congress encouraged immigration. July-August 1864
1864.7.20   Sherman’s army defeated Hood’s near Atlanta. July-August 1864
1864.7.30   Union troops assaulted Petersburg. July-August 1864
1864.8.5     US Navy defeated CS Navy in Mobile Bay. July-August 1864
1864.8        220 US prisoners died daily at Andersonville. May-June 1864
1864.8.30   Democrat Party nominated McClellan for Pres. July-August 1864
1864.8-10   Juárez retreated to Chihuahua. Mexico
1864.9.3     Sherman’s army occupied Atlanta. September-October 1864
1864.9.5     Louisiana’s constitution banned slavery. September-October 1864
1864.9.15   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in the US. September-October 1864
1864.9.21   International Industrial Assembly began. September-October 1864
1864.9.23   After Frémont withdrew, Blair resigned. September-October 1864
1864.9-10   Sheridan’s cavalry burned crops & barns. September-October 1864
1864.10.7   USS Wachusett captured CSS Florida by Brazil. September-October 1864
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay. Argentina
1864.10.12 US Chief Justice Taney died. September-October 1864
1864.10.13 Maryland voters abolished slavery. September-October 1864
1864.10.29 Sojourner Truth talked to President Lincoln.
1864.10.31 Nevada became a US state. September-October 1864
1864.11.7   Davis asked CSA for 40,000 slaves to fight. November-December 1864
1864.11.8   Lincoln won electoral college 212-21. November-December 1864
1864.11.29 Chivington led Sandy Creek massacre. Colorado November-December 1864
1864.12.6   Lincoln nominated Chase for US Chief Justice. September-October 1864
1864.12.6   Hay read Lincoln’s message to Congress. November-December 1864
1864.12.14 Paraguay invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12      Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864.12.16 US Army led by Thomas occupied Nashville. November-December 1864
1864.12.17 US imposed passport controls on Canada.
1864.12.19 Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. November-December 1864
1864.12.21 Savannah surrendered to Sherman’s army. November-December 1864
1864-65      9,000 Navahos moved to Bosque Redondo. New Mexico
1864-66      Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.

1865.1.11   Missouri convention abolished slavery.  January-February 1865
1865.1.15   Confederates surrendered Fort Fisher.  January-February 1865
1865.1.16   Sherman designated land for former slaves.  January-February 1865
1865.1.23   CSA General Taylor replaced General Hood. January-February 1865
1865.1.27   Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.1.27   US Army killed 224 Shoshonis in Idaho. Native Tribes
1865.1.31   US House approved 13th amendment. January-February 1865
1865.2.3     Lincoln & Seward met CSA leaders on peace.  January-February 1865
1865.2.9     French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.9     Lee persuaded Davis to pardon deserters. January-February 1865
1865.2.12   Sherman’s army burned Orangeburg, SC. January-February 1865
1865.2        US Supreme Court admitted black John Rock. November-December 1864
1865.2.17   Columbia, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.18   Charleston, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.20   Brazil made a peace treaty with Uruguay.
1865.2.23   Lincoln reminded a Chicago editor of war cry. Civil War Atrocities
1865.3.3     US began Relief of Freedmen & Refugees. March 1865
1865.3.4     Lincoln gave his 2nd inaugural address. March 1865
1865.3.11   Lincoln pardoned deserters who returned. March 1865
1865.3.13   CSA Congress approved use of Negro troops. March 1865
1865.3        Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.3        Sherman’s army defeated Johnston’s. March 1865
1865.3        US denounced Reciprocity Treaty with Canada
1865.3.25   US Army & Navy besieged Mobile, Alabama. March 1865
1865.3.28   Lincoln met with Grant, Sherman & Porter. March 1865
1865.4.1     Sheridan’s army defeated Picketts’ at 5 Forks. April-May 1865
1865.4.3     Davis & his cabinet left Richmond. April-May 1865
1865.4.9     Generals Grant & Lee agreed to end the war. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   Mobile’s mayor surrendered the city. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   CSA troops surrendered at Appomattox. April-May 1865
1865.4.14   John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln. April-May 1865
1865.4.15   Andrew Johnson became US President. April-May 1865
1865.4        Douglass spoke for voting rights of all.
1865.4.18   Sherman & Johnston made an armistice. April-May 1865
1865.4.26   Johnston surrendered all CSA forces. April-May 1865
1865.5.1     Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.5.1     President Johnson named a military tribunal. April-May 1865
1865.5.10   Michigan cavalry captured Jefferson Davis. April-May 1865
1865.5.22   Pres. Johnson ended the southern blockade. April-May 1865
1865.5.29   Johnson decreed general amnesty & pardon. April-May 1865
1865.6.11   Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865           Argentina exported 55,000 tons of wool.
1865           Chile had 1.8 million people.
1865           Lydia Child helped publish The Freedman’s Book.
1865.7.7     Herold, Payne & Mrs. Surratt were hanged. April-May 1865
1865.7.15   Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.
1865.9.18    Atlanta University was founded. July-October 1865
1865.10       Southern states began passing Black Codes.  November-December 1865
1865.10.14   United States & Plains natives made treaties. Johnson
1865.11.10   Andersonville commandant Wirtz was hanged. November-December 1865
1865.12.2    Stevens urged Congress to run Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.4    Johnson sent Congress his annual message. November-December 1865
1865.12.8    Sen. Sumner suggested impeaching Johnson. November-December 1865
1865.12.14   Stevens became chairman of Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.18   13th Amendment abolished slavery. April-June 1865, November-December 1865
1865.12.24   Ku Klux Klan began at Pulaski, Tennessee. November-December 1865

1866.1.12    Gen. Grant ordered Negroes protected. January-April 1866
1866.1.15    Florida passed a Vagrant Act. January-April 1866
1866.2.5-6   Sen. Sumner spoke on liberty & equal rights. January-April 1866
1866.2.7      Black delegates talked with President Johnson. January-April 1866
1866.2.12    US began celebrating Lincoln’s birthday. January-April 1866
1866.2.22    Johnson spoke on Washington’s birthday.
1866.3.26    Pres. Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act.
1866.4.9      US Congress over-rode the civil rights veto. January-April 1866
1866.7.19    Ross & Cherokees made a treaty with the US. May-July 1866
1866.7.23    US Congress reduced the Supreme Court. May-July 1866
1866.7.24    Tennessee was readmitted as a state. May-July 1866
1866.7.30    Riot & police killed 34 blacks in New Orleans. May-July 1866
1866.7-12    Chief Red Cloud led Indian attacks. August-December 1866
1866.8.14    National Union Convention backed Johnson. August-December 1866
1866.8.20    Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended.
1866.8.20    60,000 formed the National Labor Union. August-December 1866
1866.8-9      President Johnson spoke in 9 states. 
1866.9         Johnson began appointing Democrats. 
1866.12.3    Johnson asked Congress to readmit states. 
1866.12.21   Sioux ambushed Fort Phil Kearney soldiers. August-December 1866
1867.1.7      Congress sent impeachment to committee. January-March 1867
1867.1.8      Congress enfranchised blacks in Washington. January-March 1867
1867.1.        US Senate published report on lawless whites. Conventions
1867.1.15    Grant proposed districts for whites & Indians. Conventions
1867.1.29    Grant advised martial law for Texas. January-March 1867
1867.2.1      Grant warned of Indian or white extermination. Red Cloud’s War
1867.2.6      US Committee began impeachment hearings. January-March 1867
1867.3.1      Nebraska became the 37th state. January-March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress passed the Reconstruction Act.
1867.3.2      US Congress revised federal taxes.  March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress chartered Howard University. March 1867
1867.3.23    Congress passed the 2nd Reconstruction Act.
1867.4.9      US purchased Alaska for $7.2 million. April-December 1867
1867.4         Ku Klux Klan became vigilantes. April-December 1867
1867.5.11    Jefferson Davis was released on bail. April-December 1867
1867.6         House committee rejected impeachment. April-December 1867
1867.6.25    5,000 Chinese railway workers went on strike. April-December 1867
1867           700,000 blacks registered to vote in the South. April-December 1867
1867           Peabody Education Fund had $3.5 million. April-December 1867
1867           New York established free public schools. April-December 1867
1867           Abolitionists published Negro spirituals. April-December 1867
1867           Lydia Child wrote A Romance of the Republic.
1867.7.1      Geologist Hayden wrote to the Land Office. April-December 1867
1867.7.1      US Army & Indians Snake War ended. April-December 1867
1867.7.19    Congress passed the 3rd Reconstruction Act.
1867.7.20    Johnson approved Indians peace commission. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.1      650 Cheyenne & Lakota resumed fighting. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.12    Johnson replaced Stanton with Grant. April-December 1867
1867.8         National Labor Union met in Baltimore. April-December 1867
1867.8         Cameron edited Working Man’s Advocate.April-December 1867
1867.9         John Muir began a long walk and his journal. April-December 1867
1867.10.17   Albion Tourgée published his 10 principles. April-December 1867
1867.12.3    President Johnson denigrated Negroes. April-December 1867
1867.12.19   Comanches & Kiowas accepted land grant.  Red Cloud’s Warr
1867-68       10 states held constitutional Conventions.
1868.1.8      The Revolution newspaper for women’s rights. Johnson
1868.1.13    US Senators supported Stanton over Johnson
1868.2         Starving Kiowas & Comanches raided Texas. Red Cloud’s War
1868.2         New York endorsed Grant for president. Elections
1868.2.21    Johnson replaced Stanton with Thomas.
1868.2.24    House of Representatives impeached Johnson.
1868.3.2      US & Utes made a treaty with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868.3.5      US Senate trial of President Johnson began.
1868.3.11    Congress passed the 4th Reconstruction Act. 1868
1868.3.11    Samuel Tilden spoke for Democrats. Elections
1868.3.21    Ku Klux Klan founder Forest visited Columbus. 1868
1868.3.30    Ku Klux Klan murdered George Ashburn .1868
1868.4.29    US & Sioux made a treaty at Fort Laramie. Red Cloud’s War
1868.5         Dun estimated Vanderbilt’s worth $50 million. 1868
1868.5.16    US Senate acquitted President Johnson.
1868.5.21    Republican Convention nominated Grant. Elections
1868.5.30    Decoration Day holiday began. 1868
1868.6.1      Navaho Wars ended with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868           US wheat prices fell from $4 a bushel to 67¢. 1868
1868           US had about 250,000 prostitutes. 1868
1868           Lydia Child wrote “An Appeal for the Indians.”
1868.7.9      Democrats nominated Seymour & Blair. Elections
1868.7.20    14th Amendment was ratified. 1868
1868.7.28    US stopped restricting Chinese immigration. 1868
1868.6         Congress found 373 freed slaves were killed. 1868
1868.8         2,000 Indians were on the war path. Red Cloud’s War
1868.9.25    10th Cavalry rescued besieged soldiers. Red Cloud’s War
1868.10.28   US Army shot dead negotiating Black Kettle. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.3    Electoral College 214-80 made Grant President. Elections
1868.11.23   Indian Affairs Commission published a report. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.27   Custer’s cavalry killed 175 Indians at Washita. Red Cloud’s War
1868.12.9    Johnson’s message called for popular elections. 1868
1868.12.25   Woodhull predicted Vanderbilt’s stock rising. 1868

Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020, 2022 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
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World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
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Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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