BECK index

America

Chronological Index

to 1817

World Chronology to 1715
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1715

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

BC
c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 11,000 Clovis people hunted mammoths with spears. Mayans
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.

CE
c. 250 Tikal Mayans began building large pyramids.
c. 300 Teotihuacan had about 80,000 people. Mayans
378 Mayan Tikal ruler conquered Uaxactun.
378 Smoking Frog began ruling Uaxactun. Mayans
c. 450 Ohio river valley people built mounds. Northern America
562 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Water defeated Tikal.
578-628 Butz Chan ruled Mayan Copan.
615-83 Pacal ruled Mayan Palenque.
628-95 Smoke Imix ruled Mayan Copan.
631 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Kan II defeated Naranjo.
631-81 Six Tun Bird Jaguar ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
659 Mayan Palenque ruler Pacal made war on Yaxchilan.
679 Petexbatun sacrificed Tikal ruler Shield Skull. Mayans
681-742 Shield Jaguar II ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
682-734 Ah Cacau ruled Mayans Tikal.
695 Mayan Tikal captured Jaguar Paw of Calakmul.
695-738 Eighteen Rabbit ruled Mayan Copan.
698-727 Shield God K ruled Mayan Petexbatun.
710 Naranjo ruler Smoking Squirrel raided the Yaxha. Mayans
711 Mayan Tonina captured Palenque king Kan Xul II.
738 Quirigua ruler Cauac Sky sacrificed 18 Rabbit. Mayans
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
c. 800-1400 Mound builders had cities in Mississippi Valley. Northern America
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
849-1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
c. 900 Zapotec centralized government ended. Mayans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in valley of Mexico.
1004-07 Thorvald Erikson explored northeastern America.
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
1325 Tenochtitlan was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1358 Tlatelolco was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1371-1426 Tezozomoc ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1372-91 Acamapichtli ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1391-1414 Huitzilihuitl ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1395 Mexica and Tepanecs conquered Tlaxcala. Aztecs
c. 1400 Hopi lived peacefully north of Mexico. Anasazi
1409-18 Ixtlilxochitl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1414-26 Chimalpopoca ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1418-72 Nezahualcoyotl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1426-28 Maxtla ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1427-40 Itzcoatl ruled the Aztecs.
1428 Aztecs destroyed Tepanec Azcapotzalco.
1438-71 Pachacuti ruled Inca empire.
1440-68 Moteuczoma Ilhuicamina ruled the Aztecs.
1441 Ah Xupan Xiu led revolt that destroyed Mayapan. Mayans
1444 Aztecs defeated Chalca and sacrificed 500.
c. 1450 Quiché Mayans reached their maximum power.
c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1451-54 Tenochtitlan suffered famine. Aztecs
1465 Aztec empire annexed Chalco.
1469-81 Axayacatl ruled Aztec empire.
1471-93 Topa Inca ruled Inca empire.
1472-1516 Nezahualpilli ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1478 Tarascans defeated the Mexica. Aztecs
1486-1502 Ahuitzotl ruled Aztec empire.
1492-1504 Columbus colonized, explored Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI gave America to Spain. Columbus
1493 Syphilis appeared in Europe. Columbus
1493-1526 Huayna Capac ruled Inca empire.
1494 Spain and Portugal made Tordesillas Treaty. Columbus
1495 Columbus enslaved 1,600 Tainos.
1496 Oaxaca Zapotecs revolted against unfair trade. Aztecs
1500 Colon brothers were sent to Spain in chains. Columbus
1500 Portuguese Cabral discovered South America. Brazil
1502-09 Ovando governed Española (Haiti). Caribbean
1502-20 Moteuczoma Xocoyotl ruled Aztecs. Mexico
1505 African slaves were brought to Española. Caribbean
1509 Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1509-23 Diego Colon governed Española. Caribbean
1511 Velazquez and Narvaez conquered Cuba. Caribbean
1511 Montesinos criticized conquest at Santo Domingo. Caribbean
1511 Noronha sent 35 slaves from Brazil to Portugal.
1512 Laws of Burgos were promulgated. Caribbean
1513 Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean. Panama
1514 Spain devised Requirement to warn natives. Caribbean
1516 Las Casas was appointed Protector of Indians. Caribbean
1517 Pedrarias had Balboa beheaded. Panama
1517 Velazquez sent Cordoba to explore Yucatan. Mexico
1517 Contract to import 4,000 African slaves was made. Caribbean
1519 Smallpox wiped out Tainos on Española and Cuba. Caribbean
1519-21 Cortes led the conquest of Mexico.
1522 Carlos V confirmed Cortes as governor.
1524 Cortes promulgated ordinances for New Spain.
1524 Spaniards fought over Honduras and Nicaragua. Central America
1524-33 Francisco Pizarro explored and invaded Peru.
1524-41 Alvarado conquered Guatemala, killing 4 million. Central America
1526-32 Huascar and Atahualpa fought Inca civil war. Incas, Peru
1527 Slaves revolted on Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1527-41 Montejo subjugated Yucatan. Mexico
1528 Narvaez began exploring Florida. Soto
1530 Carlos V banned making Indians slaves. Mexico
1531 Cult of the Virgin began in Guadalupe. Mexico
1532 Quiroga founded a hospital in Mexico City.
1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa founded Sao Vicente. Brazil
1533 Francisco Pizarro took gold and killed Atahualpa.
1533 Mexico bishop Zumarraga exposed Guzman.
1534 Pedro Alvarado invaded Ecuador. Peru
1534, 1541 Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.
1535 Francisco Pizarro founded Lima.
1535 Carlos V assigned Peru to Pizarro and Almagro.
1535-50 Viceroy Mendoza governed Mexico.
1536 Pope Paul III defended American Indians. Las Casas
1536 Manco organized an Inca rebellion. Peru
1537 Almagro took Cuzco from Pizarrists. Peru
1537 Las Casas used peaceful conversion in Vera Paz. Caribbean
1537-57 Irala governed Paraguay. South America
1538 Hernando Pizarro defeated and killed Almagro.
1538 Quesada met Chibchas and founded Bogota. New Granada
1539-42 Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi.
1540-42 Mixton War enslaved 5,000. Mexico
1540-42 Coronado led expedition north to Kansas.
1541 François authorized colonization of America. Canada
1541 Almagrists assassinated Francisco Pizarro.
1541 Valdivia founded Santiago in Chile. Peru
1542 Spain's New Laws tried to reform encomiendas. Peru
1542 Alonso Alvarado defeated Almagrists at Chupas. Peru
1542 Cabrillo explored the California coast. Mexico
1544 Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas.
1545 Rich silver deposits were discovered at Potosi. Peru
1545 800,000 natives died of a new plague in Mexico.
1545-46 Natives wiped out Bahia and Sao Tomé in Brazil.
1546 Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and killed Viceroy Vela.
1548 Gasca defeated and executed Gonzalo Pizarro.
1549 Tomé de Sousa was first royal governor of Brazil.
1549 Nobrega led first Jesuits to America in Bahia. Brazil
1550 Las Casas debated Sepulveda on Indians.
1550 Valdivia founded Concepcion in Chile. South America
1550 Zapotecs rebelled against Spanish rule. Mexico
1550-64 Viceroy Velasco governed Mexico.
1551 Lima ecclesiastical council condemned coca. Peru
1552 Las Casas published 8 tracts on colonial reform.
1553-54 Giron led a revolt in Cuzco but was defeated. Peru
1553-58 Caupolican led Araucanian revolt in Chile. South America
1556 Nobrega wrote Conversion of the Heathen. Brazil
1562 European diseases infected natives of Bahia. Brazil
1562-75 Ibarra conquered northwest Mexico.
1565 Menendez massacred Huguenots at Fort Caroline.
1566 Inca Titu Cusi signed a treaty, became Christian. Peru
1568 Hawkins fought Spaniards at San Juan de Ulua. Caribbean
1569 Ercilla began publishing his poem La Araucana. South America
1569-82 Viceroy Toledo governed Peru. Peru
1572 Francis Drake attacked Panama. Central America
1574 Moya brought the Inquisition to Mexico.
1574 Toledo organized forced labor in Peru.
1576-80 Epidemic killed two million natives in Mexico.
1580 Garay planned city of Buenos Aires. South America
1585-87 Raleigh sponsored colony at Roanoke.
1586 Drake with 19 ships raided Cartagena. New Granada
1587 Caldera mediated treaties with Chichimecs. Mexico
1591-93 Inquisition purged Jewish influence in Brazil.
1593 Jesuits came to Chile.
1594 Raleigh explored the Orinoco River. Guiana
1596 Drake destroyed Santa Marta. New Granada
1598 Araucanian horsemen defeated Spaniards. Chile
1598.6 Clifford led attack on Puerto Rico. West Indies
1598-1608 Oñate explored and governed in New Mexico. Northern Mexico
1600 Silver-mining Potosi had 150,000 people. Peru
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1602 Parker attacked and captured Puerto Bello. Central America
1607 Plymouth Company colony was abandoned. Plymouth
1607 Jamestown began; Pocahontas saved Smith.
1608 Felipe III allowed Jesuits into Rio de la Plata.
1608 Champlain founded Quebec.
1608-97 Missionary Vieira worked for reforms in Brazil.
1609 African slaves revolted at Veracruz. Mexico
1609 Hudson explored Hudson River for the Dutch. New Netherland
1610 Spanish Inquisition came to Cartagena. New Granada
1610 Yaquis made peace with Spaniards in Sonora. Northern Mexico
1610 Indians rebelled at Durango. Mexico
1611 France sent Jesuits to Canada.
1611-16 Dale and Gates governed Jamestown strictly.
1612 Bishop Trejo founded Jesuit college at Cordoba. Rio de la Plata
1612 Valdivia implemented reforms in Chile.
1612 Virginia Company was granted Bermuda. Jamestown
1612 Jamestown charter was revised; lottery began.
1613 Argall destroyed French colonies in Canada.
1614 Amsterdam company founded New Netherland.
1614 Rolfe exported tobacco, married Pocahontas.
1616.2 Champlain mediated Huron-Algonquin peace.
1616 Groenewegen founded Kykoveral by Essequibo. Guiana
1616 Rolfe and Pocahontas visited England.
1618 Raleigh was executed to satisfy Spain. Guiana
1619 Virginia elected first Assembly.
1619.8 Dutch sold 20 Africans in Jamestown. Virginia
1620.11.21 41 pilgrims signed the Mayflower compact.
1621.3 Pilgrims and Wampanoag Massasoit made treaty.
1621 Dutch West India Company was chartered.
1621.10 Pilgrims, Wampanoags celebrated thanksgiving.
1621-23 Viceroy Gelves reformed Mexico.
1621-56 Bradford governed Plymouth almost every year.
1622.3.22 Powhatans and others killed 347 settlers. Virginia
1622 King James banned selling weapons to Indians. Plymouth
1623 Dutch and Walloons built Fort Orange. New Netherland
1624.5 Dutch fleet captured Salvador in Bahia.
1624 British formed the West Indies Association.
1624 Archbishop Serna excommunicated Gelves. Mexico
1624 Champlain made peace with the Iroquois.
1624-28 Mohawks battled and defeated Mahicans. Iroquois
1625 English colonists landed at Barbados. West Indies
1625 Charles made Virginia a royal colony.
1626 Felipe IV ordered offensive war in Chile.
1626 Minuit purchased Manhattan Island. New Netherland
1626 Pilgrims bought out their stockholders.
1627 Richelieu founded Company of 100 Associates. Canada
1628 Piet Heyn captured lucrative Spanish fleet. Dutch, Mexico
1628 Endecott began the colony of Salem. Massachusetts
1629.3 Charles granted Massachusetts Bay to Puritans.
1629 Tavares' slave raid took 5,500 Indians in Guaira. Brazil
1629 Araucanians captured Pineda. Chile
1630 Dutch fleet occupied Recife and Olinda.
1630 Winthrop began Massachusetts Bay colony.
1632 Récollet Sagard published a Huron dictionary. Canada
1632-75 Cecil Calvert was Maryland proprietor. Calverts
1633-34 Smallpox wiped out Massachusetts Indians. Connecticut
1634 Spaniards invaded Providence Island. West Indies
1634 Champlain founded Three Rivers.
1635 Dutch and Brazilians fought Sugar War.
1635 Massachusetts required church attendance.
1636.1 Salem banished Roger Williams. Massachusetts
1636 Harvard College was founded. Massachusetts
1636-38 Massachusetts, Connecticut fought Pequots.
1637 Massachusetts expelled Anne Hutchinson.
1637-44 Maurits governed Pernambuco for the Dutch.
1638.3 Williams and Hutchinsons founded Rhode Island.
1638 Minuit founded New Sweden by the Delaware. New Netherland
1638 New Haven and Hartford elected governments. Connecticut
1639 Plymouth freemen elected representatives.
1640-68 Portugal fought Spain for independence. Brazil
1641.3 Rhode Island government was elected.
1642 Maisonneuve founded Montreal. Canada
1642 Massachusetts annexed New Hampshire.
1643.3 Virginia required Anglican conformity.
1643.5 Confederation of New England formed.
1643 Mohegans defeated the Narragansetts. New England
1643 Williams wrote about American Indians.
1643-45 Kieft's War killed 1,600 Indians. New Netherland
1644.3 Parliament granted Rhode Island a charter.
1644.4.18 Indians killed 500 settlers in Virginia.
1644 Megapolensis published a book on Mohawks. New Netherland
1644 Williams published Bloudy Tenent of Persecution.
1644.10.14 William Penn was born in London.
1644-48 Dutch traded guns to Mohawks for furs. Iroquois
1645 Pessicus led Narragansett attack on Mohegans. New England
1646 Ward published Simple Cobler of Aggawam. New England
1646-47 Massachusetts fined Dr. Child for petitions. New England
1647-48 Dutch privateers took 249 Brazilian ships.
1647-64 Stuyvesant governed New Netherland.
1648 Plymouth colony paid off its debt.
1649 Maryland protected free exercise of religion.
1650 Anne Bradstreet's poetry was published. New England
1650 Pynchon published The Meritorious Price. New England
1650 Hartford Treaty divided Long Island. New England, New Netherland
1651 British Navigation Act protected shipping. Virginia
1651 English began colonizing Guiana.
1651 Dutch arrested English colonists in Delaware. New Netherland
1651 Eliot founded Natick for Christian Indians. New England
1651.10 Massachusetts took over Maine. New England
1651-95 Juana Inés wrote poetry, plays, and essays. Mexico
1652 Barbados Charter included elected assembly. West Indies
1652-54 First Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New England, New Netherland
1652-60 House of Burgesses governed Virginia.
1653 Jesuits returned to Sao Paulo. Brazil
1653 Most Iroquois made peace with the French.
1654.1 Dutch surrendered Recife to Portuguese.
1654 Swedes captured Fort Casimir from Dutch. New Netherland
1654-57 Williams was president of Rhode Island.
1655 Admiral Penn took Jamaica from Spaniards. British West Indies
1655 New Amsterdam imported African slaves. New Netherland
1655 900 Indians invaded Manhattan. New Netherland
1655.9 Dutch ended New Sweden colony. New Netherland
1656.5 Mohawks massacred Hurons at Isle of Orleans. Iroquois
1656 Dutch and Jews occupied Cayenne. Guiana
1657-65 Massachusetts persecuted Quakers. New England
1658 Mohawks drove missionaries out of Onondaga. Iroquois
1658 Holyoke published Doctrine of Life. New England
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1659-76 John Winthrop Jr. governed Connecticut. New England
1660-77 Berkeley governed Virginia again.
1661 Vieira was expelled from Brazil.
1661 Rio de Janeiro executed tax rebel Barbalho. Brazil
1661, 1663 Eliot published the Bible in Algonquian. New England
1662 Portugal took over the Brazil Company.
1662 Connecticut stopped hanging witches. New England
1663.2 Louis XIV took over the Company in Canada. French
1663 Charles II granted Carolina to 8 supporters.
1663 Dutch fought the Esopus tribe. New Netherland
1664 Colbert chartered French West India Company.
1664 Puerto Rico began granting slaves asylum. West Indies
1664 Duke of York granted New Jersey to proprietors.
1664.9.5 Dutch surrendered New Netherland to English.
1664, 1676 French took Cayenne back from the Dutch. Guiana
1664-68 Col. Nicolls governed New York benevolently.
1664-88 James was proprietor of New York.
1665-67 Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought. Virginia
1666 Pirates raided Costa Rica and Maracaibo. Central America, West Indies
1667 Breda Treaty gave New York to English.
1667 Breda Treaty gave Surinam back to Dutch. Guiana
1667 Breda Treaty gave Acadia back to French. Canada
1667 Iroquois League and French made peace. New France, Canada
1667 Hurricane destroyed 10,000 houses in Virginia.
1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal opened trade. Brazil
1668-71 Morgan's pirates raided Panama. Central America, West Indies
1669 Penn in prison wrote No Cross, No Crown.
1669 Locke wrote Fundamental Constitutions. Carolina
1670 English founded Charles Town, South Carolina.
1670.9 London jury acquitted Penn and Quakers.
1671 Plymouth made Metacom surrender his arms.
1671 Penn was imprisoned six months for preaching.
1672 George Fox preached in Maryland.
1672-74 Third Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New York
1672-82 Frontenac governed Canada. Frontenac
1673 Marquette explored the Mississippi River. Canada
1673 Spaniards fortified San Agustin, Florida. Georgia
1673.8 Dutch took over New York for six months.
1673-95 Zumbi led quilombos revolt in Brazil.
1674 Stapleton convened Leeward Islands assembly. West Indies
1674-80 Governor Andros favored New York City.
1674-82 Joseph West governed Carolina.
1674-83 Quakers controlled West Jersey.
1674-88 Laval was first bishop of Quebec. Canada
1675.6 Metacom's War in New England began.
1675 Popé and others were tried in Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1675 Quakers began settling in West Jersey.
1675.9.9 New England called out 1,000 militiamen.
1675-76 Metacom's War killed 3,600.
1676.2 1,500 Indians raided Massachusetts. Metacom's War
1676.5.10 Governor Berkeley declared Bacon a rebel.
1676.8.12 Metacom was killed at Mount Hope.
1676.9.19 Bacon's rebellion burned Jamestown.
1676.10.26 Bacon died of dysentery.
1676-81 Randolph investigated New England colonies.
1677.1 Bacon's rebellion in Virginia ended.
1677.12 John Culpepper led revolt in North Carolina.
1678 Dominicans formed university in Guatemala. Central America
1679 New Hampshire became a royal province. New England
1680 Buccaneers sacked Caracas. New Granada
1680.8 Popé led a united attack on Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1681.2.24 Charles II granted Pennsylvania to Penn.
1681 Pope Innocent XI sanctioned Bethlehemites. Central America
1682.4 La Salle claimed Louisiana for Louis XIV.
1682.4 Penn wrote "Frame of Government."
1682.12.4 First Assembly of Pennsylvania met.
1683.6 Penn signed treaty with Lenni-Lenape.
1683 Van Horn and Laurent raided Veracruz. Mexico
1683-85 New York developed a democratic Assembly.
1684 Senecas besieged Fort St. Louis. Canada
1684.10 Massachusetts charter was judged forfeited. New England
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Louisiana
1685, 1690 Slaves on Jamaica revolted. West Indies
1686.8 Spaniards destroyed Stuart's Town in Carolina.
1686-89 Andros governed New England Dominion.
1687.3.19 La Salle was murdered in Louisiana.
1687 Denonville went to war against the Iroquois. Canada
1687 Wise led tax resistance in New England.
1688 Barbados adopted a slave code. South Carolina
1688 Mennonites of Germantown protested slavery. Pennsylvania
1689.4.19 Massachusetts arrested Governor Andros. New England
1689.5 Leisler took over New York.
1689 Privateer Casse attacked Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1689-97 King William's War fought French. Canada, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1689-98 Frontenac governed Canada during war.
1689-1714 Maryland was a royal colony.
1690.2 French and Indians destroyed Schenectady. Canada
1690.5 Phips of Massachusetts captured Port Royal. Canada, New England
1690.10 British attack on Quebec led by Phips failed. Canada, New England
1691.3 New York governor Sloughter removed Leisler.
1691 William granted Massachusetts a new charter. New England
1692 High grain prices caused a riot in Mexico City.
1692 Salem witch trials hanged 19 people.
1692-97 Fletcher governed New York corruptly.
1693 New York supported Anglican ministers.
1693 Penn wrote plan for European peace.
1694 Penn wrote about people called Quakers.
1695 College of William and Mary was founded. Virginia
1696 Louis XIV cancelled beaver permits. Canada
1696 Board of Trade formed for Navigation Acts. Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1696-98 Spaniards conquered Tarahumaras. Northern Mexico
1697 Ryswick Treaty tried to end piracy. West Indies
1697 Salvatierra founded a mission in Baja California. Northern Mexico
1698 Brazil's long gold rush began.
1698-1700 Scottish colonists failed in Panama. Central America
1698-1727 Samuel Cranston governed Rhode Island.
1699 Iberville founded Biloxi in Louisiana. Canada
1699 Woolen Act banned colonial exports. Massachusetts
1699 Virginia law required church attendance.
1700 Sewall published The Selling of Joseph. Massachusetts
1700 New York banned Catholic priests.
1701.5.23 Captain Kidd was hanged in London. Massachusetts
1701 Connecticut began college that became Yale.
1701.7 Cadillac started a trading post at Detroit. Canada
1701.8.6 38 chiefs made treaty with French Canadians. Canada
1701.10.28 Penn granted Charter of Privileges.
1702 Cotton Mather wrote Magnalia Christi Americana.
1702 New Jersey was unified as a royal colony.
1702.9 South Carolina governor Moore burned San Agustin.
1702-13 Queen Anne's War. Canada, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina
1702-38 New Jersey was under governor of New York.
1703 Jesuits introduced printing in Rio de la Plata.
1703 La Hontan wrote New Voyages to North-America. Canada
1703-25 Rigaud de Vaudreuil governed Canada.
1704.2.29 French and Abenakis attacked Deerfield. Canada, Massachusetts
1704 Weekly Boston News-Letter began. Massachusetts
1705 Massachusetts raised duty on imported Africans.
1706.1.17 Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston.
1706 South Carolina established Anglicans.
1707 John Williams published Redeemed Captive. Massachusetts
1707 New York arrested Presbyterian Makemie.
1707-24 Saltonstall governed Connecticut.
1708 Spain allowed slaves to purchase their freedom. West Indies
1708 French privateers raided the Essequibo colony. Guiana
1708 Indian agent Nairne made peace with Choctaws. South Carolina
1709 Selkirk was rescued from Juan Fernandez Island. Chile
1709 Louis XIV banned selling beaver to English. Canada
1709 English expedition against Canada failed. Massachusetts, New York
1710 Cotton Mather published Essays to Do Good.
1710.9 Nicholson's forces captured Port Royal. Canada, Massachusetts
1710-22 Col. Spotswood governed Virginia.
1711.8 British naval attack on Quebec failed. Canada, Massachusetts
1711.9 5,800 French captured Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1712 Massachusetts banned importing Indian slaves.
1712 New York slave rebellion was suppressed.
1712 South Carolina founded the first land bank.
1712.11 Cassard's pirates raided Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1713.3 Carolinians and Indians defeated Tuscaroras. North Carolina
1713 Utrecht Treaty gave slave trading to British. Mexico
1713 French ceded Acadia to England. Canada, Massachusetts
1714 English conformity law required oaths. Pennsylvania
1714 Calvert proprietors of Maryland were restored.
1715 Tuscaroras went north, joined Iroquois league. North Carolina
1715 South Carolina fought the Yamasees.
1716.1 Cherokees signed a treaty with the English. South Carolina
1717 Wise wrote Vindication of the Government.
1717 Alabamas helped French build Fort Toulouse. Louisiana
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718 Bienville founded New Orleans as a capital. Louisiana
1718 New York allowed Jews to be naturalized.
1718.3 Chief Brims united the Creeks at Coweta. South Carolina
1718.11 Virginia navy killed Blackbeard.
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1719 Louisiana began importing African slaves.
1719 South Carolina Assembly replaced proprietors.
1720 Maryland had 80,000 people and 25,000 slaves.
1720-21 John Law created a French financial bubble. Canada
1721 Cotton Mather advocated smallpox inoculation. Massachusetts
1721 Cotton Mather published Christian Philosopher.
1721.5 South Carolina became a royal colony.
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1722 Franklin wrote Silence Dogood secretly.
1722-24 Dummer's War fought Abenakis in Maine. Massachusetts
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba. West Indies
1723 Pennsylvania issued £45,000 in paper money.
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1724 Louisiana excluded Jews and Protestants.
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1726-46 Beauharnois governed Canada.
1727 Colden wrote History of the Five Indian Nations. Iroquois
1727 Franklin started the Junto discussion group.
1727 Maryland Gazette began publishing. Maryland
1727-49 William Gooch governed Virginia.
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1729 Franklin wrote "Busy-Body." Journalism
1729 Franklin wrote on paper money.
1729 Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1729 North Carolina became a royal colony.
1729-31 French and Choctaws fought Natchez. Louisiana
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1730 Virginia passed Tobacco Inspection Act.
1730-41 Jonathan Belcher governed Massachusetts. Massachusetts
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1731 Louisiana became a royal colony,
1731 Franklin's Junto began first circulating library.
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1732 George II granted Georgia a non-profit charter.
1733.2 Oglethorpe led settlers south of Savannah River.
1733 British passed the Molasses Act. Massachusetts, New York, Virginia
1733 Virginia had 88,000 Europeans, 42,000 Africans.
1733-58 Franklin published Poor Richard's Almanac.
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1734-52 Johnston governed North Carolina.
1735 Jury acquitted publisher Zenger in New York.
1735.4.3 Georgia banned importing slaves and alcohol.
1736 Franklin became Assembly clerk.
1736 Parks began publishing weekly Virginia Gazette. Virginia
1736.12 Franklin founded Union Fire Company.
1736, 1739 Bienville attacked the Chickasaws. Louisiana
1737 Franklin became deputy postmaster.
1737.9 Walking Purchase took land from Delawares. Pennsylvania
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1738 Whitefield came to Georgia.
1739.9 Slaves rebelled near Charles Town.
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina
1740 Whitefield preached in New England. Great Revival
1740 South Carolina had 39,000 African slaves.
1740.5 2,000 English and Indians attacked San Agustin. Georgia
1741 English attacked Cartagena. Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina
1741 Zinzendorf's Moravians founded Bethlehem. Pennsylvania
1742 Edwards wrote about the revival of religion.
1742 Franklin invented a more efficient stove.
1742 Cherokees, Catawbas, and Iroquois made treaty. South Carolina
1742.6.22 Spanish fleet attacked St. Simons Island. Georgia
1742.7 Georgia repealed prohibition of alcohol.
1743 Stephens succeeded Oglethorpe in Georgia.
1744 Franklin founded American Philosophical Society.
1741-57       William Shirley governed Massachusetts. New England
1743-53       Admiral George Clinton governed New York
1743-56       James Glen governed South Carolina.             
1744.3         France and England declared war. British
1744.6.28    New England captured Louisbourg.             
1744           Jonas Green revived the Maryland Gazette.        
1744-48       King George’s War fought the French.New England
1745, 1747   70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies
1746           College of New Jersey began at Princeton.         
1746           North Carolinans refused to pay taxes.               
1746-51       William Johnson was New York’s Indian agent.
1746-52       La Jonquiere governed New France.              
1746-55       Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.                 
1747.5         British navy defeated La Jonquiere’s 5 ships. New France
1747           Spaniards fought Comanches. Texas
1747.11.17   Franklin’s “Plain Truth” advocated defense. 
1747-49       La Galissoniere governed New France
1747-57       Jonathan Belcher governed New Jersey.
1748           Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil
1748.10.18   Treaty gave Louisbourg back to France
1748-49       Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1748-49       Pennsylvania made treaties with Indian tribes.
1749.3         George II approved grant to the Ohio Company.
1749           Peru had two major Indian revolts.
1749           Franklin wrote on education, began Academy.
1749.8.2      Iroquois gave Croghan 200,000 acres by Ohio. New France
1749-52       Edward Cornwallis governed Halifax. New England
1749-53       Franklin experimented with electricity.
1750.1         Mayhew preached right to representation. New England
1750.1         Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750           Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750           Georgia repealed its anti-slavery law.
1750-77       Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1751.8.15    Franklin appealed for a hospital. 
1751-58       Robert Dinwiddie governed Virginia
1752.4         Franklin started first fire insurance company.
1752-55       Duquesne governed New France
1752-72       Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753           Chile monopolized tobacco.
1753           French built forts in Ohio valley. New France
1753           Dinwiddie sent Washington to Fort Le Boeuf. Virginia
1753-73       Franklin was deputy postmaster of America.
1754.5.28    Washington led attack on French
1754.6         English colonists met at Albany.New York Franklin
1754           Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil  Guiana
1754           New York City public library began. 
1754.7         Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. English-French War
1754.8         Virginia House authorized £20,000 for defense.
1754.11       British authorized £1,000,000 for war on French.
1754, 1762   Woolman wrote against slavery. Pennsylvania
1754-56       Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in BrazilRio de la Plata
1755.1         Georgia’s first elected Assembly met.
1755.4         Virginia deported 1,150 Acadians to England.
1755           Brazil restored Indian rights. 
1755           Cuba established a general post office.
1755           Connecticut Gazette began publishing. New England
1755           Mitchell published map of Mississippi Valley. Virginia
1755.7         Cherokees sold 360 square miles to England. 
1755.11.25   Pennsylvania passed Franklin’s Militia Act. 
1755.6.16    British defeated French Acadians.
1755.7.9      French & Indians defeated Braddock’s British.
1755-60       Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1756.4.14    Pennsylvania declared war on Delawares. 
1756.5.17    England declared war against France. English-French War
1756           Connecticut had 3,587 slaves.  New England
1756           James Davis published North Carolina Gazette.  
1756           Gov. Morris broke into Philadelphia warehouses. Sugar Tax
1756.8         Montcalm and French captured Fort Oswego.
1756-60       Lyttelton governed South Carolina
1756-63       War increased British debt to £122,603,336. Sugar Tax
1757.2         Pennsylvania sent Franklin to London. 
1757           Brazil abolished Indian slavery. 
1757           Pennsylvania spent £127,000 on military.
1757.8         French captured Fort William Henry. 
1758.2         Loudoun asked northern colonies for 6,992 men. New France
1758.3         New England voted to raise 13,800 soldiers.  New France
1758.5         8 ships from France ended Canadian famine.  New France
1758           Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758           University in Chile began teaching law. 
1758           English deported 5,637 French prisoners. 
1759.7         Edmund Atkin made a treaty with Choctaws.  Carolinas
1758.7.26    France surrendered Ile Royale and Ile St. Jean.   New France
1758.7.26    English took over Fort Niagara.  
1758.7.31    French abandoned Fort Carillon.   New France
1758.10       Penn restored Iroquois land in the west. Pennsylvania
1758.11.25   English took over destroyed Fort Duquesne. Virginia
1759.2         Pennsylvania taxed land for £100,000. 
1759           Bahia founded Brazilian Academy. 
1759           Canada’s war expenses reached 30 million livres. New France
1759           English colonies raised 17,000 to invade Canada.
1759           Cherokees and Creeks declared war on English.
1759.9.18    French surrendered Quebec to the English.  
1759-88       Carlos III ruled Spanish empire.  Rio de la Plata New Granada
1760           Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits. 
1760           British Navy captured 30 smuggling ships. Sugar Tax
1760.9.8      French surrendered Montreal to the English
1760-61       South Carolina fought Cherokees.  
1761           Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761           Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761           Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.11       King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1761.12.17   Cherokees made peace with South Carolina
1762           Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia. 
1762           James Johnston became Georgia’s printer. 
1762           James Otis Jr. wrote vindicating legislature. New England
1762.8         Delawares met with Iroquois at Easton.  Pontiac
1762.11.3    France secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. British Canada
1762-63       British invaded and occupied Cuba
1763.2.10    Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763.2.10    France ceded New France to England.   New England Sugar Tax Canada
1763.3         Delaware’s Neolin prophesied new religion. Pontiac
1763.4         Boston merchants opposed tax on molasses.  Sugar Tax
1763.4.27    Pontiac held a war conference.  
1763.5.7      Pontiac tried to take Fort Detroit. 
1763.5         Indians took over three forts. Pontiac
1763           Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital. 
1763           England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763           England devalued New England’s money. 
1763           13 colonies debt was £2,097,000. Pontiac
1763           American economy went into a depression. Sugar Tax
1763.7         General Amherst used smallpox against Indians. Pontiac
1763.7         Grenville ordered Customs officials to colonies. Sugar Tax
1763.8.6      Chief Pontiac was defeated at Bushy Run. Canada
1763.8         British took over West Florida from Spaniards. Western Frontier
1763.10.7    George III reserved west for Indians. Virginia Pontiac Western Frontier
1763.10       Pontiac ended war against English. 
1763.10       Rhode Island merchants opposed Sugar Act. 
1763.11.10   Creeks ceded land to Georgia.  
1763.11       South Carolina gave Indians gifts. 
1763.12       Patrick Henry called George III a tyrant in court. Virginia
1763-64       African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana
1764.1.27    New York City merchants urged protests. Sugar Tax
1764.2         Franklin persuaded Paxton Boys to go home.
1764.4.5      England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act).    West Indies Sugar Tax
1764           Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1764           Currency act banned paper money in colonies.  Sugar Tax
1764           Otis wrote Rights of British Colonies Asserted.  Sugar Tax
1764.8.10    Gov. Murray established two courts for Canada.
1764.10.31   North Carolina Assembly opposed British tax.  Sugar Tax
1764.11.4    Gov. Hopkins read Rights of Colonies Examined. Sugar Tax
1765.3.22    British Stamp Act became law.  
1765.5         Croghan convened Indian congress at Fort Pitt. Western Frontier
1765.5.15    British Quartering Act passed. Stamp Act
1765.5.30    Patrick Henry spoke against the Stamp Act
1765.6.8      Massachusetts urged a congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.6.24    Newport Mercury published Henry’s resolutions. Stamp Act
1765           Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol.  Peru New Granada
1765           13 English colonies had 1,750,000 people.  Stamp Act
1765.8.14    Loyal Nine in Boston hanged Oliver in effigy. Stamp Act
1765.8.17    Croghan held Indian conference at Detroit. Western Frontier
1765.8.26    New York Stamp Distributor McEvers resigned. Stamp Act
1765.8.27    Newport mob attacked Distributors’ houses.  Stamp Act
1765.9.19    New Jersey bar refused to use stamps.  Stamp Act
1765.10       9 colonies attended congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.10       Dulany wrote on the propriety of imposing taxes. Stamp Act
1765.10.31   200 New York merchants boycotted English.   Stamp Act
1765.11.1    American newspapers stopped publishing.  Stamp Act
1765.11.14   400 Philadelphia merchants boycotted English.  Stamp Act
1765.11.25   New York Gazette published without stamps.  Stamp Act
1765.12.6    200 Boston merchants stopped British imports. Stamp Act
1765.12       Dickinson warned Pitt 13 colonies would unite. Stamp Act
1765-71       Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances. 
1765.1.14    Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.  
1766.1.17    London merchants urged repeal of Stamp Actt.  
1766.2.13    British Parliament questioned Franklin. Stamp Act
1766.2.22    Commons voted to repeal the Stamp Act.  
1766.3.27    Commons voted to reduce tax on molasses. Stamp Act
1766.6.28    Grand Vicar Briand arrived in Quebec. Canada
1766           Bland wrote on the rights of British colonies. Stamp Act
1766-70       Guy Carleton governed Canada
1767.2         Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.6.24    Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1767.6.29    Townshend Revenue Act was enacted. 
1767.10.1    Parliament suspended New York Assembly. Townshend Acts
1767.11.20   Townshend duties went into effect. 
1767.12.4    Newport adopted non-consumption. Townshend Acts
1767.12       Dickinson published Letters from a Farmer.  Townshend Acts
1768.1.20    Massachusetts legislature opposed taxes.  Townshend Acts
1768           13 English colonies demanded representation. Townshend Acts
1768.10.1    700 British soldiers came to Boston. Townshend Acts
1768.11.3    Iroquois ceded land in Fort Stanwix treaty. Western Frontier
1769.1.2      American Philosophical Society elected Franklin. Townshend Acts
1769           Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O UraguaiBrazil
1769           Colonies made non-importation agreements. Townshend Acts
1769-84       Serra founded and led California missions.
1769-84       Jonathan Trumbull governed Connecticut. Confederation
1770.1.31    426 women in Boston pledged not to use tea. Townshend Acts
1770.3.5      British soldiers in Boston killed five in a mob. Townshend Acts
1770.4         England repealed Townshend duties except tea. 
1770           Murray brought Universalism to New England.  Townshend Acts
1770.7.6      George III ordered martial law in Massachusetts. Tea Tax
1771.5.16    Militia fought Regulators in North Carolina. Western Frontier
1771           Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines. 
1771           Connecticut prohibited the slave trade.  Tea Tax
1771-79       Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1772.6.9      100 Sons of Liberty boarded the GaspeeTea Tax
1772           Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro.  Brazil
1772.11.2    Sam Adams began correspondence committees. Tea Tax
1772-80       Jauregui governed Chile.  
1773.5.10    England passed the Teax Act.  
1773           Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1773           Charleston imported 8,000 slaves. Townshend Acts
1773           Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1773.9         Phillis Wheatley published her poems. Townshend Acts
1773.10       Daniel Boone led settlement of Kentucky.  Western Frontier
1773.11       Gov. Dunmore granted veterans western land.  Western Frontier
1773.12.16   Bostonians dumped British tea in the sea. Tea Tax
1773.12.27   Worcester formed American Political Society. Tea Tax
1774.1.29    British Parliament lectured Franklin.  Tea Tax
1774.3.31    George III approved the Boston Port Bill. Tea Tax
1774.4         Quebec Act annexed land north of the Ohio. Western Frontier
1774.5.17    Rhode Island delegates proposed a congress. Tea Tax
1774.5.28    Virginians recommended an American congress. Tea Tax
1774.6         9 colonies endorsed the continental congress.  Tea Tax
1774           Benezet wrote The Potent Enemies of America. Tea Tax
1774           Wilson wrote on the authority of Parliament.  Tea Tax
1774           Jefferson wrote on the rights of British America.  Tea Tax
1774           Ann Lee and Shakers came to New York.Tea Tax
1774           Hearne established Fort Cumberland. Canada
1774.9.3      General Gage fortified Boston.  Tea Tax
1774.9.5      First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia. 
1774.9.6      Worcester Convention banned British courts. Tea Tax
1774.9.27    Continental approved non-importation.  
1774.10.9    Dunmore led Virginians against Indians. Western Frontier
1774.10.11   Massachusetts formed Provincial Congress. Continental Congress
1774.10.14   Continental Congress stated “Rights and Grievances.” 
1774.10.26   Massachusetts formed a militia. Continental Congress
1774.12       Franklin in England tried to avert civil war. Continental Congress
1775.2.1      Pitt’s plan for reconciliation was defeated. Continental Congress
1775.3.23    Patrick Henry asked for liberty or death.  Continental Congress
1775.4         11 colonies elected delegates to Continental Congress.  
1775.4.19    British attacked Lexington and Concord.  British War
1775.4.23    Congress voted to raise 13,600 men.  British War
1775.5.1      British offered Virginia slaves freedom to fight. British War
1775.5.1      Quebec Act went into effect.  Canada
1775.5.10    Georgia joined the Congress. British War
1775.5.10    Allen’s volunteers took Fort Ticonderoga. British War Canada
1775.5.10    2nd Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.  British War
1775.5.29    Congress sent Jay’s letter to Canada.  British War
1775.6.12    British declared martial law in Massachusetts. British War
1775.6.15    Congress elected Washington commander. British War
1775.6.17    Americans defeated British on Breed’s Hill. British War
1775           New Englanders were excluded from fisheries. Canada
1775.7.5      Congress adopted a petition to George III. British War
1775.7.12    Congress created 3 Indian departments. Frontier
1775.7.26    Congress elected Franklin postmaster general. 
1775.8.23    George III ordered rebellion suppressed. Congress
1775.9.25    Allen was defeated & captured at Montreal.   Congress Canada
1775.11.7    Gov. Dunmore declared martial law in Virginia. Congress
1775.11.13   Americans took over Montreal.  Congress Canada
1775.12.31   Americans were defeated at Quebec. Congress Canada
1775-77       John Hancock was president of Congress.    British War 1777
1776.1.10    Paine published Common Sense
1776.3.17    British army left Boston. Congress
1776.4.6      Congress declared free trade. 
1776.5.4      Rhode Island declared independence. Congress
1776.5         10,000 British soldiers arrived in Canada.   Canada
1776.6.7      R. H. Lee proposed independence. Declaration of Independence
1776.6.12    Virginia adopted Mason’s “Declaration of Rights.”Declaration of Independence
1776.6.15    Arnold’s army abandoned Montreal.  Canada
1776.6.29    Virginia convention adopted a constitution. Declaration of Independence
1776.7.4      Congress approved independence unanimously. Declaration of Independence
1776.7         Americans attacked Cherokees. Frontier
1776.8.27    British defeated Americans on Long Island. 
1776.9.8      Washington advised defensive war. 
1776.9.22    British hanged Nathan Hale as a spy. 
1776.12.20   Congress met in Baltimore.  1776
1776.12.26   Washington captured 918 Hessians in Trenton.  1776
1776-78       Paine published American Crisis1776 1777 1778-79
1776-83       British army occupied New York City. 
1777.1.1      Washington ordered army not to plunder.  1777
1777.1.9      Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777.1         Legislative Council met in Quebec.  Canada
1777.2         Congress allowed price controls to help the poor. 1777
1777.3.7      Shawnees attacked Boonesborough. Frontier
1777           Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1777           Vermont abolished slavery. Confederation
1777.8.6      400 Iroquois and Brant attacked 800 Americans. Frontier
1777.9.26    Howe’s British army entered Philadelphia. 1777
1777.10       Men rebelled against conscription in Baltimore. 1777
1777.10.17   Burgoyne surrendered 5,791 men at Saratoga. 1777
1777.10.31   Congress elected Henry Laurens president. 1777
1777.11.15   Congress adopted Articles of Confederation. 1777
1777.12.17   Franklin made alliance with France. 1777
1777-95       George Clinton governed New York.  Confederation
1778.5.4      Congress ratified treaties with France. 1778-79
1778.5.8      Governor Carleton dismissed Chief Justice Livius. Canada
1778.6         Tories and Iroquois defeated Americans. Frontier
1778.6.17    France declared war on England. 1778-79
1778           Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778           Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778           2,500 American soldiers died at Valley Forge.1778-79
1778           Chief Blackfish led invasion of Kentucky.  Jefferson
1778.7.4      Virginians led by Clark captured Kaskaskia.  Canada
1778.7.8      French fleet arrived at Delaware Bay. 1778-79
1778.9.17    United States recognized Delaware nation. Frontier
1778.10.19   Hamilton criticized war profiteering.  1778-79
1778.10.25   Governor Haldimand granted land to Iroquois. Canada
1778.12.9    Congress elected John Jay president. 1778-79
1778.12       British Navy took over St. Lucia.  West Indies
1778.12.17   British and Indians took over Fort Vincennes.Frontier
1778-84       Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata
1779.2         George Rogers Clark captured Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1779.5.11    British besieged Charleston.  1778-79
1779.6         Washington ordered attacks on Iroquois. Frontier
1779.6.21    Spain declared war on England.                   Frontier Canada
1779           French seized St. Vincent and Grenada. West Indies
1779.9.23    John Paul Jones captured Serapis.  1778-79
1779.9.28    Congress elected Huntington president.  1778-79
1780.1.31    Massachusetts constitution abolished slavery.  1780-81
1780.5.12    British captured Charleston.  1780-81
1780           Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico
1780           French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780           Massachusetts abolished slavery.  Confederation
1780-81       Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru
1780-83       Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1780-85       John Hancock governed Massachusetts. Shays’s Rebellion
1781.1.1      American recruits mutinied at Princeton. 1780-81
1781.1.2      Virginia ceded land north of the Ohio. 1780-81
1781.3.1      13th state ratified Articles of Confederation. 1780-81
1781.3.16    Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.3-5      Galvez and Spaniards captured Pensacola.  Frontier
1781.4         20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.6.12    William Pitt condemned the British war.  1780-81
1781           15 Universalists refused to pay tax to a church.  Washington
1781.8         Spanish troops regained Bogota.  New Granada
1781.10.19   Cornwallis surrendered 8,087 men. 1780-81
1782.1.7      Robert Morris began bank of the United States. Peacemaking
1782.2.27    British Parliament voted to stop the war. Peacemaking
1782           Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1782           Chauncey wrote Salvation of All MenConfederation
1782.7.27    Franklin wrote on the costs of the war. Peacemaking
1782.12.14   British fleet sailed from Charleston. Peacemaking
1782.4.19    Netherlands recognized the United States. Peacemaking
1783.1.20    British ceded East and West Florida to Spain. Frontier
1783.4.15    Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris.  Peacemaking
1783.5         Continental officers began order of Cincinnati. Confederation
1783.6.8      Washington wrote letter to governors. Peacemaking
1783           Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783           Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783           Noah Webster published his first speller. Shays’s Rebellion
1783.7.2      British barred American ships from West Indies.  Confederation
1783.9.3      British ceded Ohio valley to Americans. Canada
1783.9         British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies
1783.11.25   British troops and Tories left New York. Peacemaking
1783.12.20   Virginia ceded Ohio land claims to Congress. PeacemakingFrontier
1784.4.23    Congress adopted plan for adding states. Frontier
1784.6.9      Hamilton opened private Bank of New York. Confederation
1784.7         North Carolina ceded Tennessee to Congress.Frontier
1784.7.22    Spain closed Mississippi to American ships.  Confederation Frontier
1784.8.30    France opened 7 ports to American ships. Confederation
1784.10.22   Treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed.  Confederation Frontier
1784.12.14   Settlers formed state of Franklin in the west.  Frontier
1784-1803   Lasuen was president of California missions. 
1784-88       United States suffered a depression. Confederation
1784-90       Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru
1785.1.11    Congress began meeting in New York.  Confederation
1785.1.21    Treaty of Fort McIntosh was signed. Confederation Frontier
1785.5-11    Creeks made war on Georgians.  Frontier
1785           Bilingual Montreal Gazette began. British North America
1785.10       Pennsylvania Council elected Franklin president. Confederation
1785.11       Cherokees ceded land to Americans at Hopewell. Confederation
1785-86       85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1785-88       John Adams was minister to Britain. Confederation
1785-89       Jefferson was minister to France. Confederation
1785-94       Henry Knox was Secretary of War. Confederation
1786.1.10    Virginia approved separation of Kentucky. Frontier
1786.1.16    Virginia adopted Statute of Religious Freedom. 1786
1786.1.31    Shawnees signed treaty at Fort Finney. 1786
1786.2         Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. North Mexico
1786.2.28    British refused to evacuate northwest garrisons. 1786
1786           Joel Barlow wrote The Anarchiad.  Shays’s Rebellion
1786.8.22    Massachusetts delegates discussed debt relief. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9.5      Shays’ rebels blocked Massachusetts Court.Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9         Rhode Island court found a law unconstitutional. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.11.3    Creeks signed treaty fixing Oconee River border. Frontier
1786-87       Shawnees, Creeks, Cherokees fought settlers.  Frontier
1787.1.4      Massachusetts governor called out 4,400 troops. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.1         John Adams wrote Defence of the Constitutions. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.2         Military forces ended the Shays’s Rebellion.  
1787.4.16    Royall Tyler’s The Contrast played in New York. Shays’s Rebellion
1787           British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1787           Barlow wrote The Vision of ColumbusShays’s Rebellion
1787           Noah Webster founded The American Magazine. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4         Madison listed vices of United States politics. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.5.25    Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
1787.7.13    Congress passed Northwest Ordinance.        Shays’s RebellionFrontier
1787.8.1      Land was opened to Continental Army veterans. Frontier
1787.9.17    Convention adopted United States Constitution
1787.9.28    Congress submitted Constitution to 13 states. 
1787.10.5    Samuel Bryan argued against the Constitution.  
1787.10.18   “Brutus” article by Robert Yates was published.  Ratification
1787.10.27   Federalist Papers by “Publius” began to appear. Ratification
1787.11       Federalist Papers #6-9 by Hamilton appeared.  Ratification
1787.11.22   Mason’s “Objections to Constitution” appeared. Ratification
1787.11.22   Madison published Federalist #10.  Ratification
1787.12       3 states ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788.6.21    9th state ratified the US Constitution.  Ratification
1788.6-7      Virginia & New York ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788           Spain allowed American ships in Mississippi. Frontier
1788.7.3      Kentucky convention applied for statehood. Frontier
1788.9.1      Congress banned whites from Cherokee land. Frontier
1788-96       Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1808   Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.1         Federalists won first congressional elections.  New Government
1789.4.30    Washington was inaugurated as President. New Government
1789           Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789           Ramsey wrote History of American Revolution.  Ratification
1789.9         US Treasury Dept. was created. New Government
1789.9.24    US Judiciary Act became law. New Government
1789.9.25    US Congress sent 12 amendments to states. Bill of Rights
1789.10.22   Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1789.12.21   Georgia sold 25,400,000 acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1789-94       Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1789.5.10    Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1790.1.9      Washington gave annual message to Congress. New Government
1790.1         Hamilton made “Report on the Public Credit.”  New Government
1790.3.17    Quakers asked Congress to abolish slavery. New Government
1790.5.29    13th state ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1790           Census counted 3,699,535 people in US.  New Government
1790           Judith Sargent wrote “On Equality of the Sexes.”Washington
1790           King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. British North America
1790.7         Congress passed Hamilton’s debt bill. New Government
1790.8.7      Creeks ceded land to Georgia. Frontier
1791.2.25    Hamilton’s bank bill became law. New Government
1791.2         Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791.3.3      Congress passed excise tax on luxuries.         Washington Whiskey Rebellion
1791.3.15    Jefferson reported to Congress on commerce.  Washington
1791.7.2      Cherokees ceded land in the Treaty of Holston.  Frontier
1791.7.4      US Bank began selling stock. Washington
1791           St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves.  Haiti
1791           Macomb bought 4 million acres.  Frontier
1791           New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. British North America
1791           Upper Canada had 14,000 people. British North America
1791.8         Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1791.10.31   Freneau’s National Gazette began publishing. Washington
1791.11.4    Miami’s Little Turtle defeated US Army. Frontier Jefferson
1791.12.5    Hamilton presented economic plan to Congress. Washington
1791.12.15   US Bill of Rights was ratified. 
1791.12.26   Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. British North America
1791-94       Western farmers opposed liquor tax.  Whiskey Rebellion
1792.3         New York State Bank began. Washington
1792.4.5      Washington vetoed a bill as unconstitutional. 
1792.4.21    Tiradentes was hanged.  Brazil
1792.5.1      Kentucky became the 15th state in the US. Frontier
1792           Barlow wrote Advice to the Privileged OrdersAdams
1792           Lower Canada had 155,000 people.  British North America
1792.8.11    US Supreme Court found a law unconstitutional. Washington
1792.9.17    Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark. British North America
1792.12.17   Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began.  British North America
1792-93       Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Jefferson
1792-94       South Carolina banned importing slaves. Washington
1792-95       Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1808   John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. British North America
1792-1816   Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1793.1.23    Madison published “Parties” essay. Washington
1793.2.1      France declared war on England, Spain, Holland. America
1793.3.4      President Washington began second term. America
1793.4.8      Genet arrived at Charleston.  America
1793.4         Upper Canada Gazette began.  British North America
1793.4.19    Washington proclaimed American neutrality. America
1793.6         Jefferson advised Genet. America
1793           Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793           Slaves revolted in the French West Indies
1793           4,000 people died of yellow fever in Philadelphia. America
1793           Lower Canada banned importing slaves. British North America
1793           Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. British North America
1793.7.12    Washington asked France to recall Genet. America
1793.8.8      Supreme Court declined to advise US President. America
1794.2.10    Quebec’s governor urged Indians to help British. America
1794.2         British seized Martinique and American ships. America
1794.2.24    Washington offered reward to catch criminals.Whiskey Rebellion
1794.3.4      Congress proposed 11th amendment. America
1794.3         Eli Whitney got a patent on his cotton gin. Washington
1794.3.27    Washington authorized ships for US Navy.  America
1794.4.16    Washington appointed Jay envoy to Britain. America
1794.4.28    Adams broke tie in Senate on British trade. America
1794.5         Toussaint joined republican French.  Haiti
1794.5.27    Washington named Monroe minister to France. America
1794.5.31    Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act. British North America
1794           York became the capital of Upper Canada. British North America
1794.8.14    Western delegates demanded excise tax repeal. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8         Brackenridge mediated with whiskey rebels.  Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8.20    US Army defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers. Frontier
1794.10-11  3,000 soldiers suppressed Whiskey Rebellion.  
1794.11.8    Chickamauga wars ended in a peace treaty.  Frontier
1794.11.19   Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty.  America British North America
1795.1         Georgia sold 35 million acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1795.6.24    Senate approved Jay’s Treaty with changes. Washington
1795           Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795           Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba.  Puerto Rico
1795           Spain left Española, and the English invaded.  Haiti
1795           Spain strengthened forts on the Mississippi. Frontier
1795.8.3      Indians ceded land to US in Wayne’s treaty.Frontier
1795.8.18    Washington signed treaty with Ohio Indians. 
1795.8.19    Washington sent address to Cherokees. 
1795.10.27   Spain ceded territory to the US. Mexico Washington Frontier
1795.11.9    Washington met with warriors from 11 tribes. 
1795-96       Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97       Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.3         Washington agreed to pay Barbary pirates. 
1796.5         Congress funded Jay’s treaty. Washington
1796.6.1      Tennessee became the 16th state in the US. Frontier
1796           British withdrew troops from northwest. Frontier
1796.8         Spain went to war against England.  Mexico
1796.9.19    Washington published “Farewell Address.” 
1796.12       Spain opened Mississippi River to US ships. Frontier
1796-1802   British governed Guiana.  
1796-1806   Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.3.4      John Adams became 2nd US President. 
1797.4         Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.5.15    US Congress began special session. Adams
1797.5.16    Adams declared policy of neutrality. 
1797.7.10    US Congress funded 3 Navy ships.  Adams
1797.7         Callender exposed Hamilton’s adultery. Adams
1797.7.21    MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec.  British North America
1797.8         Society of United Irishmen began. Adams
1797.9.17    Seneca chiefs sold land to Holland Company. Frontier
1797.12       Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803   Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.2.15    Lyon and Griswold fought in Congress. Adams
1798.3         Spain ceded land to US east of Mississippi. Frontier
1798.3-10    Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France.  Haiti
1798.5.9      Day of prayer resulted in riots in Philadelphia. Adams
1798.5         US Congress authorized 9 warships. Adams
1798.6.18    Naturalization Act extended time to 14 years. Adams
1798.6.26    Judge Peters ordered Bache arrested for libel.Adams
1798           Judith Sargent published The Gleaner.  Adams
1798.7.6      Alien Enemies Act authorized deportations. Adams
1798.7.9      US Direct House Tax became law. Adams
1798.7.14    US Sedition Act banned “malicious” writing. Adams
1798.8.16    France ended embargo of American ships. Adams
1798.10.1    Lyon published Scourge of Aristocracy.  Adams
1798.10       Lyon was re-elected while in jail for sedition. Adams
1798.11.16   Gov. Garrard signed Kentucky Resolutions. Adams
1798.12.20   Barlow wrote “On Certain Political Measures.”  Adams
1798.12.24   Madison’s Virginia Resolutions were enacted. Adams
1799.1-3      Fries rebellion stopped tax collection.  1799-1801
1799.1.15    Adams began negotiating a treaty with France. 
1799.1.30    Congress passed the Logan Act. 1799-1801
1799.2.1      Washington urged Adams to make peace. 
1799.2.9      Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799.3-5      Fries tax rebellion was suppressed. 1799-1801
1799.4.24    Library of Congress was started.  1799-1801
1799.5         Justice chase indicted Callender for sedition. 1799-1801
1799           Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799           Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1799.11.14   Kentucky passed more resolutions.  1799-1801
1799.12.14   George Washington died of illness. 1799-1801
1799-1805   Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada. British North America
1799-1808   Republican McKean governed Pennsylvania. 1799-1801
1800.5.1      Republicans won elections in New York.1799-1801
1800.5.10    Land Act gave American settlers credit.1799-1801
1800.5         Adams fired McHenry and Pickering. 
1800           Census found 5,308,483 in US, 893,602 slaves. 1799-1801
1800.7         Tripoli threatened war against the United States. America’s Naval War
1800.10.1    Spain ceded Louisiana to France.  Frontier
1800.10       Gabriel and 25 slaves were hanged for revolt. 1799-1801
1800.12       Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1800.12       Electors gave 73 votes to Jefferson and Burr.  1799-1801
1801.1         Harrison became governor of Indiana Territory. Frontier
1801.1         Tripoli made demands of the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.1.31    Adams nominated Marshall as Chief Justice. 
1801.2.2      US Senate ratified altered French treaty. Adams
1801.2.13    Federalist Senate added 23 new judges.Adams
1801.2.17    House elected Jefferson President. 1799-1801
1801.3.4      Thomas Jefferson became 3rd US President. 
1801.5.13    Gallatin began work as Treasury Secretary. Jefferson
1801.5.14    Tripoli declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1801           St. Domingue became self-governing.  Haiti
1801           McGill University began.  British North America
1801.8.1      USS Enterprise defeated the Tripoli.  America’s Naval War
1801.8         20,000 attended religious revival in Kentucky.  Frontier
1801.12.7    Republican Macon became House Speaker. Jefferson
1801.12       Marbury sued Secretary of State Madison. Jefferson
1801.12.19   US Senate ratified treaty with France. Louisiana
1801-12       Harrison governed Indiana Territory.  1805-06
1802.1         Congress rejected fugitive slave bill.  Jefferson
1802.1         US agreed to pay British creditors £600,000. Jefferson
1802.2.2      Congress authorized US Navy against Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1802.2         French seized 20 American ships at Cap Français. Jefferson
1802.3.3      Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801.  Jefferson
1802.3.16    Jefferson approved West Point military academy.
1802.4.24    Congress set Georgia’s western border. Jefferson
1802.4.30    Ohio became 17th state in US.  Jefferson
1802.6.17    Tripoli seized USS Franklin.  America’s Naval War
1802.6.25    Morocco declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1802           Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery.  West Indies Haiti
1802           Republicans won most US elections.  Jefferson
1802.10       Spain closed New Orleans to American trade. Louisiana
1802-03       French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.2.19    Jefferson approved Ohio’s constitution. 
1803.2.24    Marbury v. Madison ended unconstitutional law. 1803-05
1803.2.28    Congress authorized 4 more warships. America’s Naval War
1803.3.2      Stuart v. Laird authorized federal courts. 1803-05
1803.3.26    US Senate increased import duties 2.5%. America’s Naval War 1803-05
1803.4.27    Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803.5.2      France sold Louisiana to the United States. 
1803.5.18    USS John Adams captured the Meshuda.  America’s Naval War
1803           Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. British North America
1803.10       Jefferson reduced US Navy budget. 1803-05
1803.10.20   US Senate ratified Louisiana Purchase. 
1803.10.31   Tripoli captured USS Philadelphia and 307 men.  America’s Naval War
1803.12.14   Spain declared war on England. Louisiana
1803.12.20   US Army took over New Orleans. Louisiana
1803-08       Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08       General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1804.1.1      Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804.2.16    Decatur’s USS Intrepid killed 33 Tripolitans.  America’s Naval War
1804.2.16    Hamilton favored Clinton over Burr. 1803-05
1804.2.24    Mobile Act created a customs district. 1803-05
1804.2.25    Republican caucus nominated Clinton for VP. 1803-05
1804.3.12    Congress removed judge John Pickering.  1803-05
1804.4.25    New York’s Governor Clinton defeated Burr. 1803-05
1804.5.14    Lewis & Clark expedition left St. Louis. Exploration
1804.6.15    United States ratified 12th amendment.  1803-05
1804           Dessalines had thousands of French killed.  Haiti
1804           Republicans won most Congressional elections. 1803-05
1804           Blackburn started a school for Cherokee boys. 1803-05
1804.7.11    Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.  1803-05 ,464
1804.8.7      USS Constitution blockaded Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1804.8         Burr met with British ambassador Merry. 
1804.10.2    Claiborne became Governor of New Orleans. Louisiana
1804.10.8    Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques.  Haiti
1804.10.11   Lear negotiated treaty with Morocco. America’s Naval War
1804.11.7    Lewis & Clark expedition reached Pacific Ocean. Exploration
1804.12.12   Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-07       South Carolina imported 39,310 slaves.  1807-09
1804-14       Arrillaga governed California
1805.1.2      Envoy Monroe arrived in Madrid.  1805-06
1805.1.8      Jefferson decided not to pay tribute to Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.2         US Senate acquitted Justice Chase. 1803-05
1805.3.2      Congress gave Louisiana rights. 
1805.3.3      US Senate banned armed commerce.   1805-06
1805.4         Federalists won elections in Massachusetts.  1805-06
1805.6.3      United States ransomed 307 men from Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805           Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805           Seneca Chief Red Jacket defended his religion. 1803-05
1805           Kentucky court recognized a free African’s rights. 1805-06
1805           Mercy Warren published history of US revolution. 1805-06
1805           Quebec Mercury began in English.  British North America
1805.7         Gov. Harrison made a treaty in Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1805.7.30    United States sent 18 Navy ships to Tunis Bay. America’s Naval War
1805.9.23    Lewis & Clark expedition returned to St. Louis. Exploration
1805.10       Stephen published War in Disguise.   1805-06
1805.10.21   British Navy showed dominance at Trafalgar.   1805-06
1805.11       Miranda appealed to US for help.  New Granada 1805-06
1805.12.1    Jefferson was warned of Burr conspiracy. 
1805.12.3    Jefferson criticized Spain in annual message. 1805-06
1806.1.8      Pike’s expedition reached Sandy Lake. Louisiana
1806.3.5      John Randolph began opposing Jefferson. 1805-06
1806.4.12    US Senate ratified the treaty with Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1806.4         British blockaded New York harbor.  1805-06
1806.5.23    Smallpox vaccine came to Peru
1806.6-8      British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806           Louisiana adopted the Code Noir.  
1806           Le Canadien began in French.  British North America
1806.7.24    Sen. Dayton sent Burr an encouraging letter.  
1806.7.29    Burr sent Wilkinson a letter in cipher.  
1806.9.4      Blennerhassett suggested Ohio should secede. Burr
1806.9.23    Burr demanded Spaniards evacuate Orleans. 
1806.10.17   Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed.  Haiti
1806.11.3    Jackson received $3,500 from Burr for boats.  
1806.11.5    Kentucky D.A. Daveiss charged Burr in court. 
1806.11.15   Pike named a mountain “Grand Peak.”  Exploration
1806.11.15   US Non-importation Act went into effect. 1805-06
1806.11.25   Wilkinson took control of New Orleans. Burr
1806.11.27   Jefferson banned invading Spanish territory. 1805-06 Burr
1806.12.12   Wilkinson began arresting Burr conspirators. 
1806.12.14   Jackson persuaded Burr to disavow rebellion. 
1807.1.7      England ended American coasting privileges. Embargo
1807.1.11    Burr and 55 people surrendered to militia. 
1807.2         British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2         Goman rebelled against Pétion.  Haiti
1807.2.26    United States ended slaved trade after 1807. Embargo
1807.2-6      Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. North Mexico Exploration
1807.3.15    Jefferson rejected treaty with England.Embargo
1807.3.25    British abolished the slave trade.  Embargo
1807.6.22    British removed 4 men from the ChesapeakeEmbargo
1807.7.2      Jefferson ordered British ships out of US waters. Embargo
1807.8.12    Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807.9.4      Fulton demonstrated his steamship invention.  Embargo
1807.9         Tecumseh spoke at a conference. Jefferson
1807.12.1    Burr was acquitted by a jury. 
1807.12.22   Embargo Act banned foreign trade by US ships. Embargo
1807, 1814   Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1807-11       James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada.  British North America
1808.1.1      British made the slave trade illegal.  West Indies
1808.1.8      2nd US embargo made punishment harsher. Embargo
1808.1.22    Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7      Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3.12    3rd embargo banned all US exports.  Embargo
1808.3         Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.4.12    US Congress expanded Army to 8 divisions. Embargo
1808.4.25    US Enforcement Act increased penalties. Embargo
1808.5.6      Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808.5         Tenskwatawa founded Prophetstown. Jefferson
1808           Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808           Cherokees reformed their laws.  Jefferson
1808           1,130 Chickamaugas moved to Arkansas. Jefferson
1808.8         Jefferson sent US Army and Navy north. Embargo
1808.9.15    Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10       Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10       Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1809.1.4      Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation.Mexico
1809.1.22    Spain included Americans in Central Junta.       Chile Peru
1809.2.4      Connecticut refused to enforce Embargo
1809.3.1      Non-Intercourse Act ended the US Embargo
1809.3.4      Madison became the 4th US President. 
1809.3.7      Madison’s cabinet was confirmed.  
1809.5.31    Dolly Madison held first evening levee. 
1809.6.27    John Quincy Adams became minister to Russia. Madison
1809           Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.9      Madison banned trade with Britain.  
1809.10       Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation.Mexico
1809.8.19    Creoles formed a junta in Quito.  New Granada
1809.9         Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.9.30    Harrison made treaty with Miamis and others. New Granada
1809-18       Pétion was President of southern Haiti
1810.1     Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2         Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.4.16    Fletcher v. Peck upheld a property sale. Madison
1810.5.1      US Congress closed ports to warring nations. Madison
1810.5.3      Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.17    Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press.   British North America
1810.5.22    Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25    Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2      Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810           Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810           Census found 7,239,881 in US, 1,191,362 slaves.  Madison
1810.7.20    Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2      Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising.  Peru
1810.8         Many Indians joined Tecumseh’s confederacy. Madison
1810.9.16    Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18    Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.23    Americans declared West Florida Republic. Madison
1810.9.24    Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15   Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.10.27   Madison claimed West Florida for the US. 
1810.11.2    Madison announced non-intercourse with British.
1810.11.7    Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7    Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.11       Madison named 2 justices to US Supreme Court.
1810.11.15   Tecumseh got aid from the British.  Madison
1810.12.5    Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12.7    Claiborne took over West Florida for the US. Madison
1810.12       Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18   Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22   Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816   Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1811.1         66 slaves died in rebellion near New Orleans. Madison
1811.1.15    US Congress approved invasion of East Florida. Madison
1811.1.17    Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22    Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.2.20    US Congress did not renew the US Bank.  Madison
1811.3.2      Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas.  Bolivar
1811.3.4      Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.4.1      Monroe began running the State Dept.  Madison
1811.3.21    Hidalgo and Allende were captured.  Mexico
1811.5.14    Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion.Argentine Revolution
1811.5         Red Jacket called Americans crooked. Madison
1811           British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811           Steamboat operated on Ohio and Mississippi. Madison
1811.7.4      Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7      Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.27    Tecumseh met with Harrison at Vincennes. Madison
1811.7.31    Inquisition executed Hidalgo.  Mexico
1811.9.25    Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.10       General Brock began governing Upper Canada. British North America
1811.11.7    US Army defeated Indians at Tippecanoe. Madison
1811.11       Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. Madison
1811.11.15   Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27   Representatives formed New Granada Federation. New Granada
1811.12       US Congress voted to arm merchant ships. Madison
1811.12.21   Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20       Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1812.1.13    Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15    Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.1      Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. Madison
1812.3.12    Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3         US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. Madison
1812.3.26    Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4      US enacted 90-day embargo. Madison
1812.4         Louisiana became 18th state in the US. Madison
1812.4.23    Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.5.6      800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. Madison
1812.6.16    England repealed offensive Orders in Council.   Madison
1812.6.17    US Congress declared war against England.  Madison Canada
1812.6.20    Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. American-British War
1812           Spain adopted a liberal constitution.   New Granada
1812           English became legal language in Guiana
1812           Benjamin Rush published Medical Inquiries.  1778-79
1812.7.1      American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.7.17    British took over Fort Mackinac. American-British War
1812.7.25    Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.8         Boston town meeting condemned the war. American-British War
1812.8.16    British defeated US Army at Detroit. American-British War Canada
1812.8.19    USS Constitution sank the Guerriere.  American-British War
1812.9.25    Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5    Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.10.12   1,500 militia were called out from Tennessee. American-British War
1812.10.13   1,300 Americans retreated from Queenstown. American-British War
1812.10.13   General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle.   Canada
1812.11       Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25   Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15   Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812.12.26   Joel Barlow died in Poland. American-British War
1812-15       George Prevost governed Canada.  
1812-16       Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16       Panama was the capital of New Granada. Central America
1813.1.8      Madison named Armstrong Secretary of War. American-British War
1813.1         US Congress authorized $16 million loan. American-British War
1813.1.22    British defeated Americans at the River Raisin. American-British War
1813.2.2      Federalists blocked annexation of Floridas. American-British War
1813.2.20    Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28    Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela. 
1813.3.29    Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6      Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.15    US Army captured British garrison at Mobile.American-British War
1813.4         US Army burned capital buildings at York. American-British War Canada
1813.4         Tecumseh led 600 recruits to Fort Malden. American-British War
1813.4.25    British and Indians besieged Fort Meigs. American-British War
1813.4.27    Royalists defeated Chileans at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8      Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulco.Mexico
1813.5.5      Tecumseh’s warriors defeated Kentucky militia. American-British War
1813.5.9      Madison sent Gallatin and Bayard to Russia. American-British War
1813.6         Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813.6.15    Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813           Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6      Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.8.6      Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18    Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.8.30    Red Stick Creeks killed 517 at Fort Minns. American-British War
1813.9.10    Perry’s 9 ships defeated a British squadron. American-British War
1813.10.5    Harrison’s army defeated British in Ontario. American-British War
1813.10.5    Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1813.10.16   Harrison agreed to truce with Indians. American-British War
1813.11.6    Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.9    Jackson’s army defeated Red Sticks at Talladega. American-British War
1813.11.14   Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.11       British Navy blockaded southern coast of US. American-British War
1813.11.29   Georgia’s militia burned Autosee and Tallassee.American-British War
1813.12.11   Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.17   Madison signed an Embargo Act. American-British War
1813.12.19   British captured 358 soldiers at Fort Niagara.  American-British War
1813.12.23   Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813.12.30   British burned Black Rock and Buffalo. American-British War
1813-15       Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16       Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1814.1.2      Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1.6      Madison agreed to negotiate with British.  1814-15
1814.1         Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.31    Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director.  Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8      Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.3         Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.3.27    Jackson’s army defeated Red Stick Creeks. 1814-15
1814.4.11    Napoleon’s abdication freed British forces. 1814-15
1814.4.14    United States ended the embargo. 1814-15
1814.4.25    British Navy blockaded entire US coast. 1814-15
1814.5.3      Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11    Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30    British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814.7.5      US Army recaptured Fort Erie. 1814-15
1814.7.6      US-British peace conference met at Ghent. 1814-15
1814.7.16    Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.7.25    US Army and British both lost at Lundy’s Lane.  1814-15
1814.8.9      Creeks ceded territory at Fort Jackson.  1814-15
1814.8.17    Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.8.24    British burned the Capitol and the White House.  1814-15
1814.8.29    Alexandria surrendered to the British.  1814-15
1814.8.31    Prevost led invasion of US from Montreal.  1814-15
1814.8-9      British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days.  1814-15 Canada
1814.9.4      Secretary of War Armstrong resigned. 1814-15
1814.9         Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.9         Battle of Plattsburg lasted six days. 1814-15
1814.9.13    British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore. 1814-15
1814.10.2    Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans. 
1814.11.7    Jackson attacked Pensacola against orders. 1814-15
1814.11.10   Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814.12.15   26 New England delegates met at Hartford.  1814-15
1814.12       Noah Worcester published a book against war.   1815-1817
1814.12.24   British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1814-15 Canada
1814-20       Nariño was a prisoner.  New Granada
1814-40       Francia governed Paraguay. Argentine Revolution
1815.1.8      Jackson’s army defeated British at New Orleans.  1814-15
1815.2.16    US Senate ratified peace treaty with Britain.  1814-15
1815.3         British shot at escaping American prisoners. 1815-1817
1815.5.8      Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12    Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815.7.3      US & British signed commercial treaty in London. 1815-1817
1815.7.9      Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.7-9      Americans and Indians made treaties. 1815-1817
1815.8         New York formed first peace society. 1815-1817
1815.8-12    Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6      Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.12.11   Indiana became the 18th state in the US. 1815-1817
1815.12       Madison reported public debt of $120 million. 1815-1817
1815.12       Massachusetts Peace Society began.  1815-1817
1815.12       Cuffe paid for 38 blacks to go to Sierra Leone.1815-1817
1815.12.22   Morelos was executed for heresy and treason.  Mexico
1816.1.1      Philadelphia Female Tract Society began.  1815-1817
1816.1.9      Slavery abolition convention met in Philadelphia. 1815-1817
1816.1         Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2         Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.16    Republicans nominated Monroe for President.  1815-1817
1816.3.19    Compensation Act raised Congressmen’s pay. 1815-1817
1816.3.20    Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.4.10    Madison approved a national bank. 1815-1817
1816.4.17    US Congress created Erie Canal commission. 1815-1817
1816.5.13    American Bible Society began in New York.  1815-1817
1816.5         Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.5         Channing spoke against war in Boston.  1815-1817
1816.6.2      Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.6.9      Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1816.9.12    Aury set up government at Galveston. Texas
1816.9.14    Jackson signed peace treaty with Cherokees. 1815-1817
1816.9.20    Chickasaws ceded land to US.  1815-1817
1816.10.24   Choctaws ceded land to US.   1815-1817
1816.12.3    Madison suggested future innovations. 1815-1817
1817.1.9      Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1         Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1.23    US Congress repealed Compensation Act. 1815-1817
1817.2         US retaliated against British trade restrictions. 1815-1817
1817.3.1      Mississippi became the 19th state in the US.  1815-1817
1817.4.15    Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico

Copyright © 2006 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1715
Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950
Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of America to 1817

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