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World Chronology

1816-1830

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1820 1825

1816.1.1 Philadelphia Female Tract Society began.  1815-1817
1816.1.9 Slavery abolition convention met in Philadelphia. 1815-1817
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Secret Union of Salvation began in Russia.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.2.29 France established primary education. Louis XVIII
1816.3.16 Republicans nominated Monroe for President. 1815-1817
1816.3.19 Compensation Act raised Congressmen’s pay. 1815-1817
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.4.10 Madison approved a national bank. 1815-1817
1816.4.17 US Congress created Erie Canal commission. 1815-1817
1816.5.13 American Bible Society began in New York. 1815-1817
1816.5 Scott published The Antiquary.
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.5 Channing spoke against war in Boston. 1815-1817
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.6.9 Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1816.6 Constant published his novel Adolphe.
1816 Germaine de Staël wrote her book on the French Revolution.
1816 British made North Africans end piracy. Tripoli
1816 Mahmud Bey abolished slavery in Tunisia.
1816 Morocco’s Sulayman freed captured Christians.
1816 British made a treaty with Asante.
1816 British exported timber from Sierra Leone.
1816 British freed children of slaves in Ceylon.
1816 British gave Java back to the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1816 Owen published A New View of Society.
1816 Coleridge wrote for The Statesman’s Manual.
1816 Caroline Lamb published her novel GlenarvonByron
1816 Financiers helped Austria set up a national bank.
1816 Fröbel began German General Education Institute.
1816 Herbart published Textbook in Psychology.
1816 Netherlands Bank was founded. Willem
1816 US Congress raised tariffs to 20%. Monroe Era
1816 US Government debt peaked at $127 million. Monroe Era
1816 American Colonization Society was founded. Monroe Era
1816 Elias Boudinot published Star in the WestCherokees
1816 Channing gave his first “Discourse on War.”
1816.7.6 Pope Pius VII reformed the Papal States. Italy
1816.7 Austen completed Persuasion.
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine
1816.7.27 US, Jackson & Creeks defeated Choctaws.
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. Texas
1816.9.14 Jackson signed peace treaty with Cherokees. 1815-1817
1816.9 Chateaubriand published On Monarchy.
1816.9.20 Chickasaws ceded land to US. 1815-1817
1816.10.24 Choctaws ceded land to US. 1815-1817
1816.10.25 Constitutionalists won the French election. Louis XVIII
1816.12.2 Troops dispersed 20,000 people at Spa Fields. Tories
1816.12.3 Madison suggested future innovations. 1815-1817
1816.12.12 Ferdinando became King of the Two Sicilies. Italy
1816.12 Scott published Old Mortality.
1816.12 Garay became Fernando VII’s Finance Minister.
1816.12.21 American Colonization Society was founded. Slavery
1816.12.30 Shelley married Mary Godwin.
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-17 Swiss & Italians suffered a famine. Italy
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1816-26 King João VI ruled Portugal.
1817.1.7 2nd United States Bank began in Philadelphia.  Monroe Era
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Swiss joined the Holy Alliance.
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolívar.
1817.1 Maryland recognized the Sisters of Charity. Women
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine
1817.1.23 US Congress repealed Compensation Act. 1815-1817
1817.2.12 San Martín ’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.2 US retaliated against British trade restrictions. 1815-1817
1817.2 US Congress passed the public works bill.  Monroe Era
1817.2 1st Unitarian Church was founded in Baltimore.
1817.3.1 Mississippi became the 19th state in the US. 1815-1817
1817.3.1 US formed Alabama Territory. Monroe Era
1817.3.3 Madison vetoed the public works bill.  Monroe Era
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3.15 New York funded building the Eric Canal. Monroe Era
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.7 200 slaves attacked whites in Maryland. Monroe Era
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4 Gallaudet & Clerc began a school for the deaf. Monroe Era
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.4.17 US and Britain agreed on a Great Lakes treaty. Monroe Era
1817.5 Sauks and Foxes began getting annuities. Black Hawk
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6.8 Armed tricolor uprising was put down in Lyon. Louis XVIII
1817.6 Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Puna. British
1817.6 Britain suspended Habeas Corpus. Tories
1817.6  Byron published his play Manfred.
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. Texas
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Omanis attacked the Mazrui at Pate. East Africa
1817 British took 2,060 cattle from Ndlambe.
1817 Nanboku’s The Scarlet Princess of Edo played. Japan
1817 Ricardo wrote On Political Economy & Taxation.
1817 James Mill published History of British India.
1817 Coleridge published his Biographical Sketches.
1817 Three universities opened in Belgium. Willem
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817 New York planned to end slavery in 1827. Monroe Era
1817 United States had over 300 newspapers. Monroe Era
1817 Eaton published The Life of Andrew Jackson
1817 Jackson sold 40 slaves for $24,000.
1817 Tennessee banned selling a suing slave.
1817 North Carolina outlawed killing a slave.
1817.7 Tsar Aleksandr allowed Lithuania an army. Russia
1817.7.8 Cherokees ceded 2 million acres to US.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.7.28 Pope Pius VII approved 3 French cardinals. Italy
1817.7.30 Marshal Liñán’s army besieged Mina’s rebels. Mexican
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.8 Washington Irving visited Walter Scott.
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.9 Osborn began publishing The PhilanthropistAbolitionists
1817.9.22 John Q. Adams became Secretary of State. Monroe Era
1817.9.29 Michigan & Ohio made a treaty with 7 tribes. 1817
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.11.3 Bank of Montreal began with $350,000. Canada
1817.11.5 Daulat Rao Sindia signed the Treaty of Gwalior. British
1817.11.5 British defeated Baji Rao II, occupied Puna. British
1817.11 Monroe appointed Wirt Attorney General.
1817.11 US Army burned a Creek village in Georgia.
1817.11.30 Creek warriors killed 36 US soldiers on a ship.
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817.12.10 US admitted slave state of Mississippi. Monroe
1817.12 Malhar Rao Holkar II attacked British.
1817.12.16 Griscom began society to prevent pauperism. Monroe
1817.12.16 Calhoun demanded Seminole reparations.
1817.12.23 US Army occupied Amelia Island. Florida
1817.12.31 Scott published Rob Roy.
1817-20 Netherlands suffered an economic depression. Willem
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-21 US fought First Seminole War.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1817-25 President Monroe governed United States.
1817-28 Jahangir led jihad in Xinjiang. Jiajing
1817-37 Muhammad Bello was Sokoto caliph. Bornu and Hausaland
1817-98 Sayyid Ahmad Khan worked for Muslims. Social Reform
1818.1.6 Jackson letter criticized President Monroe.
1818.1 Holkar II signed subsidiary treaty. British
1818.1 Shelley published The Revolt of Islam.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.1.30 Monroe told Calhoun not to attack Spaniards. Florida
1818.1-3 Jackson led 1,000 volunteers to Fort Scott.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2.13 John Adams wrote on the American Revolution. Monroe
1818.2 Regent Karl Johan became King Karl XIV. Sweden
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.13 Clay argued for public improvements.Monroe
1818.3.14 Jackson found fresh scalps at Fort Fowltown.
1818.3 US Congress approved veterans’ pensions.Monroe
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen.  Venezuela
1818.3.25 Clay argued for Latin American republics.Monroe
1818.3.27 Tsar Aleksandr opened Poland’s Seym. Russia
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.1 1,400 Creek warriors joined General Jackson.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4.7 Spaniards surrendered Fort St. Mark’s to US. Florida
1818.4.8 US Navy hanged two Seminole chiefs.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.4 Jackson had 300 houses burned in Florida.
1818.4 Gourlay warned against lawbreaking. Canada
1818.4.16 US-Canada treaty banned warships on Lakes.
1818.4.18 US Senate ratified Rush-Bagot treaty. Monroe
1818.4.29 Jackson had 2 British men executed.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.5.2 Bishop Plessis sent missionaries to Red River. Canada
1818.5.12 Madison spoke to the Agricultural Society. Monroe
1818.5.13 Monroe approved Americans staying in Florida.
1818.5 Presbyterian Church condemned slaveryAbolitionists
1818.5.26 Bavaria adopted a conservative constitution. German
1818.5.28 Gov. Masot surrendered Pensacola Fort. Florida
1818.6.2 Jackson wrote Monroe he could take Cuba.
1818.6 Marathas surrendered to the British.
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 France banned the slave trade again. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1818 Asante went to war against Gyaman.
1818 Zwide had Zulus' Dingiswayo assassinated.
1818 British defeated Pindari outlaws.
1818 Ranjit Singh's Sikh army conquered Multan.
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Kamran murdered Fateh Khan. British Expansion
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Burma gained sovereignty over Assam. British Expansion
1818 Portuguese traded muskets to Siam.
1818 Bentham wrote Radical Reform Bill Explanations.
1818   1.5 million British registered for parish relief. Malthus
1818 Britain spent £7,870,801 on the Poor Law. Tories
1818 Mary Shelley published Frankenstein.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818 Illinois banned slavery and black voting. Monroe
1818 Free Port Act aided Nova Scotia shipping. Canada
1818 Illinois Constitution banned slavery.
1818 An average slave cost $1,000.
1818 Connecticut disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1818 Crocker wrote Observations on Real RightsWomen
1818 Shakers issued Memorial to New Hampshire. Peace Societies
1818.7 Cotton-spinners went on strike in Lancashire. Tories
1818.7 Shelley wrote the essay “On Love.”
1818.7 Scott published The Heart of Midlothian.
1818.8 Steamship line connected Buffalo to Detroit. Monroe
1818.8.25 Bank of Canada began with £200,000.
1818.9 Egyptians captured al-Diriya. Arabia
1818.10 France paid off its war indemnity. Louis XVIII
1818.10.19 Chickasaws sold a third of Tennessee. Jackson
1818.11 Allies removed their troops from France. Louis XVIII Russia
1818.11.28 Adams sent Spain a Florida ultimatum.
1818.12.3 Illinois became 21st US state. Monroe
1818.12 Abolition committee formed in Philadelphia. Missouri
1818.12 Missouri territory had 10,000 slaves.
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818.12.21 Gourlay & Niagara Spectator editor arrested. Canada
1818-19 Duke of Richmond governed Lower Canada.
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-21 Smallpox epidemic devastated Canada natives.
1818-28 Shaka ruled the Zulus autocratically.
1818-28 Maitland governed Upper Canada.
1818-31 Rammohun Roy led campaign to abolish sati.
1818-38 Frederick Douglass was a slave.
1818-39 Dost Muhammad ruled Afghanistan. British Expansion
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.1 New road connected Nashville to New Orleans. Jackson
1819.1.20 Clay accused Jackson of acting without orders.
1819.1.30 US Congress ratified US-British Convention. Jackson
1819.2.2 Dartmouth decision protected corporations. 1818-19
1819.2.6 Illinois passed the Apprentice Labor Act. 1818-19
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2 US Senate censured General Jackson.
1819.2 Frances Wright’s Altorf played in New York.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.2.22 Spain ceded Florida to the US. Florida Slavery
1819.2.27 Cherokee chiefs confirmed 1817 treaty.
1819.3.3 US Congress passed Civilization Act. Choctaws
1819.3.6 US Supreme Court McCulloch v. Maryland1818-19
1819.3 Roger Taney defended anti-slavery Gruber. Monroe
1819.3 Speranskii began governing Siberia. Russia
1819.3.19 US Congress tried to control slave smuggling. 1818-19
1819.3.23 Conservative writer Kotzebue was murdered. Prussia Austria
1819.3-8 Monroe & Calhoun toured the South & West. 1818-19
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Last Maratha fortress at Asirgarh surrendered.
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5.15 Rhine Confederation abolished guilds. German
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.5 Channing preached value of Unitarianism. 1818-19
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6 First steamboat crossed the Atlantic Ocean. 1818-19
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 US Congress funded returning slaves to Liberia.
1819 England financed families coming to the Cape. British
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa to attack a town. South Africa
1819 Zulus defeated the Ndwandwe.
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa attack on Grahamstown. South Africa
1819 England financed poor families coming to Cape. South Africa
1819 Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir. British Expansion
1819 Calcutta Female Juvenile Society was founded. Reconstruction
1819 Raffles made Singapore a British port. Malaya
1819 Chao-Anou put down revolt in Champassak. Laos
1819 Australian Magazine began publishing. Australia
1819 Missionaries arrived in Hawaii.
1819 Morrison translated Bible into Chinese. Daoguang Era
1819 Tahiti adopted puritanical laws.
1819 Géricault painted The Raft of the MedusaLouis XVIII
1819 Trade union newspaper Gorgon began.  Tories
1819 Shelley wrote the essay “On Life.”
1819 Shelley wrotePrometheus Unbound.
1819 Görres published “Germany and the Revolution.”
1819 Russia put 50,000 troops in the Caucasus.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. New Mexico
1819   85 banks in the US folded. Banking Crisis
1819 Underwood sold canned food in Boston. 1818-19
1819 US War & Treasury departments were corrupt. Banking Crisis
1819 US gave American Colonization So. $100,000. 1818-19
1819 US Congress funded Anti-Slave Trade Act.Abolitionists
1819 Willard wrote A Plan for Improving Female Ed.  Women
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.8 Russia suppressed the mutiny at Chuguyev.
1819.8.16 Shelley wrote The Mask of Anarchy.
1819.8.21 Upper Canada expelled Robert Gourlay.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.
1819.9.20 German Federation issued Karlsbad Decrees. Austria
1819.12.7 Monroe discussed Depression in his address.
1819.12.14 Alabama became the 22nd US state. 1818-19 Slavery
1819.12 Scott published Ivanhoe.
1819.12 Niles’ Register printed Rufus King’s speeches.Abolitionists
1819-20 Washington Irving serialized his Sketch Book.
1819-24 Byron published his poem Don Juan.
1819-37 Al-Kanemi governed Bornu with Arab advisors. Bornu and Hausaland
1819-41 Minh Mang ruled Vietnam.
1820.1.1 Lt. Col. Riego proclaimed the 1812 Constitution. Fernando VII
1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.1 First free blacks emigrated to Liberia. 1818-19
1820.1 Emerson began his journal “The Wide World.”
1820.1.29 George III died & was succeeded by George IV. Tories
1820.2.4 San Martín’s revolutionary army took Valdivia.
1820.2.13 Louvel assassinated the Duke of Berry. Louis XVIII
1820.3.6 Monroe signed first Missouri Compromise.
1820.3.9 Fernando VII took an oath to the Constitution.
1820.3.9 US Land Act lowered price to $1.25 an acre. Missouri
1820.5.15 US Congress approved death for slave traders. Missouri
1820.5.1 Cato Street Conspirators were punished. Tories
1820.6.8 German Confederation accepted the Final Act. Austria
1820.6 Russia made censorship stricter.
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820.6.29 US ship Dallas captured Spanish AntelopeSlavery
1820 Egypt ordered foreign merchants to pay debts.
1820 Isma'il captured 20,000 slaves from Sudan. Egypt
1820 Bishop’s College was founded at Calcutta. British Expansion
1820 Maori chief Hongi visited London, got muskets.
1820 Revolutionary Iturbide seized Manila goods. Philippines
1820 Malthus wrote Principles of Political Economy.
1820 Owen proposed collective farming.
1820 Shelley published his tragedy The Cenci.
1820 Shelley wrote A Philosophical View of Reform.
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820 US census counted 1,538,038 slavesMissouri
1820 Arkansas Territory offered land to Cherokees. 1819-21
1820 United States had 525 Freemason lodges. Adams
1820 Robert Baldwin led reform in Upper Canada.
1820 Cotton was 42% of US exports. Slavery
1820 US census counted 233,634 free Negroes. Slavery
1820 Maine Constitution enfranchised all citizens. Slavery
1820 Boston segregated black students. Slavery
1820 Liberal Congregationals formed a conference. Unitarians
1820 Joseph Smith saw a pillar of light.
1820.7.2 Minichini led a Carbonari march on Naples. Italy
1820.7.9 Spain’s newly elected Cortes opened. Fernando VII
1820.7.15 Palermo riots upset Neapolitan liberals. Italy
1820.9.15 Lisbon junta declared a provisional government. Portugal
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Semyonovsky Regiment mutinied in Petersburg. Russia
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.18 Choctaws traded 6 million acres to US.
1820.10.20 Five powers met at Troppau over revolt. Italy Russia
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.15 Metternich wrote his profession of political faith.
1820.12 Shelley met Mavrokoulos in Pisa.
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.22 Webster’s oration urged end of slavery. 1819-21
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1820-27 Thomas Munro governed Madras. British Expansion
1820-28 9th Earl of Dalhousie governed Canada.
1820-39 Taliafero was US Indian Agent to Sioux et alSioux
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1.12 Milan & Turin crushed student protests. Italy
1821.1 Scott published Kenilworth.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.24 Elected deputies met at Lisbon. Portugal
1821.1.26 Laibach Congress let Austria attack Naples. Metternich Italy
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.1-5 Concert of Nations met at Laibach. Russia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.8 Fernando VII dissolved his Royal Guards.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.2.27 French bishops began supervising schools. Louis XVIII
1821.2-3 Shelley wrote “A Defence of Poetry.”
1821.3.7 Neapolitans fought Austrians at Rieti. Italy
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3.9 Portugal promulgated a constitution.
1821.3.10 Military revolted at Torino in Piedmont. Austria
1821.3.10 Alessandria garrison mutinied. Italy
1821.3.11 1,200 people seized Turin’s citadel. Italy
1821.3 Mavromichalis began freedom fight at Kalamata. Greek
1821.3 Troy Council funded a female academy. Women
1821.3 Channing’s lecture impressed Emerson.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.3.23 Mavrogordatos issued a Manifesto on tyranny. Greek
1821.3.26 NW Co. merged with Hudson’s Bay Co. Canada
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.15 Monroe appointed Jackson governor of Florida. 1819-21
1821.4 Greeks gained most of the Morea.
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.25 Charles Felix was crowned King of Sardinia. Italy
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5.12 Laibach Congress ended, approved intervention. Austria
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.25 Franz II made Metternich chancellor.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821 Azim Khan became ruler of Afghanistan. British Expansion
1821 Indians published their first newspaper. Social Reform
1821 Siamese army invaded Kedah. Malaya
1821 James Mill wrote Elements of Political Economy.
1821 Byron published his play Cain.
1821 Collected Works of Pestalozzi were published. Swiss
1821 Hegel published his Philosophy of Right.
1821 Kleist’s The Prince of Homburg premiered.
1821 Goethe published Wilhelm Meister’s Travels.
1821 Norway abolished hereditary nobility.
1821 Łukasiński began the secret Patriotic Society. Poland
1821 Pestel began working on Russkaya PravdaRussia
1821 Turks doubled taxes on Christian peasants. Greek
1821 Laws of the Cherokee Nation was published.
1821 Royal Charter established McGill University. Canada
1821 US produced 29% of world cotton. Slavery
1821 African Co. performed plays in New York.Slavery
1821 Wright wrote Society & Manners in America.
1821 Lucretia Mott became a Quaker minister.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7 Jackson began governing Florida Territory. Monroe
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.10 US admitted Missouri as a slave state.
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.4 Russia extended territory south to 51°.  1819-21
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexico
1821.10 Shelley wrote Hellas for Greek freedom.
1821.10 Niles’ Weekly Register urged wider suffrage.Monroe
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.24 Carboneri rose up at Saumur. Louis XVIII
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil
1821.12 Greek National Congress met at Epidauros.
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12 James Fenimore Cooper published The Spy.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821-27 Greeks rebelled against Ottoman Empire.
1821-27 Austrian troops occupied Sicily. Italy
1821-35 Cao Zhenyong headed Qing government. Daoguang Era
1821-38 Dutch won the Padri War on Sumatra. Netherlands East Indies
1821-39 Lundy published Universal Emancipation.
1821-50 Daoguang Era ruled the Qing empire.
1821-59 Toghtakhu Toro improved Mongolia. Daoguang Era
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2 Lydia Francis joined a Swedenborgian Society.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.2.28 Fernando VII appointed moderate liberals.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexico
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.4.25 Mahmud II promised to leave Danube region. Austria
1822.5 Washington Irving published Bracebridge Hall.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexico rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.5-6 Vesey planned a slave revolt in Charleston. 
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed.  1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.17 United States recognized Colombia. Monroe
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Tlokwa defeated the Mfengu. Zulus
1822 Rammohun Roy began editing a Persian weekly.
1822 British government reduced pensions. Tories
1822 Cobbett published Cottage EconomyTories
1822 Russia’s deficit was 351,244,048 rubles.
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822 William Church devised mechanical typesetter. 1822-23
1822 Gourlay wrote on Upper Canada statistics.
1822 Lower Canada had 427,465 people.
1822 Rhode Island disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1822 US colony of Liberia was started. Slavery
1822 Frances Wright wrote A Few Days in Athens
1822 Quakers formed Pennsylvania Peace Society.
1822.7.3 King João VI returned to Portugal.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1822.7 Royalists rebelled in Navarre, Aragon & Galicia. Spain
1821.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.12 Foreign Minister Castlereagh committed suicide. Tories
1822.8 Tsar Aleksandr banned secret societies. Russia
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9 Tsar Aleksandr met with Metternich in Vienna.Russia
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.23 Rothschild loaned Metternich 900,000 gulden.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.11 Emerson’s essay was in The Christian Disciple.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822.12.12 US recognized Iturbide’s government. Monroe
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1822-27 Egyptian army invaded Greece.
1822-30 Jehudi Ashmun governed Liberia colony.
1822-32 Maoris fought civil wars.
1822-59 Mawlay 'Abdul-Rahman ruled Morocco.
1822-68 Freemason Łukasiński was imprisoned. Poland
1822-70 Moshweshwe ruled Sotho wisely.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2 Stuttgart Beobachter criticized Verona Congress. Metternich
1823.2 Green v. Biddle affirmed interstate contracts. Monroe
1823.2 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pioneers.
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3 Ranjit Singh’s Sikhs defeated Azim Khan. British Expansion
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress.
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4.7 A large French army invaded Spain.Louis XVIII Fernando VII
1823.4 Byron began working for Greek independence.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5 Scott published Quentin Durward.
1823.5 Catherine Beecher began Hartford Female Seminary.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Lower Egypt rebelled against conscription.
1823 Brotherhood founder al-Darqawi died in Morocco.
1823 Dahomey revolted against the Oyo.
1823 John Adam imposed censorship in Bengal. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Sanskrit College was founded. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Burma seized Manipur.
1823 Novales mutiny in Manila failed. Philippines
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823 US Supreme Court case Johnson v. McIntoshLaws
1823 Upper Canada’s arrears were £100,000.
1823 Mississippi banned black meetings & reading. Slavery
1823 George Flowers helped shipped blacks to Haiti. Wright
1823 William Ladd wrote essays on peace and war.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7  Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.6-7 Letters of Wyoming supported Jackson. Elections
1823.7.17 Adams warned Russia about Oregon. 1822-23
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. British Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.8.22 Pope Leo XII was elected & dismissed Consalvi. Italy
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.9 Seminoles made a treaty with the US.
1823.9.21 Joseph Smith saw lighted Moroni.
1823.9.23 João VI took the oath to the Constitution. Portugal
1823.9.30 French restored Fernando VII in Spain.
1823.10 Charlton Fisher began editing Quebec GazetteCanada
1823.11.7 Royalist Spain hanged Riego for treason. Fernando VII
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11 British recaptured Shahpuri from Burma.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823.12.2 Monroe announced Latin American policy.
1823.12.8 Webster urged helping the Greek revolution. Monroe
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26 Barakzai brothers fought over Afghanistan. British Expansion
1823-26  General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-33 Fernando VII ruled Spain repressively.
1823-34 Turki ruled the Saudi kingdom. Arabia
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.1.5 Byron arrived to help liberated Greeks.
1824.1.14 Speaker Clay explained his American System. Elections
1824.1 British defeated Burmese force from Assam.
1824.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pilot.
1824.2.10 US Congress gave surveys & canals $30,000. 1824
1824.2.14   64 Congressmen nominated Crawford. Elections
1824.2 Spain agreed to French occupation in a treaty. Louis XVIII
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. 
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3.2 Gibbons v. Ogden on interstate commerce. 1824
1824.3.11 War Dept. began the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1824
1824.3.13 US-Britain convention suppressed slave trade. 1824
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.17 Netherlands and Britain made a trade treaty. Willem
1824.3.22 Whites were executed for killing an Indian. 1824
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.1-2 Webster gave a speech on free trade. 1824
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.4 Bishops began certifying primary teachers. Louis XVIII
1824.4 Calhoun agreed to be Jackson’s running mate.Elections
1824.4.17 Russia made a treaty with the United States.
1824.4.17 US & Russia agreed on 54° 40’ border. 1824
1824.4.18 Byron died on Easter Sunday.
1824.5 General Campbell occupied Rangoon. British Expansion
1824.5 O’Connell founded the Catholic Association. Ireland
1824.5.17 Hobhouse & Murray burned Byron’s Memoirs.
1824.5.22 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.24 Monroe signed bill for harbors and dams. 1824
1824.5.25 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.25 American Sunday School Union began. 1824
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize BrazilMonroe
1824 Rebellion in Upper Egypt was quelled.
1824 Asante army killed 178 British.
1824 Colonial Council founded Liberia.
1824 British W. F. Owen intervened at Mombasa. East Africa
1824 Dutch ceded their part of Bengal to England. British Expansion
1824 Dutch-British treaty divided SE Asia archipelago. Malaya
1824 Wentworth began the Australian newspaper. Australia
1824 Delacroix painted the Massacre of Chios.  Louis XVIII
1824 Bentham started the Westminster Review. Tories
1824 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Society began. Tories
1824 London Co-operative Society was founded. Thompson
1824 Thompson wrote on distribution of wealth.
1824 Coleridge published his Aids to Reflection.
1824 London loaned Greeks £3 million.
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 202 women weavers went on strike. 1824
1824 Lafayette visited the United States. 1824
1824 Merino sheep were brought to New England. 1824
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824  Canada Co. bought land in Upper Canada
1824 Upper Canada counted 150,066 people.
1824 New York supported African Free Schools.Slavery
1824 Lundy began Haitian Emigration Society.
1824 Worcester started public schools. Women
1824 Dorothea Dix wrote Conversations on Common Things.
1824.7.6 Mexico made New Mexico a territory.
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7 Lydia Francis published her novel Hobomok.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.4 US recognized Federation of Central America. Monroe
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.10 Workingman’s Gazette was founded.1824
1824.10 A mob ravaged black homes in Providence. Slavery
1824.11 Moise reformed Beth Elohim Congregation. 1824
1824.11 Jackson won popular vote for President. Elections
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.7 Monroe gave his last annual address. Florida Cherokees
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12 Lydia Francis wrote Evenings in New England.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.
1824-26 British invaded Burma, made treaty.
1824-31 Barnes governed Ceylon.
1824-35 Husain II Bey ruled Tunisia.
1824-36 George Arthur governed Van Diemen’s Land. Australia
1824-51 Nangklao (Rama III) ruled Siam.
1825.1.3 Britain recognized American republics. Tories
1825.1.3 Robert Owen bought 20,000 acres by Wabash. 1824
1825.1 British occupied the Arakan capital.
1825.1.22 President Monroe signed the Choctaw treaty.
1825.1.25 Monroe advised Indian resettlement. Cherokees
1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.9 Clay helped House elect Adams President. Elections
1825.2.12 Creeks sold 4,700,000 acres to the US.
1825.2 Egyptian armada landed in Messina. Greek
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.2-3 Robert Owen spoke to the US Congress twice. New Harmony
1825.3.3 Monroe approved $450,000 for roads & canals. 1824
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.5.23 Egyptian army defeated Greeks at Old Navarino.
1825.6.2 Osage tribe ceded more land. Cherokees
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies.  1825-27
1825 'Umar Saidu went on pilgrimage to Mecca. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1825 Ngwane defeated Hlubi, killing Mpangazita. Southern Africans
1825 Matiwane’s Ngwane defeated Hlubi. Zulus
1825 Vientiane’s Chao-Anou attacked Bangkok. Laos
1825 Aizawa Yashushi wrote New Proposals. Japan
1825 Japan’s exclusion order threatened death.
1825 Nanboku's Ghost Story at Yotsuya played. Japan
1825 Hawaii decreed laws against vices.
1825 Frayssinous published his Defense of ChristianityCharles X
1825 Saint-Simon published New Christianity.
1825 Thompson wrote An Appeal for Women
1825 Hodgkin published Labour DefendedThompson
1825 Sweden’s Royal Institute of Technology began.
1825.11 Széchenyi contributed for Magyar language. Hungary
1825.12 British captured Bharatpur, killing 8,000.
1825.12 Tsar Aleksandr died, succeeded by Nikolay. Russia
1825.12 Pestel was arrested and hanged in 1826.7. Russia
1825-30 200,000 died in Javanese rebellion. Netherlands East Indies
1825-30 King Francesco ruled the Two Sicilies. Italy
1825-31 Ralph Darling governed New South Wales. Australia
1825-34 Mzilikazi's Ndebele ravaged the Transvaal. Zulus
1825-54 Kamehameha III ruled Hawaii.
1825-65 British navy captured 1,287 slave ships. Sierra Leone
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Last of the Mohicans.
1826.1.24 Creeks traded land to the US.
1826.2.5 New Harmony Community of Equality began.
1826.2.13 American Temperance Society began. 1825-27 Beecher
1826.3.10 Portugal’s King João VI died.
1826.3 Nikolay demanded Turkish troops leave Romania. Russia
1826.3 Wright founded Nashoba commune.
1826.4.8 John Randolph & Henry Clay fought a duel. 1825-27
1826.4 Captain Grant took over Banjul Island. Gambia
1826.4.22 Thousands of Greeks were killed at Missolonghi.
1826.4.26 United States made a treaty with Denmark. 1825-27
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Monroe 1825-27
1826.5 Russian troops occupied Mirak in Armenia.
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.8 Tories destroyed Mackenzie’s printshop.
1826.6.8 Garrison printed Whittier’s “Exile’s Departure.”
1826.6 Ottoman sultan Mahmud II abolished Janissaries.
1826.6 Mahmud II had Janissaries exterminated. Russia
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 Asante army invaded Fante.
1826 Zulu army of 40,000 destroyed the Ndwandwe.
1826 Dost Muhammad seized Kabul, Ghazni, Jalalabad. British Expansion
1826 British paid Persia to annul 1814 treaty. British Expansion
1826 British annexed western Assam. Bentinck's Reforms
1826 British combined Malayan Straits Settlements.
1826 Siam made trade treaty with the British.
1826 China's trade balance turned negative. Daoguang Era
1826 Fernando VII returned parishes to friars. Philippines
1826 Fröbel published The Education of Man.
1826 Angeloni published Of Force in Political MattersItaly
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826 Livingston completed penal code for Louisiana. 1825-27
1826 Anne Royall published Sketches of History. 1825-27
1826 Cherokees had 18 mission schools.
1826 A mob drove blacks out of Cincinnati. Slavery
1826 Slaves revolted on the Decatur. Abolitionists
1826 Zephaniah Kingsley published his Treatise. Abolitionists
1826.7.4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died. 1825-27
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.5 Ojibwe signed Fond du Lac treaty. Black Hawk
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1826.9 Lydia Francis began Juvenile Miscellany.
1826.10.7 Akkerman Convention gave Serbs autonomy. Russia
1826-27 Lead mining led to conflict with Winnebagos. 1825-27
1826-28 Jahangir led coalition invasion of Altishahr. Daoguang Era
1826-30 Co-operative Magazine promoted Owenism.
1826-34 Rideau Canal to Ottawa River cost £800,000. Canada
1826-40 Cheyenne, Kiowas & Comanches fought.
1826-44 Levi Coffin helped 3,000 slaves escape. Abolitionists
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.1 Quakers began the Free Produce Society. Abolitionists
1827.1 Emerson wrote the word “Transcendentalism.”
1827.1.27 Slave-trader Woolfolk beat Lundy.
1827.1.31 Mexican army ended Fredonia republic. 1825-27
1827.2.2 Martin v. Mott allowed mobilizing state militias. 1825-27
1827.3 Owen’s socialist New Harmony broke up. Elections
1827.3 Blacks began printing Freedom’s Journal. 1825-27 Abolitionists
1827.4.11 Greek Assembly elected Kapodistrias president.
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.5.24 Turks captured the Acropolis in Athens. Greek
1827.6 Egyptian army captured Athens.
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827.6.22 France restored censorship. Charles X
1827 Europeans destroyed Tunisian, Algerian fleets.
1827 Shaka demanded Zulus mourn his mother.
1827 Elphinstone revised Bombay judicial system. British Expansion
1827 Japan banned prostitution, alcohol, gambling.
1827 Li Ruzhen completed Flowers in the Mirror.
1827 Ampère wrote on electromagnetism experiments. Charles X
1827 Thompson published Labor Rewarded.
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827 Strachan founded King’s College in Toronto. Canada
1827 Florida limited voting to whites. Slavery
1827 Jefferson’s heirs sold 130 of his slaves. Abolitionists
1827 US had 140 anti-slavery societies. Abolitionists
1827 Lundy published Wright’s Nashoba Book.
1827 Sedgwick published her novel Hope Leslie. Lydia Maria Child
1827 Owen’s New Harmony community ended.
1827 James Fenimore Cooper published The Prairie.
1827.7.4 New York freed its 10,000 slaves. Abolitionists
1827.7.6 Britain, France & Russia made London treaty. Charles X
1827.7 Joanna Bethune began a school for infants. Women
1827.7.26 Cherokees declared independence.
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.9.9 Jim Bowie killed Major Wright with his knife. 1825-27
1827.9.22 Joseph Smith removed the golden plates.
1827.10.7 Masonry critic Morgan’s corpse was identified. 1825-27
1827.10 Europeans destroyed Egyptian-Turkish navy.
1827.10 Russian troops invaded Persia.
1827.10 Mechanics’ Union of Trade Associations began. 1825-27
1827.10.20 Allies defeated Turks at Navarino. Charles X Russia Greek
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.11.13 US & Britain signed a trade agreement. 1825-27
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12 Jacksonian Democrats controlled US Congress. 1825-27
1827.12.20 Mahmud II proclaimed Jihad against Russia. Greek
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-28 Green’s daily Telegraph promoted Jackson. 1828
1827-29 Russians and Turks fought a war. Ottoman Reforms
1827-29 Siam punished Laos for Chao Anu’s invasion.
1827-29 Petitions demanded end to slavery in DC. Abolitionists
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.2 Persia ceded territory in Armenia to Russia.
1828.2 Washington Irving published his Columbus biography.
1828.4 Noah Webster published American Dictionary. 1828
1828.4.26 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.5.19 US Congress passed a 40% tariff. 1828
1828.6.13 Hammond’s Gazette exposed Jackson. 1828
1828.6 Filadelfi demanded a constitution at Cilento. Italy
1828.6 Nikolay led Russia forces across the Danube.
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Persia lost fertile land to Russia.
1828 Cape Ordinance 50 guaranteed equal rights. South Africa
1828 Siam conquered Vientiane. Laos
1828 Dutch moved into western New Guinea. Melanesia
1828 France had 163 houses of prostitution. Charles X
1828 Buonarroti wrote History of Babeuf’s EqualsItaly
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828 Louisiana’s Black Code was repealed. 1828
1828 Sarah Hale began Ladies Magazine in Boston. 1828
1828 Beecher began publishing Spirit of the Pilgrims. 1828
1828 “Coffin Handbill” exposed Jackson’s crimes. 1828
1828 Weed, Anti-Masonic Enquirer opposed Jackson. 1828
1828 Argus of Western America supported Jackson. 1828
1828 Jackson’s Creek orphan Lyncoya died.
1828 Franklin & Armfield formed a partnership. Slavery
1828 Women in Dover went on strike.
1828 Zilpah Grant began Ipswich Female Academy. Women
1828 Workingmen’s Party began in New York. Wright
1828 Dix published Meditations for Private Hours.
1828 Lydia Child wrote Moral Lessons in Verse.
1828 Lydia Child wrote First Settlers of New-England.
1828 Grimké sisters moved from South Carolina to Pennsylvania.
1828 William Ladd led the American Peace Society.
1828.7.11 Miguel was crowned King of Portugal.
1828.7.14 Umpquas attacked Smith’s Oregon expedition. 1828
1828.7 Heighton began Mechanics’ Free Press. 1828
1828.7 Wright spoke on the Christian party in politics.
1828.8.2 Jackson’s slave trading was revealed. Elections
1828.8.20 Rammohun Roy founded Brahmo Sabha.
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9.24 Shaka was killed by his half-brothers. Zulus
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10 Lydia Francis married David Child.
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.11.7 New York elected Van Buren Governor. Elections
1829.11.12 Lydia Child published The Frugal Housewife.
1828.11 56% of votes elected Jackson US President. Elections
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1828.12.19 South Carolina voted right to nullify US laws. 1828
1828.12.20 Georgia decreed jurisdiction over Indians. Cherokees
1828.12.26 600 girls in a Dover mill went on strike. 1828
1828-29 Goethe published Faust Part 2.
1828-30 Courier editor Louis de Potter was in prison. Willem
1828-32 Boudinot edited Cherokee Phoenix.
1828-35 Bentinck governed British India.
1828-35 John Colborne governed Upper Canada.
1828-40 Dingane ruled the Zulus.
1828-61 Ranavalona I ruled Madagascar.
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.1 Emerson became a Unitarian minister.
1829.1.18 Walker’s Appeal urged slaves to revolt. 1828
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.11 Persians stormed Russia embassy in Tehran.
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.3.4 Jackson was inaugurated US President.
1829.3 Working Men’s Party protested bank charters. Jackson
1829.3.22 Van Buren became US Secretary of State. Jackson
1829.3.23 Jackson wrote a letter to the Creeks.
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829.4.13 Britain passed the Catholic Emancipation Act. Ireland Tories
1829.4 Gov. Houston resigned to live with Cherokees. 1829
1829.4.26 Wright opened the Hall of Science.
1829.5.8 Greeks regained Missolonghi.
1829.5-12 Evarts wrote essays against Indian removal.
1829.6.11 Joseph Smith copyrighted The Book of Mormon.
1829 British gave Kat River Valley to Khoikhoi.
1829 Bentinck made helping sati a crime. Social Reform
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829 Kendall discovered fraud in the Treasury Dept. Jackson
1829 Skidmore wrote The Rights of Man to Property. 1829
1829 Welland Canal connected lakes Ontario & Erie. Canada
1829 1,200 blacks left Cincinnati to go to Canada. Slavery
1829 George M. Horton published Hope of Liberty. Abolitionists
1829 Robert Young published Ethiopian Manifesto. Abolitionists
1829 Willard wrote History of the United States. Women
1829 Catherine Beecher wrote Improvements in Education.
1829 Wright published Course of Popular Lectures.
1829 Wright & Owen co-edited The Free Enquirer.
1829 Channing published a book on Fénelon.
1829 Cooper wrote The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish.
1829.7 Gold was discovered in Georgia. Cherokees
1829.7.22 McKenney set up Indian Board for Emigration. Cherokee
1829.8.8 Allen tested a steam locomotive. 1829
1829.8 Adrianople surrendered to the Russians.
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8 Garrison began working with Lundy.
1829.8.23 Jackson spoke to 21 Chickasaw chiefs.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President.
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.14 Turks’ treaty gave Greeks & Serbs autonomy.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Russians and Turks made peace.
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.9 Walker published Appeal to Coloured Citizens.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.11.17 Polignac became chief minister in France. Charles X
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. 1829
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12.8 Jackson’s address was on Indian tribes. Cherokees Chickasaws
1829.12.8 Jackson proposed ending the Electoral College.
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12 Metamora play was on King Philip’s War. Cherokees
1829.12 Petitions against Indian removal began.
1829-12.19 Georgia passed laws against Cherokees.
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.
1829-30 Washington Irving worked in the London embassy.
1829-31 Sayyid Ahmad of Bareilly led a revolt. Bentinck's Reforms
1829-34 Presbyterian Finney led revivals in New York. New Harmony
1829-38 NY Port Collector Swartwout stole $1,222,705. Depression
1829-43 Orientalist Hodgson was resident in Nepal.
1829-62 Robinson was Upper Canada’s Chief Justice.
1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1 Paris students formed a republican society. France
1830.1 National newspaper began in France. France
1830.1 Whites drove blacks out of Portsmouth, Ohio. Slavery
1830.1.19 Mississippi took jurisdiction over Indians. Choctaws
1830.1.19 SC Senator Haynes asserted state rights. 1830-31
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.1.26 Senator Webster defended the US Constitution. 1830-31
1830.2.3 Britain, France & Russia pledged to Greeks.
1830.2 Garrison refused to pay a fine for libel.
1830.2 David Child got 6 months for libel.
1830.3.2 Charles X claimed sacred rights. France
1830.3.26 Joseph Smith published The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.6-8 Frelinghuysen spoke against Indian removal.
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4 Brigham Young read The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5 President Jackson vetoed 4 bills.
1830.5.17 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.5.19 Horace Everett spoke against Indian removal.
1830.5.28 President Jackson signed Indian Removal Act.
1830.5.29 Jacksonians’ Preemption Act helped settlers
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830.6.14 French armed forces invaded Algeria. France
1830.6.26 George IV died & was succeeded by William IV. Tories
1830 Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the PeopleFrance
1830 Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the PeopleFrance
1830 France had 329 secondary schools. Charles X
1830 France had 31,657,429 people.
1830 France’s national debt was 322,752,569 francs.
1830 British iron production reached 700,000 tons. Tories
1830 Thompson wrote on cooperative communities.
1830 Hungarian Academy of Sciences began.
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830 Jedidah Smith led first wagon train in the West. 1830-31
1830 Astor sold Pacific Fur Company for $58,000. 1830-31
1830 Grayson published Vice Unmasked. 1830-31
1830 United States had 330 state banks. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 12,866,020 people. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 2,009,043 slaves.
1830 US slaves were valued at $577 million.
1830 North Carolina v. Mann empowered masters. Slavery
1830 Baltimore jail began separating the sexes. Slavery
1830 United States had 319,000 free blacks. Slavery
1830 MD, VA, NY, PA, NC, NJ had most free blacks. Slavery
1830 US colony Liberia had 1,420 blacks. Slavery
1830 Pennington helped start a Temperance Society. Abolitionists
1830 Garrison was fined for refusing to be in militia.
1830 First National Negro Convention met. Garrison
1830 Wright with 34 slaves went to Haiti.
1830 Greece became independent. Ottoman Reforms
1830 French led by Bourmont invaded Algeria.
1830 British annexed Cachar. Bentinck's Reforms
1830 Van den Bosch began cultivation system in Java. Netherlands East Indies
1830 John Williams began converting Samoans.
1830.7.5 Algiers capitulated to the French. France
1830.7.15 Sauk Chief Keokuk agreed to a treaty. Black Hawk
1830.7.24 Cherokee Phoenix published Evarts' protest.
1830.7.25 Charles X repressed Deputies & rights. France
1830.7.26 Parisians protested French government. France
1830.7.27 French revolt began in Paris. France
1830.7.28 Parisians put up 600 barricades in revolution. France
1830.7.29 French deputies set up a provisional government. France
1830.7.30 Charles X left Paris. France
1830.8.1 French made Louis-Phillipe commander. France
1830.8.2 Charles X abdicated. France
1830.8.7 French deputies elected Louis-Phillipe king. France
1830.8 Revolts broke out in Germany.
1830.8 Jackson fired McKenney over Indian rights. Choctaws
1830.8 Taliafero banned selling alcohol to Indians. Sioux
1830.9.27 Choctaws signed a removal treaty.
1830.12.7 Blair began publishing the Globe. 1830-31
1830.12 Washington Irving published Companions of Columbus.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-31 Revolts broke out in Vizagapatam.
1830-32 Whittier edited New England Weekly Review.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1830-40 600,000 immigrants entered the US. 1840
1830-53 Mutara II ruled Rwanda, used war. Africa’s Lakes Region

Copyright © 2015-18 2020 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865

ETHICS OF CIVILIZATION Contents

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