BECK index

North & South America

Chronological Index of Events

1787-1844

World Chronology to 1830
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830

Chronology of Latin America to 1865

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of North & South America 1845-1865

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

1786-87 Shawnees, Creeks, Cherokees fought settlers.  Frontier
1787.1.4 Massachusetts governor called out 4,400 troops. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.1 John Adams wrote Defence of the Constitutions. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.2 Military forces ended the Shays’s Rebellion.
1787.4 Madison listed vices of United States politics. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4.16 Royall Tyler’s The Contrast played in New York. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.5.25 Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1787 Barlow wrote The Vision of ColumbusShays’s Rebellion
1787 Noah Webster founded The American Magazine. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.7.13 Congress passed Northwest Ordinance. Shays’s Rebellion Frontier
1787.8.1 Land was opened to Continental Army veterans. Frontier
1787.9.17 Convention adopted United States Constitution
1787.9.28 Congress submitted Constitution to 13 states. 
1787.10.5 Samuel Bryan argued against the Constitution.  
1787.10.18 “Brutus” article by Robert Yates was published. Ratification
1787.10.27 Federalist Papers by “Publius” began to appear. Ratification
1787.11 Federalist Papers #6-9 by Hamilton appeared.  Ratification
1787.11.22 Mason’s “Objections to Constitution” appeared. Ratification
1787.11.22 Madison published Federalist #10.  Ratification
1787.12 3 states ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788.6.21 9th state ratified the US Constitution.  Ratification
1788.6-7 Virginia & New York ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788 Spain allowed American ships in Mississippi. Frontier
1788.7.3 Kentucky convention applied for statehood. Frontier
1788.9.1 Congress banned whites from Cherokee land. Frontier
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.1 Federalists won first congressional elections.  New Government
1789.1-9 Jefferson observed the French Revolution.
1789.4.30 Washington was inaugurated as President. New Government
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789 Ramsey wrote History of American RevolutionRatification
1789.9 US Treasury Dept. was created. New Government
1789.9.24 US Judiciary Act became law. New Government
1789.9.25 US Congress sent 12 amendments to states. Bill of Rights
1789.12.21 Georgia sold 25,400,000 acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1789-1838 US Government relocated 81,282 Indians. Removal
1790.1.9 Washington gave annual message to Congress. New Government
1790.1 Hamilton made “Report on the Public Credit.”  New Government
1790.3.17 Quakers asked Congress to abolish slavery. New Government
1790.5.29 13th state ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1790 Census counted 3,699,535 people in US. New Government
1790 Judith Sargent wrote “On Equality of the Sexes.” Washington
1790 King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Canada
1790.7 Congress passed Hamilton’s debt bill. New Government
1790.8.7 Creeks ceded land to Georgia. Frontier
1790.10.22 Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1790-93 Jefferson was US Secretary of State.
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791.2.25 Hamilton’s bank bill became law. New Government
1791.3.3 Congress passed excise tax on luxuries. Washington Whiskey Rebellion
1791.3.15 Jefferson reported to Congress on commerce. Washington
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791 Macomb bought 4 million acres. Frontier
1791 New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. Canada
1791 Upper Canada had 14,000 people. Canada
1791.7.2 Cherokees ceded land in the Treaty of Holston. Frontier
1791.7.4 US Bank began selling stock. Washington
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1791.10.31 Freneau’s National Gazette began publishing. Washington
1791.11.4 Miami’s Little Turtle defeated US Army. Frontier Jefferson
1791.12.5 Hamilton presented economic plan to Congress. Washington
1791.12.15 US Bill of Rights was ratified. 
1791.12.26 Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. Canada
1791-94 Western farmers opposed liquor tax. Whiskey Rebellion
1792.3 New York State Bank began. Washington
1792.4.5 Washington vetoed a bill as unconstitutional. 
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged. Brazil
1792.5.1 Kentucky became the 15th state in the US. Frontier
1792 Barlow wrote Advice to the Privileged OrdersAdams
1792 Lower Canada had 155,000 people.
1792.8.11 US Supreme Court found a law unconstitutional. Washington
1792.9.17 Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark.
1792.12.17 Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began.
1792-93 Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Canada Jefferson
1792-94 South Carolina banned importing slaves. Washington
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1808 John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. Canada
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1793.1.23 Madison published “Parties” essay. Washington
1793.2.1 France declared war on England, Spain, Holland. America
1793.3.4 President Washington began second term. America
1793.4.8 Genet arrived at Charleston. America
1793.4 Upper Canada Gazette began. Canada
1793.4.19 Washington proclaimed American neutrality. America
1793.6 Jefferson advised Genet. America
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies.
1793 4,000 people died of yellow fever in Philadelphia. America
1793 Lower Canada banned importing slaves.
1793 Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Canada
1793.7.12 Washington asked France to recall Genet. America
1793.8.8 Supreme Court declined to advise US President. America
1794.2.10 Quebec’s governor urged Indians to help British. America
1794.2 British seized Martinique and American ships. America
1794.2.24 Washington offered reward to catch criminals. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.3.4 Congress proposed 11th amendment. America
1794.3 Eli Whitney got a patent on his cotton gin. Washington
1794.3.27 Washington authorized ships for US Navy. America
1794.4.16 Washington appointed Jay envoy to Britain. America
1794.4.28 Adams broke tie in Senate on British trade. America
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1794.5.27 Washington named Monroe minister to France. America
1794.5.31 Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act.
1794 York became the capital of Upper Canada.
1794.8.14 Western delegates demanded excise tax repeal. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8 Brackenridge mediated with whiskey rebels. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8.20 US Army defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers. Frontier
1794.10-11 3,000 soldiers suppressed Whiskey Rebellion.  
1794.11.8 Chickamauga wars ended in a peace treaty. Frontier
1794.11.19 Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty. America Canada
1795.1 Georgia sold 35 million acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1795.6.24 Senate approved Jay’s Treaty with changes. Washington
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795 Spain strengthened forts on the Mississippi. Frontier
1795.8.3 Indians ceded land to US in Wayne’s treaty.Frontier
1795.8.18 Washington signed treaty with Ohio Indians. 
1795.8.19 Washington sent address to Cherokees. 
1795.10.27 Spain ceded territory to the US. Mexico Washington Frontier
1795.11.9 Washington met with warriors from 11 tribes. 
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.3 Washington agreed to pay Barbary pirates. 
1796.5 Congress funded Jay’s treaty. Washington
1796.6.1 Tennessee became the 16th state in the US. Frontier
1796 British withdrew troops from northwest. Frontier
1796.8 Spain went to war against England. Mexico
1796.9.19 Washington published “Farewell Address.” 
1796.12 Spain opened Mississippi River to US ships. Frontier
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.  
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.3.4 John Adams became 2nd US President. 
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.5.15 US Congress began special session. Adams
1797.5.16 Adams declared policy of neutrality. 
1797.7.10 US Congress funded 3 Navy ships. Adams
1797.7 Callender exposed Hamilton’s adultery. Adams
1797.7.21 MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec. Canada
1797.8 Society of United Irishmen began. Adams
1797.9.17 Seneca chiefs sold land to Holland Company. Frontier
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.2.15 Lyon and Griswold fought in Congress. Adams
1798.3 Spain ceded land to US east of Mississippi. Frontier
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1798.5.9 Day of prayer resulted in riots in Philadelphia. Adams
1798.5 US Congress authorized 9 warships. Adams
1798.6.18 Naturalization Act extended time to 14 years. Adams
1798.6.26 Judge Peters ordered Bache arrested for libel. Adams
1798 Judith Sargent published The Gleaner.  Adams
1798.7.6 Alien Enemies Act authorized deportations. Adams
1798.7.9 US Direct House Tax became law. Adams
1798.7.14 US Sedition Act banned “malicious” writing. Adams
1798.8.16 France ended embargo of American ships. Adams
1798.10.1 Lyon published Scourge of AristocracyAdams
1798.10 Lyon was re-elected while in jail for sedition. Adams
1798.11.16 Gov. Garrard signed Kentucky Resolutions. Adams
1798.12.20 Barlow wrote “On Certain Political Measures.”  Adams
1798.12.24 Madison’s Virginia Resolutions were enacted. Adams
1799.1.15 Adams began negotiating a treaty with France. 
1799.1.30 Congress passed the Logan Act. 1799-1800
1799.1-3 Fries rebellion stopped tax collection.  1799-1800
1799.2.1 Washington urged Adams to make peace. 
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799.3-5 Fries tax rebellion was suppressed. 1799-1800
1799.4.24 Library of Congress was started. 1799-1800
1799.5 Justice Chase indicted Callender for sedition. 1799-1800
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1799.11.14 Kentucky passed more resolutions. 1799-1800
1799.12.14 George Washington died of illness. 1799-1800
1799-1805 Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada.
1799-1808 Republican McKean governed Pennsylvania. 1799-1800


1800.5.1 Republicans won elections in New York. 1799-1800
1800.5.10 Land Act gave American settlers credit. 1799-1800
1800.5 Adams fired McHenry and Pickering. 
1800 Census found 5,308,483 in US, 893,602 slaves. 1799-1800
1800.7 Tripoli threatened war against the United States. America’s Naval War
1800.10.1 Spain ceded Louisiana to France.  Frontier
1800.10 Gabriel and 25 slaves were hanged for revolt. 1799-1800
1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1800.12 Electors gave 73 votes to Jefferson and Burr. 1799-1800
1801.1 Harrison became governor of Indiana Territory. Indian
1801.1 Tripoli made demands of the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.1.31 Adams nominated Marshall as Chief Justice. 
1801.2.2 US Senate ratified altered French treaty. Adams
1801.2.13 Federalist Senate added 23 new judges. Adams
1801.2.17 House elected Jefferson President.
1801.3.4 Thomas Jefferson became 3rd US President.
1801.3.6 Jefferson wrote to Dickinson on revolution.
1801.3.18 Jefferson wrote to Paine on peace & Europe.
1801.3.24 Jefferson wrote to Dr. Rush on US Post Office.
1801.5.13 Gallatin began work as Treasury Secretary. Jefferson
1801.5.14 Tripoli declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1801 McGill University began. Canada
1801.8.1 USS Enterprise defeated the Tripoli.  America’s Naval War
1801.8 20,000 attended religious revival in Kentucky. Frontier
1801.12.7 Republican Macon became House Speaker. Jefferson
1801.12 Marbury sued Secretary of State Madison. Jefferson
1801.12.19 US Senate ratified treaty with France. Louisiana
1801-12 Harrison governed Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1802.1 Congress rejected fugitive slave bill.  Jefferson
1802.1 US agreed to pay British creditors £600,000. Jefferson
1802.2.2 Congress authorized US Navy against Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1802.2 French seized 20 American ships at Cap Français. Jefferson
1802.3.3 Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801. Jefferson
1802.3.16 Jefferson approved West Point military academy.
1802.4.24 Congress set Georgia’s western border. Jefferson
1802.4.30 Ohio became 17th state in US. Jefferson
1802.6.17 Tripoli seized USS FranklinAmerica’s Naval War
1802.6.25 Morocco declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. French West Indies Haiti
1802 Republicans won most US elections. Jefferson
1802.10 Spain closed New Orleans to American trade. Louisiana
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.2.19 Jefferson approved Ohio’s constitution. 
1803.2.24 Marbury v. Madison ended unconstitutional law. 1803
1803.2.28 Congress authorized 4 more warships. America’s Naval War
1803.3.2 Stuart v. Laird authorized federal courts. 1803
1803.3.26 US Senate increased import duties 2.5%. America’s Naval War 1804
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803.5.2 France sold Louisiana to the United States. 
1803.5.18 USS John Adams captured the MeshudaAmerica’s Naval War
1803 Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. Canada
1803.10 Jefferson reduced US Navy budget. 1803
1803.10.20 US Senate ratified Louisiana Purchase. 
1803.10.31 Tripoli captured USS Philadelphia and 307 men. America’s Naval War
1803.12.14 Spain declared war on England. Louisiana
1803.12.20 US Army took over New Orleans. Louisiana
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804.2.16 Decatur’s USS Intrepid killed 33 Tripolitans. America’s Naval War
1804.2.16 Hamilton favored Clinton over Burr. 1804
1804.2.24 Mobile Act created a customs district. 1804
1804.2.25 Republican caucus nominated Clinton for VP. 1804
1804.3.12 Congress removed judge John Pickering. 1804
1804.4.25 New York’s Governor Clinton defeated Burr. 1804
1804.5.14 Lewis & Clark expedition left St. Louis. Exploration
1804.6.15 United States ratified 12th amendment. 1804
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804 Republicans won most Congressional elections. 1804
1804 Blackburn started a school for Cherokee boys. 1804
1804.7.11 Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. 1804
1804.8.7 USS Constitution blockaded Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1804.8 Burr met with British ambassador Merry. 
1804.10.2 Claiborne became Governor of New Orleans. Louisiana
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.10.11 Lear negotiated treaty with Morocco. America’s Naval War
1804.11.7 Lewis & Clark expedition reached Pacific Ocean. Exploration
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-07 South Carolina imported 39,310 slaves. 1807-09
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California
1805.1.2 Envoy Monroe arrived in Madrid. 1805-06
1805.1.8 Jefferson decided not to pay tribute to Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.2 US Senate acquitted Justice Chase. Jefferson
1805.3.2 Congress gave Louisiana rights. 
1805.3.3 US Senate banned armed commerce. 1805-06
1805.4  Federalists won elections in Massachusetts. 1805-06
1805.6.3 United States ransomed 307 men from Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805 Seneca Chief Red Jacket defended his religion. Indian Issues
1805 Kentucky court recognized a free African’s rights. 1805-06
1805 Mercy Warren published history of US revolution.1805-06
1805 Quebec Mercury began in English. Canada
1805.7 Gov. Harrison made a treaty in Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1805.7.30 United States sent 18 Navy ships to Tunis Bay. America’s Naval War
1805.9.23 Lewis & Clark expedition returned to St. Louis. Exploration
1805.10 Stephen published War in Disguise1805-06
1805.10.21 British Navy showed dominance at Trafalgar. 1805-06
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1805.12.1 Jefferson was warned of Burr conspiracy. 
1805.12.3 Jefferson criticized Spain in annual message. 1805-06
1806.1.8 Pike’s expedition reached Sandy Lake. Louisiana
1806.3.5 John Randolph began opposing Jefferson. 1805-06
1806.4.12 US Senate ratified the treaty with Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1806.4 British blockaded New York harbor. 1805-06
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru.
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806 Louisiana adopted the Code Noir.  
1806 Le Canadien began in French. Canada
1806.7.24 Sen. Dayton sent Burr an encouraging letter.  
1806.7.29 Burr sent Wilkinson a letter in cipher.  
1806.9.4 Blennerhassett suggested Ohio should secede. Burr
1806.9.23 Burr demanded Spaniards evacuate Orleans.
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1806.11.3 Jackson received $3,500 from Burr for boats.
1806.11.5 Kentucky D.A. Daveiss charged Burr in court. 
1806.11.15 Pike named a mountain “Grand Peak.” Exploration
1806.11.15 US Non-importation Act went into effect. 1805-06
1806.11.25 Wilkinson took control of New Orleans. Burr
1806.11.27 Jefferson banned invading Spanish territory. 1805-06 Burr
1806.12.12 Wilkinson began arresting Burr conspirators. 
1806.12.14 Jackson persuaded Burr to disavow rebellion. 
1807.1.7 England ended American coasting privileges. Embargo
1807.1.11 Burr and 55 people surrendered to militia. 
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2.26 United States ended slave trade after 1807. Embargo
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. Northern Mexico Exploration
1807.3.15 Jefferson rejected treaty with England.Embargo
1807.3.25 British abolished the slave trade. Embargo
1807.6.22 British removed 4 men from the ChesapeakeEmbargo
1807.7.2 Jefferson ordered British ships out of US waters. Embargo
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807.9.4 Fulton demonstrated his steamship invention. Embargo
1807.9 Tecumseh spoke at a conference. Indian Issues
1807.12.1 Burr was acquitted by a jury. 
1807.12.22 Embargo Act banned foreign trade by US ships. Embargo
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1807-11 James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada.
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.8 2nd US embargo made punishment harsher. Embargo
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3.12 3rd embargo banned all US exports. Embargo
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.4.12 US Congress expanded Army to 8 divisions. Embargo
1808.4.25 US Enforcement Act increased penalties. Embargo
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808.5 Tenskwatawa founded Prophetstown. Indian Issues
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808 Cherokees reformed their laws. Indian Issues
1808 1,130 Chickamaugas moved to Arkansas. Indian Issues
1808.8 Jefferson sent US Army and Navy north. Embargo
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation. Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809.2.4 Connecticut refused to enforce Embargo.
1809.3.1 Non-Intercourse Act ended the US Embargo.
1809.3.4 Madison became the 4th US President. 
1809.3.7 Madison’s cabinet was confirmed.  
1809.5.31 Dolly Madison held first evening levee. 
1809.6.27 John Quincy Adams became minister to Russia. Madison
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.9 Madison banned trade with Britain.  
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.9.30 Harrison made treaty with Miamis and others. Madison
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation. Mexico
1809.12 Washington Irving wrote his History of New York.
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti


1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.4.16 Fletcher v. Peck upheld a property sale. Madison
1810.5.1 US Congress closed ports to warring nations. Madison
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.17 Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press. Canada
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810 Census found 7,239,881 in US, 1,191,362 slaves. Madison
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.8 Many Indians joined Tecumseh’s confederacy. Madison
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.23 Americans declared West Florida Republic. Madison
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.10.27 Madison claimed West Florida for the US. 
1810.11.2 Madison announced non-intercourse with British.
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.11 Madison named 2 justices to US Supreme Court.
1810.11.15 Tecumseh got aid from the British.  Madison
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12.7 Claiborne took over West Florida for the US. Madison
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1811.1 66 slaves died in rebellion near New Orleans. Madison
1811.1.15 US Congress approved invasion of East Florida. Madison
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.2.20 US Congress did not renew the US Bank. Madison
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.4.1 Monroe began running the State Dept. Madison
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion. Argentine Revolution
1811.5 Red Jacket called Americans crooked. Madison
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811 Steamboat operated on Ohio and Mississippi. Madison
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.27 Tecumseh met with Harrison at Vincennes. Madison
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.10 General Brock began governing Upper Canada.
1811.11.7 US Army defeated Indians at Tippecanoe. Madison
1811.11 Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. Madison
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation.
1811.12 US Congress voted to arm merchant ships. War in 1812
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.1 Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. War in 1812
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3 US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. War in 1812
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4 US enacted 90-day embargo. War in 1812
1812.4 Louisiana became 18th state in the US. War in 1812
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.5.6 800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. War in 1812
1812.6.16 England repealed offensive Orders in Council. War in 1812
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. War in 1812 Canada
1812.6.20 Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. War in 1812
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana.
1812 Benjamin Rush published Medical Inquiries. 1778-79
1812.7.1 American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.7.17 British took over Fort Mackinac. War in 1812
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.8 Boston town meeting condemned the war. War in 1812
1812.8.16 British defeated US Army at Detroit. War in 1812 Canada
1812.8.19 USS Constitution sank the Guerriere. War in 1812
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.10.12 1,500 militia were called out from Tennessee. War in 1812
1812.10.13 1,300 Americans retreated from Queenstown. War in 1812
1812.10.13 General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle. Canada
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812.12.26 Joel Barlow died in Poland. War in 1813
1812-15 George Prevost governed Canada.  
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New GranadaCentral America
1813.1.8 Madison named Armstrong Secretary of War. War in 1813
1813.1 US Congress authorized $16 million loan. War in 1813
1813.1.22 British defeated Americans at the River Raisin. War in 1813
1813.2.2 Federalists blocked annexation of Floridas. War in 1813
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela. 
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.15 US Army captured British garrison at Mobile. War in 1813
1813.4 US Army burned capital buildings at York. War in 1813 Canada
1813.4 Tecumseh led 600 recruits to Fort Malden. War in 1813
1813.4.25 British and Indians besieged Fort Meigs. War in 1813
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileans at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulc . Mexico
1813.5.5 Tecumseh’s warriors defeated Kentucky militia. War in 1813
1813.5.9 Madison sent Gallatin and Bayard to Russia. War in 1813
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.8.30 Red Stick Creeks killed 517 at Fort Minns. War in 1813
1813.9.10 Perry’s 9 ships defeated a British squadron. War in 1813
1813.10.5 Harrison’s army defeated British in Ontario. War in 1813
1813.10.5 Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1813.10.16 Harrison agreed to truce with Indians. War in 1813
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.9 Jackson’s army defeated Red Sticks at Talladega. War in 1813
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.11 British Navy blockaded southern coast of US. War in 1813
1813.11.29 Georgia’s militia burned Autosee and Tallassee. War in 1813
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.17 Madison signed an Embargo Act. War in 1813
1813.12.19 British captured 358 soldiers at Fort Niagara. War in 1813
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813.12.30 British burned Black Rock and Buffalo. War in 1813
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1.6 Madison agreed to negotiate with British. War in 1814
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.3.27 Jackson’s army defeated Red Stick Creeks. War in 1814
1814.4.11 Napoleon’s abdication freed British forces. War in 1814
1814.4.14 United States ended the embargo. War in 1814
1814.4.25 British Navy blockaded entire US coast. War in 1814
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814 Noah Worcester wrote a book on war customs. Peace
1814.7.5 US Army recaptured Fort Erie. War in 1814
1814.7.6 US-British peace conference met at Ghent. War in 1814
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.7.25 US Army and British both lost at Lundy’s Lane. War in 1814
1814.8.9 Creeks ceded territory at Fort Jackson.  War in 1814
1814.8 Creeks ceded 23 million acres to US.
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.8.24 British burned the Capitol and the White House. War in 1814
1814.8.29 Alexandria surrendered to the British. War in 1814
1814.8.31 Prevost led invasion of US from Montreal.  War in 1814
1814.8-9 British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days. War in 1814 Canada
1814.9.4 Secretary of War Armstrong resigned. War in 1814
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.9 Battle of Plattsburg lasted six days. War in 1814
1814.9.13 British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore. War in 1814
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans. 
1814.11.7 Jackson attacked Pensacola against orders. War in 1814
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814.12.15 26 New England delegates met at Hartford. War in 1814
1814.12 Noah Worcester published a book against war. Madison
1814.12.24 British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1815 Canada
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. Bolivar
1814-40 Francia governed ParaguayArgentine Revolution

1815.1.8 Jackson’s army defeated British at New Orleans. 1815
1815.2.16 US Senate ratified peace treaty with Britain.  1815
1815.3 British shot at escaping American prisoners. 1815
1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815 Dodge wrote War Inconsistent with ReligionPeace
1815 Massachusetts Peace Society began.
1815.7.3 US & British signed commercial treaty in London. 1815
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.7-9 Americans and Indians made treaties. 1815
1815.8 New York formed first peace society. Madison
1815.8 Dodge began the New York Peace Society.
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.12.11 Indiana became the 18th state in the US. 1815
1815.12 Madison reported public debt of $120 million. 1815
1815.12 Massachusetts Peace Society began.  Madison
1815.12 Cuffe paid for 38 blacks to go to Sierra Leone. Madison
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason. Mexico
1815-20 Henry Clay was Speaker of US House. Monroe Era Missouri
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.
1816.1.1 Philadelphia Female Tract Society began. Madison
1816.1.9 Slavery abolition convention met in Philadelphia.Madison
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.16 Republicans nominated Monroe for President. Madison
1816.3.19 Compensation Act raised Congressmen’s pay. Madison
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.4.10 Madison approved a national bank.
1816.4.17 US Congress created Erie Canal commission. Madison
1816.5.13 American Bible Society began in New York. Madison
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.5 Channing spoke against war in Boston. Madison
1816.5 Black Hawk signed a peace treaty.
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.6.9 Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1816 US Congress raised tariffs to 20%. Monroe Era
1816 US Government debt peaked at $127 million. Monroe Era
1816 American Colonization Society was founded. Monroe Era
1816 Elias Boudinot published Star in the WestCherokees
1816 Channing gave his first “Discourse on War.”
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine Revolution
1816.7.27 US, Jackson & Creeks defeated Choctaws.
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. North Mexico
1816.9.14 Jackson signed peace treaty with Cherokees. Madison
1816.9.20 Chickasaws ceded land to US. Madison
1816.10.24 Choctaws ceded land to US. Madison
1816.12.3 Madison suggested future innovations. 
1816.12.21 American Colonization Society was founded. Slavery
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1817.1.7 2nd United States Bank began in Philadelphia. Monroe Era
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolivar.
1817.1 Maryland recognized the Sisters of Charity. Women
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine Revolution
1817.1.23 US Congress repealed Compensation Act. Madison
1817.2.12 San Martín’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.2 US Congress passed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.2 1st Unitarian Church was founded in Baltimore.
1817.3.1 Mississippi became the 19th state in the US. Madison
1817.3.1 US formed Alabama Territory. Monroe Era
1817.3.3 Madison vetoed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3.15 New York funded building the Eric Canal. Monroe Era
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.7 200 slaves attacked whites in Maryland. Monroe Era
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4 Gallaudet & Clerc began a school for the deaf. Monroe Era
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.4.17 US and Britain agreed on a Great Lakes treaty. Monroe Era
1817.5 Sauks and Foxes began getting annuities. Black Hawk
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. North Mexico
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817 New York planned to end slavery in 1827. Monroe Era
1817 United States had over 300 newspapers. Monroe Era
1817 Eaton published The Life of Andrew Jackson
1817 Jackson sold 40 slaves for $24,000.
1817 Tennessee banned selling a suing slave.
1817 North Carolina outlawed killing a slave.
1817.7.8 Cherokees ceded 2 million acres to US.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.7.30 Marshal Liñán’s army besieged Mina’s rebels. Mexican
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.8 Washington Irving visited Walter Scott.
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.9 Osborn began publishing The PhilanthropistAbolitionists
1817.9.22 John Q. Adams became Secretary of State. Monroe Era
1817.9.29 Michigan & Ohio made a treaty with 7 tribes. Florida
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.11.3 Bank of Montreal began with $350,000. Canada
1817.11 Monroe appointed Wirt Attorney General.
1817.11 US Army burned a Creek village in Georgia.
1817.11.30 Creek warriors killed 36 US soldiers on a ship.
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817.12.10 US admitted slave state of Mississippi. Monroe
1817.12.16 Griscom began society to prevent pauperism. Monroe
1817.12.16 Calhoun demanded Seminole reparations.
1817.12.23 US Army occupied Amelia Island. Florida
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-21 US fought First Seminole War.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1817-25 President Monroe governed United States.
1818.1.6 Jackson letter criticized President Monroe.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.1.30 Monroe told Calhoun not to attack Spaniards. Florida
1818.1-3 Jackson led 1,000 volunteers to Fort Scott.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2.13 John Adams wrote on the American Revolution. Monroe
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.13 Clay argued for public improvements. Monroe
1818.3.14 Jackson found fresh scalps at Fort Fowltown.
1818.3 US Congress approved veterans’ pensions. Monroe
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen.  Venezuela
1818.3.25 Clay argued for Latin American republics. Monroe
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.1 1,400 Creek warriors joined General Jackson.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4.7 Spaniards surrendered Fort St. Mark’s to US. Florida
1818.4.8 US Navy hanged two Seminole chiefs.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.4 Jackson had 300 houses burned in Florida.
1818.4 Gourlay warned against lawbreaking. Canada
1818.4.16 US-Canada treaty banned warships on Lakes.
1818.4.18 US Senate ratified Rush-Bagot treaty. Monroe
1818.4.29 Jackson had 2 British men executed.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.5.2 Bishop Plessis sent missionaries to Red River. Canada
1818.5.12 Madison spoke to the Agricultural Society. Monroe
1818.5.13 Monroe approved Americans staying in Florida.
1818.5 Presbyterian Church condemned slaveryAbolitionists
1818.5.28 Gov. Masot surrendered Pensacola Fort. Florida
1818.6.2 Jackson wrote Monroe he could take Cuba.
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818 Illinois banned slavery and black voting. Monroe
1818 Free Port Act aided Nova Scotia shipping. Canada
1818 Illinois Constitution banned slavery.
1818 An average slave cost $1,000.
1818 Connecticut disenfranchised blacks. slavery
1818 Crocker wrote Observations on Real RightsWomen
1818 Shakers issued Memorial to New Hampshire. Peace Societies
1818.8 Steamship line connected Buffalo to Detroit. Monroe
1818.8.25 Bank of Canada began with £200,000.
1818.10.19 Chickasaws sold a third of Tennessee. Jackson
1818.11.28 Adams sent Spain a Florida ultimatum.
1818.12.3 Illinois became 21st US state. Monroe
1818.12 Abolition committee formed in Philadelphia. Missouri
1818.12 Missouri territory had 10,000 slaves.
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818.12.21 Gourlay & Niagara Spectator editor arrested. Canada
1818-19 Duke of Richmond governed Lower Canada.
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-21 Smallpox epidemic devastated Canada natives.
1818-28 Maitland governed Upper Canada.
1818-38 Frederick Douglass was a slave.
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.1 New road connected Nashville to New Orleans. Jackson
1819.1.20 Clay accused Jackson of acting without orders.
1819.1.30 US Congress ratified US-British Convention. Jackson
1819.2.2 Dartmouth decision protected corporations. Depression
1819.2.6 Illinois passed the Apprentice Labor Act. Depression
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2 US Senate censured General Jackson.
1819.2 Frances Wright’s Altorf played in New York.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.2.22 Spain ceded Florida to the US.
1819.2.27 Cherokee chiefs confirmed 1817 treaty.
1819.3.3 US Congress passed Civilization Act. Choctaws
1819.3.6 US Supreme Court McCulloch v. MarylandDepression
1819.3 Roger Taney defended anti-slavery Gruber. Depression
1819.3.19 US Congress tried to control slave smuggling. Depression
1819.3-8 Monroe & Calhoun toured the South & West. Depression
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.5 Channing preached value of Unitarianism. Depression
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6 First steamboat crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Depression
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. North Mexico
1819   85 banks in the US folded. Banking Crisis
1819 Underwood sold canned food in Boston. Depression
1819 US War & Treasury departments were corrupt. Banking Crisis
1819 US gave American Colonization So. $100,000. Depression
1819 US Congress funded Anti-Slave Trade Act. Abolitionists
1819 Willard wrote A Plan for Improving Female Ed.  Women
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.8.21 Upper Canada expelled Robert Gourlay.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.
1819.12.7 Monroe discussed Depression in his address.
1819.12.14 Alabama became the 22nd US state. Depression Slavery
1819.12 Niles’ Register printed Rufus King’s speeches. Abolitionists
1819-20 Washington Irving serialized his Sketch Book.
1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.1 First free blacks emigrated to Liberia. Missouri
1820.1 Emerson began his journal “The Wide World.”
1820.2.4 San Martín’s revolutionary army took Valdivia.
1820.3.6 Monroe signed first Missouri Compromise.
1820.3.9 US Land Act lowered price to $1.25 an acre. Missouri
1820.5.15 US Congress approved death for slave traders. Missouri
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820.6.29 US ship Dallas captured Spanish AntelopeSlavery
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820 US census counted 1,538,038 slavesMissouri
1820 Arkansas Territory offered land to Cherokees. Missouri
1820 United States had 525 Freemason lodges. John Q. Adams
1820 Robert Baldwin led reform in Upper Canada.
1820 Cotton was 42% of US exports. Slavery
1820 US census counted 233,634 free Negroes. Slavery
1820 Maine Constitution enfranchised all citizens. Slavery
1820 Boston segregated black students. Slavery
1820 Liberal Congregationals formed a conference. Unitarians
1820 Joseph Smith saw a pillar of light.
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.18 Choctaws traded 6 million acres to US.
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.22 Webster’s oration urged end of slavery. Missouri
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1820-28 9th Earl of Dalhousie governed Canada.
1820-39 Taliafero was US Indian Agent to Sioux et alSioux
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3 Troy Council funded a female academy. Women
1821.3 Channing’s lecture impressed Emerson.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.3.26 NW Co. merged with Hudson’s Bay Co. Canada
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.15 Monroe appointed Jackson governor of Florida. 1819-21
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821 Laws of the Cherokee Nation was published.
1821 Royal Charter established McGill University. Canada
1821 US produced 29% of world cotton. Slavery
1821 African Co. performed plays in New York. Slavery
1821 Frances Wright wrote Society & Manners in America.
1821 Lucretia Mott became a Quaker minister.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7 Jackson began governing Florida Territory.
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.10 US admitted Missouri as a slave state.
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.4 Russia extended territory south to 51°.  1819-21
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexican
1821.10 Niles’ Weekly Register urged wider suffrage. Monroe
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12 James Fenimore Cooper published The Spy.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821-39 Lundy published Universal Emancipation.
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2 Lydia Francis joined a Swedenborgian Society.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexican
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.5 Washington Irving published Bracebridge Hall.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexican rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.5-6 Vesey planned a slave revolt in Charleston. 
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed. 1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.17 United States recognized Colombia. Monroe
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822 William Church devised mechanical typesetter. 1822-23
1822 Gourlay wrote on Upper Canada statistics.
1822 Lower Canada had 427,465 people.
1822 Rhode Island disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1822 US colony of Liberia was started. Slavery
1822 Frances Wright wrote A Few Days in Athens.
1822 Quakers formed Pennsylvania Peace Society.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1822.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.11 Emerson’s essay was in The Christian Disciple.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822.12.12 US recognized Iturbide’s government. Monroe
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2 Green v. Biddle affirmed interstate contracts. Monroe
1823.2 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pioneers.
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress. Mexico
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5 Catherine Beecher began Hartford Female Seminary.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823 US Supreme Court case Johnson v. McIntoshLaws
1823 Upper Canada’s arrears were £100,000.
1823 Mississippi banned black meetings & reading. Slavery
1823 George Flowers helped shipped blacks to Haiti. Frances Wright
1823 William Ladd wrote essays on peace and war.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7  Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.6-7 Letters of Wyoming supported Jackson. Elections
1823.7.17 Adams warned Russia about Oregon. Foreign Policy
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.9 Seminoles made a treaty with the US.
1823.9.21 Joseph Smith saw lighted Moroni.
1823.10 Charlton Fisher began editing Quebec GazetteCanada
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823.12.2 Monroe announced Latin American policy.
1823.12.8 Webster urged helping the Greek revolution. Monroe
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26  General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.1.14 Speaker Clay explained his American System. Elections
1824.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pilot.
1824.2.10 US Congress gave surveys & canals $30,000. 1824
1824.2.14 64 Congressmen nominated Crawford. Elections
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. Bolívar
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3.2 Gibbons v. Ogden on interstate commerce. 1824
1824.3.11 War Dept. began the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1824
1824.3.13 US-Britain convention suppressed slave trade. 1824
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.22 Whites were executed for killing an Indian. 1824
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.1-2 Webster gave a speech on free trade. 1824
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.4 Calhoun agreed to be Jackson’s running mate.Elections
1824.4.17 US & Russia agreed on 54° 40’ border. 1824
1824.5.22 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.24 Monroe signed bill for harbors and dams. 1824
1824.5.25 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.25 American Sunday School Union began. 1824
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize BrazilMonroe
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 202 women weavers went on strike. 1824
1824 Lafayette visited the United States. 1824
1824 Merino sheep were brought to New England. 1824
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824  Canada Co. bought land in Upper Canada
1824 Upper Canada counted 150,066 people.
1824 New York supported African Free Schools. Slavery
1824 Lundy began Haitian Emigration Society.
1824 Worcester started public schools. Women
1824 Dorothea Dix wrote Conversations on Common Things.
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7 Lydia Francis published her novel Hobomok.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.4 US recognized Federation of Central America. Monroe
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.10 Workingman’s Gazette was founded. 1824
1824.10 A mob ravaged black homes in Providence. Slavery
1824.11 Moise reformed Beth Elohim Congregation. 1824
1824.11 Jackson won popular vote for President. Elections
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.7 Monroe gave his last annual address. Florida Cherokees
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12 Lydia Francis wrote Evenings in New England.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.

1825.1.3 Robert Owen bought 20,000 acres by Wabash. 1824
1825.1.22 President Monroe signed the Choctaw treaty.
1825.1.25 Monroe advised Indian resettlement. Cherokees
1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.9 Clay helped House elect Adams President. Elections
1825.2.12 Creeks sold 4,700,000 acres to the US.
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.2-3 Robert Owen spoke to the US Congress twice. New Harmony
1825.3.3 Monroe approved $450,000 for roads & canals. 1824
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.6.2 Osage tribe ceded more land. Cherokees
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies. 1825-27
1825 Francia closed Paraguay’s Congress.
1825 Haiti stopped helping free blacks’ immigration.
1825 Mexican states produced constitutions.
1825.8.6 Chuquisaca Assembly declared a Bolivian state.
1825.8 Bolívar declared all Bolivian citizens equal.
1825.9.1 Central America ratified its constitution.
1825.10.12 Brazil’s Pedro granted 104 titles of nobility.
1825.12.5 Central America & United States made a treaty.
1825-28 Cisplatine War led to independent Uruguay. Brazil
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Last of the Mohicans.
1826.1.24 Creeks traded land to the US.
1826.2.5 New Harmony Community of Equality began.
1826.2.13 American Temperance Society began. John Q. Adams Beecher
1826.3 Frances Wright founded Nashoba commune.
1826.4.8 John Randolph & Henry Clay fought a duel. John Q. Adams
1826.4.26 United States made a treaty with Denmark. John Q. Adams
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Bolívar Monroe John Q. Adams
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.8 Tories destroyed Mackenzie’s printshop.
1826.6.8 Garrison printed Whittier’s “Exile’s Departure.”
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826 Livingston completed penal code for Louisiana. John Q. Adams
1826 Anne Royall published Sketches of History. John Q. Adams
1826 Cherokees had 18 mission schools.
1826 A mob drove blacks out of Cincinnati. Slavery
1826 Slaves revolted on the Decatur. Abolitionists
1826 Zephaniah Kingsley published his Treatise. Abolitionists
1826.7.4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died. John Q. Adams
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.5 Ojibwe signed Fond du Lac treaty. Black Hawk
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1826.9 Lydia Francis began Juvenile Miscellany.
1826-27 Lead mining led to conflict with Winnebagos. John Q. Adams
1826-34 Rideau Canal to Ottawa River cost £800,000. Canada
1826-40 Cheyenne, Kiowas & Comanches fought.
1826-44 Levi Coffin helped 3,000 slaves escape. Abolitionists
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.1 Quakers began the Free Produce Society. Abolitionists
1827.1 Emerson wrote the word “Transcendentalism.”
1827.1.27 Slave-trader Woolfolk beat Lundy.
1827.1.31 Mexican army ended Fredonia republic. John Q. Adams
1827.2.2 Martin v. Mott allowed mobilizing state militias. John Q. Adams
1827.3 Owen’s socialist New Harmony broke up. Elections
1827.3 Blacks began printing Freedom’s Journal. John Q. Adams Abolitionists
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827 Strachan founded King’s College in Toronto. Canada
1827 Florida limited voting to whites. Slavery
1827 Jefferson’s heirs sold 130 of his slaves. Abolitionists
1827 US had 140 anti-slavery societies. Abolitionists
1827 Lundy published Frances Wright’s Nashoba Book.
1827 Sedgwick published her novel Hope Leslie. Lydia Maria Child
1827 Owen’s New Harmony community ended.
1827 James Fenimore Cooper published The Prairie.
1827.7.4 New York freed its 10,000 slaves. Abolitionists
1827.7 Joanna Bethune began a school for infants. Women
1827.7.26 Cherokees declared independence.
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.9.9 Jim Bowie killed Major Wright with his knife. John Q. Adams
1827.9.22 Joseph Smith removed the golden plates.
1827.10.7 Masonry critic Morgan’s corpse was identified. John Q. Adams
1827.10 Mechanics’ Union of Trade Associations began. John Q. Adams
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.11.13 US & Britain signed a trade agreement. John Q. Adams
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12 Jacksonian Democrats controlled US Congress. John Q. Adams
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-28 Green’s daily Telegraph promoted Jackson. 1828
1827-29 Petitions demanded end to slavery in DC. Abolitionists
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.2 Washington Irving published his Columbus biography.
1828.4 Noah Webster published American Dictionary. 1828
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.5.19 US Congress passed a 40% tariff. 1828
1828.6.13 Hammond’s Gazette exposed Jackson. 1828
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828 Louisiana’s Black Code was repealed. 1828
1828 Sarah Hale began Ladies Magazine in Boston. 1828
1828 Beecher began publishing Spirit of the Pilgrims. 1828
1828 “Coffin Handbill” exposed Jackson’s crimes. 1828
1828 Weed, Anti-Masonic Enquirer opposed Jackson. 1828
1828 Argus of Western America supported Jackson. 1828
1828 Jackson’s Creek orphan Lyncoya died.
1828 Franklin & Armfield formed a partnership. Slavery
1828 Women in Dover went on strike.
1828 Zilpah Grant began Ipswich Female Academy. Women
1828 Workingmen’s Party began in New York. Wright
1828 Dorothea Dix published Meditations for Private Hours.
1828 Lydia Child wrote Moral Lessons in Verse.
1828 Lydia Child wrote First Settlers of New-England.
1828 Grimké sisters moved from South Carolina to Pennsylvania.
1828 William Ladd led the American Peace Society.
1828.7.14 Umpquas attacked Smith’s Oregon expedition. 1828
1828.7 Heighton began Mechanics’ Free Press. 1828
1828.7 Frances Wright spoke on the Christian party in politics.
1828.8.2 Jackson’s slave trading was revealed. Elections
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10 Lydia Francis married David Child.
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.11.7 New York elected Van Buren Governor. Elections
1828.11.12 Lydia Maria Child published The Frugal Housewife.
1828.11 56% of votes elected Jackson US President. Elections
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1828.12.19 South Carolina voted right to nullify US laws. 1828
1828.12.20 Georgia decreed jurisdiction over Indians. Cherokees
1828.12.26 600 girls in a Dover mill went on strike. 1828
1828-32 Boudinot edited Cherokee Phoenix.
1828-35 John Colborne governed Upper Canada.
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.1 Emerson became a Unitarian minister.
1829.1.18 Walker’s Appeal urged slaves to revolt. 1828
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.3.4 Jackson was inaugurated US President.
1829.3 Working Men’s Party protested bank charters. Jackson
1829.3.22 Van Buren became US Secretary of State. Jackson
1829.3.23 Jackson wrote a letter to the Creeks.
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829.4 Gov. Houston resigned to live with Cherokees. 1829
1829.4.26 Frances Wright opened the Hall of Science.
1829.5-12 Evarts wrote essays against Indian removal.
1829.6.11 Joseph Smith copyrighted The Book of Mormon.
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829 Kendall discovered fraud in the Treasury Dept. Jackson
1829 Skidmore wrote The Rights of Man to Property. 1829
1829 Welland Canal connected lakes Ontario & Erie. Canada
1829 1,200 blacks left Cincinnati to go to Canada. Slavery
1829 George M. Horton published Hope of Liberty. Abolitionists
1829 Robert Young published Ethiopian Manifesto. Abolitionists
1829 Willard wrote History of the United States. Women
1829 Catherine Beecher wrote Improvements in Education.
1829 Frances Wright published Course of Popular Lectures.
1829 Frances Wright & Owen co-edited The Free Enquirer.
1829 Channing published a book on Fénelon.
1829 Cooper wrote The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish.
1829.7 Gold was discovered in Georgia. Cherokees
1829.7.22 McKenney set up Indian Board for Emigration. Cherokee
1829.8.8 Allen tested a steam locomotive. 1829
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8 Garrison began working with Lundy.
1829.8.23 Jackson spoke to 21 Chickasaw chiefs.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President. Bolívar
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.9 Walker published Appeal to Coloured Citizens.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. 1829
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12.8 Jackson’s address was on Indian tribes. Cherokees Chickasaws
1829.12.8 Jackson proposed ending the Electoral College.
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12 Metamora play was on King Philip’s War. Cherokees
1829.12 Petitions against Indian removal began.
1829.12.19 Georgia passed laws against Cherokees.
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.
1829-30 Washington Irving worked in the London embassy.
1829-34 Presbyterian Finney led revivals in New York. New Harmony
1829-38 NY Port Collector Swartwout stole $1,222,705. 1829
1829-62 Robinson was Upper Canada’s Chief Justice.

1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1 Whites drove blacks out of Portsmouth, Ohio. Slavery
1830.1.19 Mississippi took jurisdiction over Indians. Choctaws
1830.1.19 SC Senator Haynes asserted state rights. 1830-31
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.1.26 Senator Webster defended the US Constitution. 1830-31
1830.2 Garrison refused to pay a fine for libel.
1830.2 David Child got 6 months for libel.
1830.3.26 Joseph Smith published The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4.6-8 Frelinghuysen spoke against Indian removal.
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4 Brigham Young read The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5 President Jackson vetoed 4 bills.
1830.5.13 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.5.19 Horace Everett spoke against Indian removal.
1830.5.28 President Jackson signed Indian Removal Act.
1830.5.29 Jacksonians’ Preemption Act helped settlers
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830 Jedidah Smith led first wagon train in the West. 1830-31
1830 Astor sold Pacific Fur Company for $58,000. 1830-31
1830 Grayson published Vice Unmasked. 1830-31
1830 United States had 330 state banks. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 12,866,020 people. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 2,009,043 slaves.
1830 US slaves were valued at $577 million.
1830 North Carolina v. Mann empowered masters. Slavery
1830 Baltimore jail began separating the sexes. Slavery
1830 United States had 319,000 free blacks. Slavery
1830 MD, VA, NY, PA, NC, NJ had most free blacks. Slavery
1830 US colony Liberia had 1,420 blacks. Slavery
1830 Pennington helped start a Temperance Society. Garrison
1830 Garrison was fined for refusing to be in militia.
1830 First National Negro Convention met. Garrison
1830 Frances Wright with 34 slaves went to Haiti.
1830.7.15 Sauk Chief Keokuk agreed to a treaty. Black Hawk
1830.7.24 Cherokee Phoenix published Evarts protest.
1830.8 Jackson fired McKenney over Indian rights. Choctaws
1830.8 Taliafero banned selling alcohol to Indians. Sioux
1830.9.27 Choctaws signed a removal treaty.
1830.12.7 Blair began publishing the Globe. 1830-31
1830.12 Washington Irving published Companions of Columbus.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-32 Whittier edited New England Weekly Review.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1830-40 600,000 immigrants entered the US. 1840
1831.1.1 Garrison began publishing The Liberator.
1831.1.2 Guerrero’s army was defeated.
1831.1 Texas state congress began.
1831.1 Joseph Smith led 70 Mormons to Kirtland, Ohio.
1831.1-12 Manuel Victoria governed Alta California.
1831.2.2 Sen. Benton opposed renewing the US Bank. 1830-31
1831.2.14 Mexican firing squad executed Guerrero.
1831.2 US Congress made Duff Green their printer. 1830-31
1831.2 US Marines killed 450 Malayans. 1830-31
1831.2.17 Calhoun published his 52-page “Address.” 1830-31
1831.3 Georgia prohibited whites from Cherokee land.
1831.3.31 Mexico banned external periodicals.
1831.4.7 Emperor Pedro abdicated to his child Pedro II. Brazil
1831.4 Eaton and Van Buren resigned. 1830-31
1831.5.10 Jeremiah Evarts died of tuberculosis.
1831.5.27 Comanche hunters killed Jedidiah Smith. New Mexico
1831.6 Lydia Maria Child wrote The Mother’s Book.
1831.6.30 Black Hawk agreed not to return to Saukenuk.
1831 Demerara-Essequibo became British Guiana.
1831 Mary Prince wrote a slave narrative in England. West Indies
1831 Slaves in Antigua revolted. West Indies
1831 Panama became part of New Granada.
1831 Stephen Smith wrote Working Man’s Manuel. 1830-31
1831 William Apess published A Son of the Forest. Jackson
1831 Newfoundlanders took 700,000 seals.
1831 Whites attacked blacks’ homes in Providence. Slavery
1831 Maria Stewart wrote Religion & Pure Principles. Garrison
1831 Catherine Beecher wrote Mental & Moral Philosophy.
1831.7.26 Calhoun argued states could nullify federal law. 1830-31
1831.8 Brazil adopted liberal laws.
1831.8 William Miller prophesied Christ would return. 1830-31
1831.8 Nat Turner led slave revolt in Southampton.
1831.9 Militia suppressed a riot in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1831.9.26 Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. 1830-31
1831.10 Cooper published The Bravo.
1831.11 Margaret Fuller had a mystical experience.
1831.12 National Republican Party nominated Clay. 1830-31
1831.12.25 60,000 slaves in Jamaica went on strike. West Indies
1831-32 Thomas Dew argued for slavery. Slave Revolts
1831-32 Virginia legislature debated abolishing slavery. Abolitionists
1831-33 12,500 Choctaws migrated west; 2,500 died.
1831-34 Canada Assembly expelled Mackenzie 5 times.
1831-41 General Prieto was President of Chile.
1831-65 Garrison published The Liberator.
1832.1.4 11-day slave revolt ended in Jamaica. West Indies
1832.1.7 Salvador seceded from Central American union.
1832.1.11 Four Mexican ministers resigned. Santa Anna
1832.1 Alabama made Indians subject to their laws. Creeks
1832.1.16 Randolph proposed freeing slaves in Virginia. 1832
1832.2.23 US House began investigating the US Bank.
1832.3.3 Mexican troops beat Santa Anna at Tolome.
1832.3.23 Worcester v. Georgia canceled a Georgia law. Cherokees
1832.3.24 Creek chiefs ceded Alabama land.
1832.3.24 12 men beat, tarred & feathered Joseph Smith.
1832.3.28 Morazán deposed Salvador’s government. Central America
1832.4.15 Mormons baptized Brigham Young.
1832.4-8 Black Hawk War was fought in Illinois.
1832.5.2 Central America recognized free conscience.
1832.5.9 Seminoles sold land in Florida.
1832.5.13 Moctezuma beat Federalists at Tampico. Mexico
1832.5 Washington Irving published The Alhambra.
1832.5.23 Black Baptist preacher Sharpe was hanged. 1832
1832.5.23 Democrats nominated Jackson & Van Buren.
1832.6.13 Santa Anna made an armistice with Mexico.
1832.6.13 Texans declared themselves federalists.
1832.6 Cholera killed 4,000 people in New York. 1832
1832.6-9 Cholera epidemic in Canada killed 3,292.
1832 Britain took over Malvinas Islands (Falklands). Argentina
1832 Thomas Dew defended the slave economy. 1832
1832 Frances Trollope wrote on American manners. 1832
1832 66,000 immigrated to British America. Canada
1832 Montreal gained a mayor & city council. Canada
1832 Slave-trading brought cholera to Natchez.
1832 Thomas Dew exported 6,000 slaves.
1832 Liberator printed Rankin’s Letters on Slavery.
1832 Garrison wrote a book on African colonization.
1832 Dorothea Dix published American Moral Tales.
1832 Child published biographies of women.
1832 T. Grimké spoke to Connecticut Peace Society.
1832.7.10 Jackson vetoed US Bank charter renewal.
1832.7.14 US Congress passed a protectionist tariff.
1832.7 Cooper published The Heidenmauer.
1832.8 General Muzquiz replaced VP Bustamante. Santa Anna
1832.9.12 Spaniards surrendered Omoa garrison. Central America
1832.9.18 Centralist army beat Federalists at El Gallinero. Santa Anna
1832.9.23 Jackson made Taney Treasury Secretary.
1832.10 Ross rejected $3.25 million for Cherokee land.
1832.11 Jackson was re-elected with 54% of the votes.
1832.11.24 South Carolina convention nullified tariffs.
1832.12.10 Jackson accused South Carolina of treason.
1832.12 South Carolina Gov. Hayne called volunteers. 1832
1832.12.23 Mexico ended civil war under Pres. Pedraza. Santa Anna
1832.12.25 Joseph Smith revealed a wholesome diet.
1832-34 Mormons published Evening & Morning Star.
1832-34 Albert Brisbane studied with Fourier at Paris. New Harmony
1832-35 Brazil’s War of Cubanos was worst in Pará.
1832-37 President Santander governed New Granada.
1832-44 William Quinn founded 47 AME churches. Anti-Slavery
1833.1 Newfoundland began representative government.
1833.2.14 Creeks signed a treaty with US at Fort Gibson.
1833.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President.
1833.2 Gouge wrote a history of money and banking. US Bank
1833.2 Barron v. Baltimore did not favor US gov’t. 1833-34
1833.3.2 Jackson approved Force and Tariff bills.
1833.3 Lewis Tappan began The Emancipator. Anti-Slavery
1833.3.18 South Carolina nullified US Force bill.
1833.4 Crandall began to teach colored girls. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1833.4 Lydia Child published Good Wives.
1833.4 Mormons sent out first missionaries.
1833.5 Oberlin College included women. 1833-34
1833.5 Garrison & Nathaniel Paul visited England. Anti-Slavery
1833.5 Whittier published Justice and Expediency.Anti-Slavery
1833.6.23 Mexican Congress exiled 50 opponents. Santa Anna
1833 Epidemic killed 35,000 California Indians.
1833 Livingston wrote on prison reform. 1833-34
1833 Carey published Appeal to the Wealthy. 1833-34
1833 John Galt published his Autobiography. Canada
1833 May wrote a book on educating Negroes. Anti-Slavery
1833 David Child published Despotism of Freedom. Anti-Slavery
1833 Elizur Wright wrote “Sin of Slavery.”Anti-Slavery
1833 Oberlin College began & accepted blacks. Abolitionists Women
1833 Mormons printed the Book of Commandments.
1833.7 Jackson let Black Hawk tour in the East.
1833.7 Cooper published The Headsman.
1833.8 General Trades’ Union of New York formed. 1833-34
1833.8 Lydia Child wrote Appeal for Africans.
1833.8.16 Emerson met Carlyle at Edinburgh.
1833.8.28 Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act paid slaveholders. West Indies
1833.10.8 Arista’s insurgents surrendered at Guanajuato. Santa Anna
1833.10 Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society began.
1833.11 Emerson lectured on “Uses of Natural History.”
1833.11 Mormons moved to Clay County, Missouri.
1833.12.3 American Anti-Slavery Society began.
1833.12.6 Garrison wrote “Declaration of Sentiments.” Anti-Slavery
1833.12 Mott began a Female Anti-Slavery Society.
1833.12.24 Jackson submitted 7 Indian treaties.
1833,1838 Boyer expelled legislator Hérard-Dumesle. Haiti
1833-35 José Figueroa governed Alta California.
1833-35 US troops moved 19,600 Creeks west.
1833-37 150,000 slaves were moved west in the US.
1833-47 Schoelcher published 3 books on slavery. Indies
1834.1 Mexico arrested Stephen Austin. Santa Anna
1834.1 Lydia Child joined Boston Anti-Slavery Society.
1834.1.17 Emerson lectured at the Mechanic’s Institution.
1834.1.29 Jackson sent troops to a strike in Maryland.
1834.1-4 Liberal VP Farías governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1834.2 Joseph Smith began Quorum of 12 Apostles.
1834.3.6 City of York became Toronto. Canada
1834.3.28 US Senate censured President Jackson.
1834.4.4 House passed Polk’s 4 resolutions on banking. 1833-34
1834.4.10 Thousands rioted in New York City. 1833-34
1834.4.14 Clay began organizing the new Whig party. 1833-34
1834.4.21 Jackson & Taney imposed currency reform.
1834.4-12 Mexico secularized California missions.
1834.5 Joseph Smith organized Mormon militia.
1834.5.24 Chickasaw treaty was signed at Washington.
1834.6.2 Santa Anna dissolved Mexican Congress.
1834.6.3 Santa Anna made a deal with the Church.
1834.6.20 US established Indian Country in the West. 1833-34
1834.6.28 US Coinage Act changed gold-silver ratio. US Bank
1834 Puerto Rico had 138,000 people, 41,818 slaves.
1834 Flinter’s book justified slavery in Puerto Rico.
1834 Astor sold American Fur Co. for $250,000. 1833-34
1834 Morse published Foreign Conspiracy. 1833-34
1834 Canadian reformers won elections. Canada
1834 Slave Henry Blair patented corn harvesters. Slavery
1834 Tennessee disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1834 NY & Philadelphia mobs attacked abolitionists. Slavery
1834 James Birney freed his remaining slaves. Politics
1834 New York Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1834 Bancroft wrote History of the United States.
1834.7.4 Massachusetts ended debtor imprisonment. 1833-34
1834.7 Mobs attacked free blacks in New York. 1833-34 Anti-Slavery
1834.8.1 British freed infant slaves in British colonies. West Indies
1834.9.9 Vandals damaged Crandall’s school. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1834.11 Democrats won elections for US Senate.1833-34
1834.12.1 Jackson announced that US debt was paid.
1834-35 Mayor Mackenzie governed Toronto.
1834-36 US money supply stimulated economic growth. US Bank
1834-36 United States experienced many riots. 1835
1834-36 Theodore Weld lectured on slavery abolition. Anti-Slavery
1834-38 Tacón banned weapons in Havana. Cuba
1834-43 William Carson led Newfoundland reforms.

1835.1 Brazil suppressed big slave revolt in Bahia.
1835.1.25 Channing gave second “Discourse on War.”
1835.1.27 Mexico Congress made General Barragan VP.
1835.1-2 Emerson lectured on 5 great men.
1835.2.7 Central America annexed San Salvador.
1835.2 Earthquake ruined Concepcion, Chile.
1835.2 Cherokees ceded land to US for $4.5 million.
1835.2 Joseph Smith made Brigham Young one of 12 apostles.
1835.4.11 Thaddeus Stevens defended public schools. 1835
1835.5.1 Kendall became Postmaster General. 1835
1835.5.6 Bennett began the New York Herald. 1835
1835.5.10 France paid its debt to the United States. Jackson
1835.5 Evans blamed speculation for unemployment. 1835
1835.5 Democrat convention nominated Van Buren. 1835
1835.5 Lydia Child wrote History of Condition of Women.
1835.5 Washington Irving published Abbotsford and Newstead.
1835.5.20 Fisk spoke on “Capital against Labor.” 1835
1835.5.23 Los Angeles claimed to be California’s capital.
1835.6 Whipper & Purvis advised peaceful methods. Militant
1835.6.29 Charleston Lynch men burned abolitionist mail. Militant
1835.6-9 US had 109 riots, 35 against abolitionists. Militant
1835 Puerto Rico’s trade reached 7.8 million pesos.
1835 3,500 Creeks died of disease after moving.
1835 United States had about 3,000 lyceums. Jackson
1835 Graham lectured on a vegetarian diet. 1835
1835 US had 35 Negro Benevolent Societies. Slavery
1835 North Carolina disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1835 Jay’s book criticized African colonization. Garrison
1835 Mob destroyed Noyes Academy for women. Anti-Slavery
1835 Boston Female Moral Reform Society began. Women
1835 Advocate for Moral Reform began publishing. Women
1835 400 men tore down Noyes Academy. Abolition
1835 Channing published his book Slavery. Militant Abolition
1835 Joseph Smith wrote the Book of Abraham.
1835 Washington Irving published A Tour on the Prairies.
1835.7.6 United States Chief Justice Marshall died. 1835
1835.7 New York Supreme Court favored employers. 1835
1835.7.17 Texans resolved on war, opposed Santa Anna.
1835.7.29 Charleston mob burned anti-slavery mail. 1835
1835.8 Austin was allowed to leave Mexico City. Texas
1835.8 Bancroft spoke at Williamstown College.
1835.8 Mormons published Doctrine and Covenants.
1835.9 A mob attacked Whittier and Thompson. 1835
1835.10.8 Stephen Austin summoned volunteers for war. Texas
1835.10.10 Austin began Telegraph and Texas Register. Texas
1835.10 Birney began publishing The Philanthropist. Politics
1835.10 Washington Irving wrote Legends of Conquest of Spain.
1835.10.16 New Mexico banned weapons sales to Indians.
1835.10.21 A mob attacked the NY Anti-Slavery Society. Militant
1835.10.21 5,000 disrupted Female Anti-Slavery meeting. Militant
1835.11.7 Georgia arrested Ross and others. Cherokees
1835.11.14 Texans made Sam Houston commander.
1835.12.7 Democrats made Polk Speaker of the House. 1835
1835.12.10 Texans took over San Antonio.
1835.12 President Jackson criticized Abolitionists.
1835.12.16 Anti-Mason Party nominated General Harrison. 1835
1835.12.29 Mexican Congress enacted 1836 Constitution. Santa Anna
1835.12.29 Cherokee chiefs sold and traded land.
1835,1840 Democracy in America by De Tocqueville.
1835-37 Liberal Diogo Feijó was Brazil’s regent.
1835-37 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1835-39 President Rocafuerte governed Ecuador.
1835-39 President Morazán governed Central America.
1835-40 Cabanagem revolts broke out at Para in Brazil.
1835-43 Seminole War cost US $35m & 1,535 men.
1835-52 Manuel de Rosas governed Buenos Aires. Argentina
1836.1 Lydia Child published The Evils of Slavery.
1836.1.20 Venezuela made a treaty with United States. 1836-37
1836.3.2 Texas declared independence.
1836.3.4 Garrison & May testified in Massachusetts. Militant
1836.3.6 Santa Anna’s army killed Texans at the Alamo.
1836.3.14 US Senate rejected abolitionist petitions.1836-37
1836.3.15 US Senate confirmed Taney as Chief Justice. Jacksonian
1836.3.17 Texans elected David Burnett President.
1836.3.27 Santa Anna had 332 Texans executed.
1836.4.20 US Congress established Wisconsin Territory. 1836-37
1836.4.21 Houston’s army defeated Santa Anna. Texas
1836.5 Frances Wright spoke on American government.
1836.5.23 US Senate ratified the Cherokee treaty.
1836.5.25 John Q. Adams spoke against slavery. 1836-37
1836.5.28 Lt. Gov. Head challenged democracy. Canada
1836.5-7 US won Second Creek War in Alabama.
1836.6.15 US admitted Arkansas as a slave state. 1836-37
1836.6 Emerson published his first book Nature.
1836.6.20 Upper Canada government won elections.
1836 British chartered 1st West Indies Colonial Bank.
1836 Cherokees began a Temperance Society.
1836 US Land Office sold 20 million acres. 1836-37 Slavery
1836 American Temperance Union formed. 1836-37
1836 US imports reached $180.1 million. Panic of 1837
1836 Spaldings went to Idaho to help the Nez Perce. Panic of 1837
1836 Lydia Child published 2 anti-slavery books.
1836 A. Grimké wrote Appeal to Christian Women. Militant
1836 Robert Lewis published Light and Truth. Militant
1836 Rose asked for Woman’s Property Law in NY.
1836 Grimké sisters began lecturing on slavery.
1836 Thomas Upham published Manual of Peace.
1836.7.4 Mackenzie began the Constitution newspaper.
1836.7.4 Rantoul argued for codes over common law. 1836-37
1836.7 New Mexico mandated schooling.
1836.7 US Congress protected the mail. Anti-Slavery
1836.7-8 Margaret Fuller visited Emerson.
1836.9.5 Texas elected Sam Houston as President.
1836.9 Lydia Child published her novel Philothea.
1836.10.5 Gov-General Gosford prorogued Parliament. Canada
1836.10 Women textile workers went on strike. 1836-37
1836.10 Washington Irving published Astoria.
1836.11 Van Buren was elected president with 51%. 1836-37
1836.12 2,321 Upper Creeks settled by Canadian River.
1836.12.19 Texas claimed territory by the Rio Grande.
1836.12.24 Chile Congress declared war on Peru & Bolivia.
1836.12.27 Stephen Austin died of pneumonia. Texas
1836.12.29 Mexico made New Mexico a department.
1836-37 Financial panic began in the US. 1836-37
1836-37 Emerson lectured on “Philosophy of History.”
1836-38 President Santa Cruz ruled Peru.
1836-38 Francis Bond Head governed Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1836-45 Rio Grande do Sul suffered Ragamuffin War. Brazil
1837.1.25 New Orleans Picayune began publishing. 1836-37
1837.1-2 Mormon bank failed.
1837.2.12 1,000 New Yorkers stole barrels of flour. Panic of 1837
1837.2 900 died of cholera in Guatemala City. Central America
1837.3.3 US Supreme Court was increased to 9 justices. 1836-37
1837.3.4 President Van Buren was inaugurated.
1837.3.15 Daniel Webster spoke against annexing Texas. 1837
1837.3 United States recognized Texas Republic. 1836-37
1837.3 British debated 10 resolutions on Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1837.3 Colored American demanded emancipation. Abolitionists
1837.3.17 Financial panic began in New York City. Panic of 1837
1837.3.19 Rosas declared war on Peru and Bolivia. Argentina
1837.4.23 Emerson wrote to Van Buren on Cherokees.
1837.5.7 1,200 Canadians passed resolutions.
1837.5.10 New York banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 782 American banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 Washington Irving wrote Adventures of Captain Bonneville.
1837.6.6 Chile’s War Minister Portales was murdered.
1837.6 Chile’s Civic Guard ended a mutiny.
1837.6 Mormon missionaries went to Britain.
1837.6.30 Mackenzie & farmers decided to defend rights.Canadian Rebellion
1837.6-7 US spent $11.5 million on Indian removal. 1837
1837 Sturge & Harvey printed West Indies in 1837.
1837 Puerto Rico paid Spain 500,000-pesos war tax.
1837 Chickasaw and Cherokee migrations began.
1837 14,609 Creeks were moved west; 3,500 died.
1837 US Government revenues fell by 50%. Panic of 1837
1837 Ed Beecher wrote History of the Alton Riots. 1837
1837 Grund published a book on American morals. 1837
1837 Harriet Martineau printed Society in America. 1837
1837 Mackenzie issued a Call to Revolution. Canadian Rebellion
1837 Financial panic reduced the slave trade.
1837 Free blacks in NY had $2 million in assets. Slavery
1837 18,768 blacks in Philadelphia had 16 churches. Slavery
1837 180,000 petitions opposed Texas slavery. Militant
1837 Whipple spoke on nonviolent resistance. Peace
1837 Black Abolitionists Weekly Advocate began.
1837 Weld published The Bible Against Slavery. Abolitionists
1837 Oberlin College admitted 4 women. Women
1837 Martineau published Society in America. Women
1837 Catherine Beecher wrote on slavery & abolition.
1837 Lydia Child published The Family Nurse.
1837 Sarah Grimké wrote Letters on Equality of Sexes.
1837 Angelina Grimké wrote An Appeal to the Women.
1837 American Peace Society renounced all wars.
1837.7.1 Pennsylvania blocked Negro voting. 1837
1837.7 Pueblos defeated and killed Gov. Pérez. New Mexico
1837.7 Pennsylvania disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1837.7.28 Toronto 300 supported Lower Canada patriots. Canadian Rebellion
1837.7.29 Ojibwe nation sold land to the US. 1837
1837.7.31 Thousands of rebels met in Quebec. 1837
1837.8.1 Channing opposed Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.9 Taos natives elected Governor González. New Mexico
1837.8 Smallpox wiped out Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara. 1837
1837.8 John Q. Adams filibustered Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.25 President Van Buren opposed annexing Texas.
1837.8.25 US Senate rejected Texas statehood. 1837
1837.8.26 Lower Canada legislature was dissolved. Canadian Rebellion
1837.9.4 Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph. 1837
1837.9.12 Mexican troops suppressed New Mexico revolt. 1837
1837.9.29 Sioux delegates made a treaty in Washington.
1837.10.1 40 signed a manifesto for a Canadian republic.
1837.10.21 US captured Osceola under a flag of truce. Seminole War 1837
1837.10.23 5,000 Canadians opposed using arms.
1837.10.23 7,000 in Montreal backed British Empire. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.4 1,000 supported Lower Canada independence. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.6 Montreal mob destroyed Vindicator printshop. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.7 A mob killed abolitionist printer Lovejoy. 1837
1837.11.8 Lyon began Mt Holyoke Female Seminary. 1837 Women
1837.11.8 800 Patriotes fought loyalists at Baker’s Farm. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.10 British defeated 500 Patriotes at Beauharnois. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.15 Mackenzie published a draft constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11 Whigs won New York elections. 1837
1837.11 Channing eulogized Noah Worcester.
1837.12.7 Canadian militia captured Americans.Van Buren
1837.12.7 Canadian rebels fled from Toronto to US.
1837.12.8 Phillips called for ending slavery in the US. 1837
1837.12.14 1,500 British troops beat French Canadians.
1837.12.15 Garrison wrote “No Union with Slaveholders.” Abolitionists
1837.12.25 US Army forced Seminoles to retreat. 1837
1837.12.29 Canadians destroyed US ship Caroline. Van Buren
1837-38 President Orbegoso governed North Peru.
1837-38 500 Chickasaws died migrating west.
1837-38 Gunn & Burleigh spent six months in Haiti. Abolitionists
1837-38 Emerson lectured on “Human Culture.”
1837-39 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1837-39.3 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1837-40 Brazil’s conservative party led to 2nd Empire.
1837-42 Alvarado governed Alta California.
1837-44 General Armijo governed New Mexico.
1837-44 US Congress Gag Rule blocked debate. Militant
1837-49 Mann led Massachusetts Board of Education. 1840
1838.1.5 Van Buren declared neutrality toward British.
1838.1.14 General Scott arrested Mackenzie. 1838-39
1838.1 French reduced Haiti’s debt to 60 million francs.
1838.1 Canadians fought Americans at Niagara River. 1838-39
1838.1.26 Federal garrison mutinied at Guatemala City. Central America
1838.1.26 British suspended Lower Canada’s constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1838.1.27 Ex-Gov. Armijo defeated Taos rebels. New Mexico
1838.1.27 Lincoln spoke on “Danger to our Liberty.” 1838-39
1838.2.1 Carrera led 10,000 natives into Guatemala City.
1838.2.21 Angelina Grimké testified to a Massachusetts committee.
1838.3.12 Emerson spoke to American Peace Society.
1838.3 Brazil’s army beat Sabinada rebels in Salvador.
1838.3 Mormons moved to Far West, Missouri.
1838.4 First steamer crossed the Atlantic Ocean. 1838-39
1838.4 Massachusetts jailed Kneeland for blasphemy. 1838-39
1838.4.22 Emerson opposed Cherokee removal.
1838. Channing petitioned for Kneeland.
1838.5.7 A mob burned a Philadelphia meetinghouse.1838-39
1838.5 Theodore Weld married Angelina Grimké. Women
1838.5.17 Abolitionist Pennsylvania Hall burned down.
1838.5.26 General Wool began rounding up Cherokees.
1838.5.29 Disguised Americans burned a Canadian ship. 1838-39
1838.6.6 Gen. Scott reported Cherokees lacked supplies.
1838.6 Half of 16,000 Creeks had no provisions.
1838 Only 5 European nations recognized Haiti.
1838 Smallpox killed Assiniboine, Blackfoot & Cree. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Iroquois Confederation had 187,000 acres. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Upper Canada counted 397,489 people. Canadian Rebellion
1838 British tried 1,900 rebels in Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1838 British freed 700,000 slaves in West Indies.
1838 An average slave in the US cost $1,300.
1838 Pennsylvania limited voting to white men. Slavery
1838 New England Nonresistance Society began. Peace
1838 Abolitionists paid black Remond to lecture.
1838 Catherine Beecher wrote The Moral Instructor.
1838 Channing gave his third “Discourse on War.”
1838 New England Female Moral Reform Society. New Harmony
1838 Cooper published The American Democrat.
1838 Whittier published his abolitionist poetry.
1838.7.4 US created the Iowa Territory. 1838-39
1838.8.1 British Guiana freed apprentices.
1838.8 Carrera’s Guatemalans defeated federals. Central America
1838.8.31 Emerson gave “The American Scholar” speech.
1838.9 Frederick Douglass escaped to New York.
1838.9 Peace Convention adopted Garrison’s credo.
1838.10 Mormons burned 50 buildings in Daviess.
1838.10.30 Missouri militia killed 17 Mormons.
1838.11 Cooper published Homeward Bound.
1838.12 Canada punished American filibusters. 1838-39
1838.12.20 Black abolitionists opposed colonization. Slavery
1838-39 President Agüero governed North Peru.
1838-39 Emerson lectured on “Human Life.”
1838,1840 British ended black apprenticeships. West Indies
1838-40 Whittier edited the Pennsylvania Freeman.
1838-41 President Lamar governed Texas.
1838-42 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1838-43 US removed 3,824 Seminoles from Florida.
1839.1.20 Chile’s army beat Peru-Bolivians at Yungay.
1839.1.31 Durham gave his long report to Parliament. Canadian Rebellion
1839.2 Clay criticized abolitionists & defended slavery. Elections
1839.3.12 Frederick Douglass spoke on anti-colonization.
1839.3 Nicaragua & Honduras invaded Salvador. Central America
1839.3 Cooper published Home as Found.
1839.3.26 General Scott ended the Aroostock War. 1838-39
1839.4.13 Carrera’s army restored the Guatemala government.Central America
1839.5 Ripley published Margaret Fuller’s translation of Goethe.
1839.5.28 NE Anti-Slavery Convention named women. Abolition
1839.6.22 Ross followers killed 2 Ridges & Boudinot. Cherokees
1839 Haytian Papers author Prince Saunders died. Haiti
1839 French West Indies had 285,956 slaves.
1839 Congress rejected 1,496 anti-slavery petitions. 1838-39
1839 US trade deficit reached $47.4 million. 1838-39
1839 Russell wrote Principles of Statistical Inquiry. 1838-39
1839 US wheat became a major cash crop. 1838-39
1839 Mississippi let women control property. 1838-39
1839 Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine began publishing. 1838-39
1839 Chevalier’s Letters on North America showed. 1838-39
1839 Governor Head described Family Compact. Canadian Rebellion
1839 Weld wrote American Slavery As It Is. Abolitionists Grimké
1839 Whipple wrote Evils of the Revolutionary War. Politics
1839 Mayor Eliot began Boston Lunatic Asylum. Dorothea Dix
1839 American Female Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1839.8 11,000 balaios occupied Caxias in Maranhão. Brazil
1839.9.6 East-West Cherokees adopted a constitution.
1839.10 Biddle’s US Bank of Pennsylvania closed. US Bank Depression
1839.11.13 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. 1838-39
1839.11.29 Joseph Smith met President Van Buren.
1839.12.4 Whigs nominated Harrison for President. 1838-39
1839-41 President Bustamante governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1839-41 Margaret Fuller led Conversations.
1839-42 La Amistad slaves were tried & released.
1839-43 President Flores governed Ecuador.

1840.1 Carrera’s forces crushed liberals in Los Altos. Central America
1840.1.31 Federal troops were driven out of Honduras. Central America
1840.2.14 Yucatán seceded from Mexico. Santa Anna
1840.2 Channing wrote on lifting laboring classes.
1840.3.18 Morazán’s army liberated Guatemala City. Central America
1840.3.19 Texans and Comanches fought at Béxar.
1840.3.20 Carrera’s army forced Morazán to retreat. Central America
1840.3.25 Mexicans defeated Rio Grande Republic. Texas
1840.3.27 Junta declared Monterey California capital.
1840.3.31 Van Buren approved the 10-hour work day. 1840
1840.4 Webster proposed a bankruptcy bill. 1840
1840.4 Ballou began publishing Practical Christian. Hopedale
1840.5.13 Salvadorans agreed to Guatemalan conditions. Central America
1840.5 Democrats named Van Buren for re-election. 1840
1840.5 US Anti-Slavery Society accepted women.
1840.6 World Anti-Slavery Convention met in London. Abolitionists
1840.6.27 Clay described Whigs’ economic program. 1840
1840 Lamar spent $2.5 million fighting Comanches. Texas
1840 Baylor began Texas Baptist Union Association.
1840 120 mountain men attended last rendezvous. Oregon
1840 Brisbane published Social Destiny of Man. 1840 Hopedale
1840 US cost of Indian removal reached $50 million. 1840
1840 Abraham Lincoln campaigned for Harrison. 1840
1840 Sorin published The Domestic Circle. 1840
1840 US census counted 17,069,543 people. 1840 Slavery
1840 US census counted 2,487,355 slaves. 1840
1840 Value of US slaves was $997 million.
1840 Bishop Leonidas Polk owned 111 slaves.
1840 US census counted 386,293 free Negroes. Slavery
1840 Birney began Liberty Party & ran for President. Politics
1840 Female Moral Reform Society had 555 groups. Women
1840 Lucretia Mott preached in black churches.
1840 Ladd wrote Essay on a Congress of Nations. Peace Societies
1840 Mormons built Nauvoo in Illinois.
1840 Cooper published The Pathfinder.
1840.7.1 Transcendentalists began publishing The Dial.
1840.7.4 Van Buren signed Independent Treasury bill. 1840
1840.7.15 Texans killed Cherokees by Neches River.
1840.7 Brownson published “The Laboring Classes.” 1840
1840.8.8 Comanches burned Linnville, Texas.
1840.8.12 200 Texas Rangers killed 87 Comanches.
1840.8.25 US & Mexico agreed to arbitration commission. 1840
1840.9.1 Picayune reported Iberville slave revolt.
1840.9 Dana published Two Years Before the Mast. 1840
1840.10.24 90 Texans killed 128 Comanches at Red Fork.
1840.11 Whig Party won many elections. 1840
1840.11 80% of those eligible voted in the US election. 1840
1840.12 Nauvoo Mormons got a charter, formed militia.
1840.12 Cooper published a novel about Columbus.
1840-41 Remond lectured in England & Ireland. Politics
1840-41 Brigham Young led Mormon missionaries in Britain.
1840-44 Fuller & Emerson published The Dial.
1841.1.25 Emerson lectured on “Man the Reformer.”
1841.1.28 Fraternal Community began at Mendon, MA. Brook Farm
1841.2.10 Union of East and West Canada began. Canadian Union
1841.2 Greeley began the daily New York Tribune. Harrison
1841.2.18 Salvador adopted another constitution. Central America
1841.3 US Supreme Court freed La Amistad slaves. Van Buren
1841.3.20 Emerson published his Essays.
1841.3.28 Dorothea Dix spoke to jail inmates in East Cambridge.
1841.4.4 Tyler became US President.
1841.4 Transcendentalists founded Brook Farm. 1841
1841.4.24 Webster wrote to British about the Caroline. 1841
1841.6.18 Gov. Alvarado granted Sutter 48,827 acres. California
1841 Brazil’s army defeated balaios revolt.
1841 Chile elected General Bulnes president.
1841 Cuba had 425,521 slaves.
1841 Bidwell led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail. 1841
1841 Catlin published on North American Indians. 1841
1841 US produced 62% of the world’s cotton. Slavery
1841 Whites & blacks protested railway segregation. Politics
1841 Henry Wright wrote Duty of Abolitionists.
1841 Black professor Reason published Freedom. Politics
1841 Ann Plato published her Essays. Politics
1841 Friend of Virtue had 3,000 subscribers. Women
1841 Catherine Beecher wrote On Domestic Economy.
1841 United States had only 11 private asylums. Dorothea Dix
1841 Illinois refused to extradite Joseph Smith.
1841 Cooper published The Deerslayer.
1841 US Whigs lost many state elections. 1841
1841.8.8 General Paredes began revolt in Guadalajara. Mexico
1841.8.9 Frederick Douglass met William Lloyd Garrison.
1841.8 Tyler signed Webster’s Bankruptcy Act.
1841.8.16 President Tyler vetoed the bank bill.
1841.8-9 300 blacks were arrested in Cincinnati riots. Slavery
1841.9.4 US Congress passed the Preemption Act. 1841
1841.9.4 Congress approved $2,226,401 for defense. 1841
1841.9 4 US cabinet officers resigned. 1841
1841.9.13 Whigs declared Tyler had separated himself.
1841.9.22 Bustamante left Mexico for Europe.
1841.9.30 Washington Madisonian supported Tyler.
1841.10.9 Biddle’s Bank of Pennsylvania failed. Depression
1841.10.11 Ripley bought land for Brook Farm commune.
1841.10 Dana published The Seaman’s Friend. Harrison
1841.11.7 Madison Washington led revolt on the Creole. 1841
1841.12.3 Brazil imposed a regressive criminal code.
1841-44 Alonso and López governed Paraguay.
1841-42 Texans’ Santa Fé venture failed. New Mexico
1841-42 Emerson lectured on “The Times.”
1841-43 Lydia and David Child edited National Anti-Slavery Standard.
1841-43 Joseph Smith secretly married 30 women.
1841-44 President Sam Houston governed Texas.
1841-47 President Ballivián governed Bolivia.
1842.1.5 Shakers issued The Youth’s Guide to Zion. Peace Societies
1842.1 Frederick Douglass spoke in Faneuil Hall.
1842.1 Prigg v. Pennsylvania gave states power. Politics
1842.3.13 Judd criticized the Revolutionary War. Peace Societies
1842.3 Channing explained British freeing slaves.
1842.3 Mormon women began a Relief Society.
1842.3.30 Dr. Long used ether as an anesthetic. 1842
1842.4 Tyler signed Clay’s higher tariff bill.
1842.5.7 Earthquake killed 5,000 people at Cap-Haitien. Haiti
1842.5 Brazil’s liberals began armed rebellion.
1842.6.27 Texas Congress declared war on Mexico.
1842 Boyer had soldiers shut out 28 deputies. Haiti
1842 NY City made public schools nonsectarian. Harrison
1842 A treaty let Senecas stay in New York. Tyler
1842 Rhode Island allowed blacks to vote. Slavery
1842 US Supreme Court upheld Fugitive Slave Act.
1842 Charles Dickens toured the United States. Slavery
1842 William Brown helped slaves by steamboat. Politics
1842 Jarvis published Insanity and Insane Asylums.Dorothea Dix
1842 Dorothea Dix visited the insane in Massachusetts.
1842 Alcott & Charles Lane began Fruitlands. Hopedale
1842 Cooper published The Two Admirals.
1842 Cooper published The Wing-and-Wing.
1842 Longfellow published his Poems of Slavery. Whittier
1842.7.10 Costa Rica’s assembly made Morazán chief. Central America
1842.7.27 Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua confederated. Central America
1842.8 Riviere-Hérard organized Rights of Man Society. Haiti
1842.8 US ended the costly 2nd Seminole War. 1842
1842.8 Bennett called for war against Mormons.
1842.8.30 Tyler signed the “Black Tariff” bill.
1842.9.8 Howe reported Dorothea Dix’s research on the insane.
1842.9.15 Morazán was executed at San José. Central America
1842.9 Mexican army occupied San Antonio. Texas
1842.10 Sauk & Fox chiefs sold land to Iowa governor. Black Hawk
1842.10 Community of True Inspiration began. New Harmony
1842.10 Nauvoo Masonic lodge had 253 members. Mormons
1842.11 Picayune reported on escaped slaves.
1842-43 Mexican Federalists produced a constitution. Santa Anna
1842-43 Charles Bagot governed Canada. Canadian Union
1842-43 Frederick Douglass spoke to anti-slavery meetings.
1842-43 Greeley published a column on Brook Farm.
1842-44 Torrey & Smallwood helped runaway slaves. Politics
1843.1 Dix presented a Memorial to Massachusetts. 1843-44
1843.1 Lucretia Mott preached to 40 Congressmen.
1843.1.27 Hérard-Dumesle led a revolt in Praslin. Haiti
1843.1.27 Whittier published “Massachusetts to Virginia.”
1843.2.13 Haiti’s President Boyer fled to Paris.
1843.2.25 Massachusetts passed a bill for the insane.Dorothea Dix
1843.3 Fremont’s presented his report to Congress. Tyler
1843.5.8 Secretary of State Webster resigned. 1843-44
1843.5 Guatemala and Costa Rica made a treaty. Central America
1843.6.1 Costa Rica’s Assembly enacted human rights. Central America
1843.6.13 Mexico decreed elected assemblies. New Mexico
1843.6 Sojourner Truth began a speaking tour. 1843-44
1843.6 Lewis Tappan attended World Peace Congress.
1843 Whitman led a wagon train to Oregon.
1843 Foster wrote Brotherhood of Thieves. Politics
1843 Sojourner Truth began preaching. Politics
1843 Dorothea Dix visited 60 counties in New York.
1843 Cooper serialized French Governess.
1843 Cooper published Wyandotté.
1843 Prescott wrote Conquest of Mexico. 1843-44
1843.7.5 Oregon settlers approved the Organic Act.
1843.7 La Trinitaria planned a Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1843.8 Garnet urged slave rebellion. Politics
1843.8.23 Santa Anna warned US not to annex Texas.
1843.8.30 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. Elections
1843.9.29 Texans made peace with ten tribes.
1843.9-12 Haiti convention produced a constitution.
1843.10.5 President Santa Anna let Canalizo govern.
1843.10.5 Brisbane began publishing The Phalanx. New Harmony
1843.11 Cherokees legalized marriage with white men. Slavery
1843.11.28 Padre Martinez wrote about New Mexico.
1843.12.5 Tyler claimed Pacific territory to 54° 40'.
1843-44 Slaves revolted in Cuba.
1843-44 Fremont expedition mapped western land. 1843-44
1843-45 General Micheltorena governed California.
1843-45 Charles Metcalf governed Canada. Canadian Union
1843-45 Margaret Fuller wrote Woman in the 19th Century.
1843-47 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1843-51 Argentina besieged Montevideo.
1844.1.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President again.
1844.1.4 Haiti inaugurated President Riviere-Hérard.
1844.1 Brazil’s liberals took power & granted amnesty.
1844.1 Dorothea Dix urged New York to create 4 asylums.
1844.2.5 Salvador’s Assembly made Malespín President. Central America
1844.2.27 Duarte & Trinitarians declared Santo Domingo.
1844.3.19 President Hérard led attack on Santo Domingo.
1844.4.11 Costa Rica promulgated a constitution.Central America
1844.4 Dorothea Dix published “Astonishing Tenacity of Life.”
1844.4.17 Clay warned annexing Texas would cause war. Elections
1844.4.25 Riché declared the Artibonite republic. Santo Domingo
1844.5 US Anti-Slavery Society voted for secession. Politics
1844.5.21 Rep. Giddings spoke against annexing Texas. Politics
1844.5.24 Morse sent telegraph message between cities. 1843-44
1844.5.29 Democrats nominated Polk for US President. Elections
1844.6.8 US Congress rejected Texas annexation.
1844.6.12 Polk pledged to serve only one term.
1844.6 4,000 were arrested in La Escalera slave revolt. Cuba
1844.6.18 Joseph Smith declared martial law at Nauvoo.
1844.6.27 Men killed Joseph & Hyrum Smith in a jail. 1843-44
1844 Paraguay Congress gave López a 10-year term.
1844 Governor Lejanza provoked war with Utes. New Mexico
1844 Gregg wrote Commerce of the Prairies. New Mexico
1844 Gilliam led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail.
1844 Brady began a daguerreotype business. 1843-44
1844 An average slave in the US cost $700.
1844 New Jersey limited voting to white men. Slavery
1844 Paine got 6 years for helping slaves escape. Slavery
1844 Liberty Party ran Birney for President again. Politics
1844 Gilmore started a high school for blacks. Politics
1844 American Journal of Insanity began.Dorothea Dix
1844 Lydia Child published Flowers for Children.
1844 Margaret Fuller wrote Summer on the Lakes, in 1843.
1844.8.1 Emerson lectured on British emancipation.
1844.8.5 Salvador and Guatemala made peace.Central America
1844.8.8 Brigham Young became leader of Mormons.
1844.8.20 Tyler endorsed Polk for President. Elections
1844.8.22 Santana exiled Trinitarian leaders from Haiti.
1844.9.2 Texans elected Anson Jones as President.
1844.9 Cherokee Advocate began publishing.
1844.9.16 Mexico paroled Texas prisoners.
1844.10.19 Emerson published his 2nd series of Essays.
1844.11.5 US elected President Polk.
1844.11.6 Dominican Republic got a constitution.
1844.11 Santana was elected President of Haiti.
1844.11 Polk won a close election for US President.
1844.12.11 Guatemala Assembly elected Carrera President. Central America
1844.12 Mexico banished Santa Anna to Cuba.
1844.12 Herrera governed Mexico for next 12 months.
1844.12 James R. Lowell wrote “The Present Crisis.”
1844-45      President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45      President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48      Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62      Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.

Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020, 2022 by Sanderson Beck

Chronology of North & South America to 1786
Chronology of America 1787-1844
Chronology of America 1845-1896

Chronology of United States to 1844
Chronology of United States 1845-1896

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Canada to 1865

ETHICS OF CIVILIZATION Contents

BECK index