BECK index

Chronology of Europe


Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
World Chronology 1715-88

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During this era most nations used the New Style (NS) Gregorian calendar; but the British, Sweden, and the Eastern Orthodox nations still used the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar, and their dates are ten days behind the Gregorian calendar through 1699. Protestant states in Germany and Denmark also used the Old Style until February 1700 when they adopted the New Style by cancelling February 19-29. On March 1, 1700 (NS) the difference between the two systems became eleven days. British dates in this book also use the year beginning on January 1 rather than in March. Britain adopted the New Style (NS) Gregorian calendar on September 14, 1752, and Sweden did so on March 1, 1753. Russia had its own calendar but started using the Julian calendar (OS) on January 1, 1700. Some dates may seem out of order because of differences between OS and NS.

1588.1 England commissioned three fleets. Elizabeth
1588.5.13 Henri III secretly left Paris.
1588.5.14 Parisians liberated the Bastille. Henri III
1588 Johann Fischart republished Witches’ Hammer. Germany
1588 Sheep ranchers killed 700 Moriscos in Codo. Felipe II
1588 Lyly’s comedy Endymion was performed. Theater
1588 George Peele’s David and Bethsabe played.
1588.7 Spanish armada fought English ships. Elizabeth
1588.7-9 20,000 Spaniards perished in sea war. Elizabeth
1588.9.8 Henri III replaced his ministers.
1588.8-9 Spanish armada was defeated and wrecked. England
1588.10 300 Spanish castaways were hanged in Galway. Ireland
1588.12.23 Henri III’s bodyguards murdered Cardinal Henri de Guise. France
1588-92 32,000 English went to Portugal and France.
1588-94 William FitzWilliam governed Ireland. Irish
1588-1601 Gyldenstjerne governed Norway.
1588-1648 Kristian IV ruled Denmark and Norway. Imperial
1589.1.5 Catherine de Medici died. Henri III
1589.1.16 Parlement ruled for imprisoned Charles X. Henri III
1589.2.12 Duke de Mayenne’s army took over Paris. Henri III
1589.2-3 English Parliament authorized £320,000. England
1589.4.26 Henri III allied with Henri of Navarre.
1589.8.1 Dominican friar Clément assassinated Henri III.
1589 Parma’s Spaniards occupied Cologne fortress. German Empire
1589 Venice recognized Protestant Henri IV.
1589 Rome suffered from a famine. Clement VIII
1589 Lorenzo Scupoli published The Spiritual Combat. Naples
1589.8.1 Friar Jacques Clément assassinated Henri III. Henri IV
1589.8.4 Catholic captains recognized Henri IV as King.
1589.8 Catholic League issued coins for King Charles IX. Henri IV
1589.9.21 Henri IV’s forces defeated Duke of Mayenne’s.
1589.11.1 Henri IV’s forces fought militia in Paris.
1589.11.3 Scotland’s James VI married Anne of Denmark.
1589-95 Peasants fought against French royalists.  Henri IV
1589-1605 Metropolitan Iov was first patriarch of Russia.
1590.3.14 Henri IV defeated Catholic army at Ivry. Swiss Felipe II
1590.4.6 Spymaster Francis Walsingham died. England
1590.5.9 Charles IX died in prison at Fontenay. Henri IV
1590.5-9 Henri IV’s army besieged Paris.
1590 Gaspar Karolyi published the Bible in Hungarian.
1590 Castile Cortes granted 8,000,000 ducats. Felipe II
1590 Bishop Rose wrote De justa reipublicae.  Henri IV
1590 Shakespeare’s Henry VI Parts 1 and 2 played.
1590 Greene’s Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay played.
1590 George Peele’s Edward I played. 
1590.9.17 Duke of Mayenne claimed the French throne. Henri IV
1590-93 Russians invaded Sweden.
1590-1625 Maurits of Nassau governed Dutch provinces. Netherlands
1591.3.1 Pope Gregory XIV excommunicated Henri IV.
1591.4.1 Parlement of Paris expelled 15 politiquesHenri IV
1591.5.24 Aragonese saved Antonio Perez & killed Viceroy. Felipe II
1591.6.6 Marshal de Biron conquered Louviers. Henri IV
1591 Bruno published his last book.
1591 Felipe II suppressed rebellion in Zaragoza.
1591 Riots occurred in Avila, Madrid, Toledo & Seville. Felipe II
1591 Patrizi wrote his New Philosophy of the Universe. Venice
1591  Shakespeare’s Henry VI Part 3 played.
1591.7.4 Henri IV issued letters to Catholics & Huguenots.
1591.8 Spaniards captured the Revenge at Flores. England
1591-92 Henri IV and English besieged Rouen.  England
1591.12.4 Duke of Mayenne had 4 of the Sixteen hanged. Henri IV
1591-1600 Bern executed 255 people for witchcraft. Swiss
1591-1601 Former Chancellor Krell was in prison in Saxony. German Empire
1592.2 Aragonese defeated revolt led by Huguenots. Felipe II
1592.4.21 Mayenne and a Spanish army entered Rouen. Henri IV
1592.5 Crimean Tatars ravaged Ukraine. Russia
1592.5.31 Zygmunt III married Anna of Austria.
1592 Zygmunt III renewed Jewish privileges.
1592 Trinity College was founded in Dublin. England
1592 Shakespeare’sRichard III played.
1592 Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors played. 
1592 Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta played.
1592.8.8 Aragon Justicia adopted majority rule. Felipe II
1592.8 English captured the Madre de Dios at Flores. England
1592-95 Huntly led Catholic rebellion in Scotland.
1592, 1601 Juan de Mariana published his History of SpainFelipe III
1592-1600 The Inquisition imprisoned Bruno.
1592-1605 Pope Clement VIII ruled Catholics. Felipe II
1592-1610 Calvinist Elector Friedrich IV ruled the Palatine.German
1592-1610 Galileo taught at the University of Padua.
1593.1-4 Estates-General met in Paris. Henri IV
1593.3 Synod made Lutheranism Sweden’s religion.
1593.5.30 Christopher Marlowe was killed at age 29.
1593.6.22 Ottoman army attacked Sisak in Croatia.Hungary
1593 Tasso published his epic Jerusalem Conquered.
1593 Turks invaded Austria and Bohemia.Austria
1593 D’Aubigné’s poem Les Tragiques depicted wars. Henri IV
1593 Queen Elizabeth I translated Boethius. England
1593 Not attending Anglican services was punished. England
1593 Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew played.
1593 Shakespeare’s Titus Andronicus played.
1593 Marlowe’s Edward II played.
1593.7.25 Protestant Henri IV became a Catholic. Florence Henri IV
1593.8.1 Henri IV & Duke of Mayenne agreed to a truce.
1593.12 Felipe II withdrew Castilian army from Aragon.
1593-96 Puritan leader Peter Wentworth died in prison. England
1593-1611 Duke Karl and Council governed Sweden.
1594.2.19 Zygmunt was crowned Sigismund III of Sweden.
1594.2.27 Henri IV was crowned at Chartres.
1594.3.22 Henri IV entered Paris.
1594.3.29 Paris Parlement cancelled laws made since 1588. Henri IV
1594.5.18 Sweden and Russia made a treaty.
1594 Erik Sparre wrote Postulata nobiliumSweden
1594  Hooker published Laws of Ecclesiastical PietyEngland
1594  Shakespeare’s Two Gentlemen of Verona played.
1594  Marlowe’s The Massacre at Paris played. 
1594  Marlowe’s Tragical History of Dr. Faustus played.
1594.8 Irish led by Red Hugh O’Donnell beat English.
1594.11 English warships captured Fort Crozen. England
1594-97 Catholic priest Gerard was in prison in England.
1594-98 Bad harvests raised grain prices in England.
1595.1.17 France’s Henri IV declared war on Spain. Felipe II
1595.5 Transylvania annexed Moldavia & Wallachia. Poland-Lithuania
1595.6 Synod accepted Catholic-Orthodox union. Poland-Lithuania
1595 Celichius wrote a treatise on exorcism. German Empire
1595 Transylvania joined the Christian League.
1595 Russia & Sweden made peace at Tiavzino.
1595 Shakespeare’s Love’s Labour’s Lost played
1595 Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream played.
1595 Shakespeare’sRichard II played.
1595 Shakespeare’sRomeo & Julietplayed.
1595.8.23 Wallachia’s army defeated Turks at Calugareni. Hungary
1595.9.22 A treaty confirmed the neutrality of Burgundy. Henri IV
1595.9.29 Söderköping Riksdag elected Duke Karl regent. Sweden
1595-1619 Archduke Ferdinand II ruled Inner Austria.
1596.1 Drake’s men burned Nombre Dios; Drake died. England
1596.4 Spanish forces captured Calais. Felipe II England
1596.5 Pope Clement VIII added books to the Index.
1596.6-7 Anglo-Dutch fleet sacked and burned Cadiz. Felipe II England
1596 Dutch Republic allied with France and England.
1596 Henri IV bought reconciliation from four dukes.
1596 Shakespeare’sKing John played.
1596 Shakespeare’s Henry IV Part 1 played.
1596 Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice played.
1596-1602 Bubonic plague killed 500,000 in Spain. Felipe II
1596.10 100,000 Turks defeated Habsburgs at Keresztes.Hungary
1596.10 Storm destroyed 20 Spanish ships off Finisterre. Felipe II
1596.11 Felipe II declared his third bankruptcy. Netherlands
1596-97 Finland’s Fleming rebelled; 2,500 peasants died. Sweden
1596-97 Felipe II had Jews expelled from Lombardy.
1596-1621 Albrecht VII ruled Spanish Netherlands.  Felipe II
1596-1622 Habsburgs confiscated Hutterite property. Austria
1597.1.10 Italian bankers loaned Henri IV 1,500,000 livres.
1597.3.11 Spaniards captured Amiens. Henri IV
1597 Catholic Church was restored in Austria.
1597 Jesuit Piotr Skarga published Parliament Sermons. Poland
1597 Boris Godunov required slaves to register.
1597 Spanish armada attack on England failed again. Felipe II
1597 Cervantes was imprisoned for debt.
1597 Henri IV imposed a 5% sales tax in towns.
1597 French Protestants published their complaints. Henri IV
1597 James VI published Daemonologie.
1597 Francis Bacon published his first ten Essays.
1597 Shakespeare’s Merry Wives of Windsor played. 
1597 Shakespeare’s Henry IV Part 2 played.
1597.9 Spaniards surrendered Amiens to Henri IV.
1597.12 Scotland’s Parliament added 51 ministers.
1597-1616 Suarez taught at the University of Coimbra.
1597-1651 Duke Maximilian I ruled Bavaria. German Imperial War
1598.1 Scotland’s James VI went bankrupt.
1598.2.2 Spain returned Calais and conquests to France. Felipe II
1598.2.6 Spain ceded Low Countries to Albrecht & Isabel. Felipe II
1598.3.20 Brittany’s governor resigned for 4,295,000 livres. Henri IV
1598.4.13 Henri IV issued the Edict of Nantes.
1598.4.28 Henri IV loaned the Dutch a million écus.
1598.5.2 French envoys signed peace treaty with Spain. Henri IV
1598.5.8 Pope Clement VIII annexed Ferrara.
1598.5-9 Zygmunt III and Poland’s army invaded Sweden.
1598 Peri & Corsi’s opera Daphne played at Florence.
1598 Haarlem provided relief for the poor. Dutch
1598 France owed Swiss cantons 35,800,000 livres. Henri IV
1598 Irish rebels drove the English out of Munster. England
1598 Scotland outlawed violent feuds.
1598 James VI wrote True Law of Free Monarchies.
1598 Shakespeare’s As You Like It played.
1598 Chapman finished Marlowe’s Hero and Leander.
1598 Ben Jonson’s Every Man in His Humour played.
1598.7.1 Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex quarreled. England
1598.8.4 William Cecil died and was replaced by his son. England
1598.8.14 Irish defeated English at Yellow Ford.
1598.9.13 Felipe II died and left debt of 85,000,000 ducats.
1598.9.22 Ben Jonson killed actor Gabriel Spencer.
1598.11.5 Zygmunt III was defeated & captured at Linkopin.
1598.11 Felipe III imposed trade embargo on the Dutch.
1598-99 Theaters were closed in Madrid. Felipe II Lope de Vega
1598-1605 Boris Godunov was Tsar of Russia.
1598-1608 Joachim III Friedrich ruled Brandenburg. German
1598-1621 Felipe III ruled Spain. Lerma
1598-1630 Klesl was Bishop of Vienna. Austria Austrian Bohemia
1598-1660 350,000 people left Austria, Silesia & Bohemia. Ferdinand II
1599.2.25 Paris Parliament registered the Edict of Nantes. Henri IV
1599.3 Frankfurt raised 16,000 men to fight Spaniards. German Empire
1599.3-9 Earl of Essex led English army in Ireland.  England Irish
1599.4.18 Felipe III married Margaret of Austria. Spain
1599 Felipe III issued copper coins to save money. Spain
1599 Spanish naval expedition to Ireland failed. Spain
1599 Cremonino began Academy of the Recovered. Venice
1599 Burbages built the Globe Theater. Shakespeare
1599 Shakespeare’s Henry V played.
1599 Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing played.
1599 Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar played.
1599 Thomas Heywood’s Edward IV played.
1599 Dekker’s The Shoemaker’s Holiday played.
1599 Dekker’s Old Fortunatus played.
1599.10.5 Austrians took over Transylvania.
1599, 1604 Mateo Aleman published Guzman de Alfarache. Quevedo
1599-1600 Unpaid Spanish soldiers mutinied in Flanders. Spain
1599-1618 Felipe III favored the Duke of Lerma. Spain
1599-1639 Campanella was imprisoned and wrote books.
1600.2.17 Bruno was burned to death for heresy       
1600.6.22 Dutch army invaded Flanders and lost.
1600  Poland-Lithuania had ten million people.
1600 Lope de Vega’s New World Discovered played.
1600 Spain allied with the Swiss Grison League. Milan
1600 Olivier de Serres wrote Theatre of AgricultureHenri IV
1600.7.2 Dutch defeated Spaniards at Nieuwpoort. Felipe III
1600.8  50,000 French troops invaded Savoy. Henri IV
1600.10 Duke Karl invaded Livonia and took Pernau. Sweden
1600.10 Henri IV married Marie de’ Medici.
1600.11.8 English Parliament canceled monopolies. England
1600 Charles Blount governed Ireland. England Irish
1601.1.1 Cortes of Castile granted 18,000,000 ducats. Spain
1601.1.17 France and Savoy agreed on a treaty at Lyon.
1601.2 Rebellion led by the Earl of Essex failed. England
1601.4.3 Habsburg army defeated Zsigmond at Guruslau. Hungary
1601.4 Francis Bacon published account of Essex’s treason. England
1601.6-8 Dutch besieged Rheinberg. Felipe III
1601 Rudolf confiscated Jewish banker Meyzel’s estate.German Empire
1601 Boris Godunov extended Polish truce, purged boyars.
1601 Henri IV appointed two Protestant deputies.
1601 Carew’s English army of 3,000 ravaged Munster. Irish
1601 Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night played.
1601 Shakespeare’s Hamlet played.
1601 Marston-Dekker’s Satiromastix began poets’ war.
1601.8.9 Imperial General Basta had Michael assassinated. Hungary
1601.9-12 3,400 Spaniards at Kinsale aided IrishEngland
1601.10.9 Krell was beheaded at Dresden. German Empire
1601.10 English Parliament authorized £602,000. England
1601-02 Poland’s army drove Swedes out of Livonia.
1601-02 Pancarte poll tax provoked riots in France. Henri IV
1601-03 Frosts caused famine in Russia & Sweden.
1601-04 Spaniards besieged Ostend. Dutch Spain
1601-06 Felipe III held court at Valladolid. 
1602.2 Matthias forced salt miners to work. Austria
1602.3.20 Dutch East India Company began.
1602 Petrus Plancius preached against Lutherans. Dutch
1602 Felipe III put Castilians on Portugal’s councils.
1602 Campanella wrote The City of the Sun.
1602 Robert Cecil estimated wars cost £5,000,000. England
1602 Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida played.
1602.7.31 Duke de Biron was beheaded for treason. Henri IV
1602.9 Spanish soldiers mutinied at Grave. Felipe III
1602.11 Elizabeth I expelled Jesuits and secular priests. England
1603.2.12 Lutherans formed military alliance at Heidelberg. German Empire
1603.3.24 Queen Elizabeth I died without an heir. England
1603.3.30 Tyrone surrendered and was pardoned. England Irish
1603.4.5 James I confirmed English officeholders.
1603.6.25 James I and Anne were crowned in London.
1603 Bacon wrote On the Interpretation of Nature.
1603 Shakespeare’s All’s Well That Ends Well played
1603 Thomas Heywood’s A Woman Killed with Kindness played.
1603 Ben Jonson’s Sejanus His Fall played.
1603.7.23 James I knighted 300 men. Bacon
1603.7.30 English, French, and Dutch allied. Felipe III
1603.8 Godunov let evicted slaves claim emancipation.
1603.9 Henri IV let Jesuits return to France.
1603-04 Plague killed 25,000 in London. England
1603-13 Coke was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. England
1603-19 John Davies justified English subjugation of Irish. Ireland
1603-25 James I ruled Britain.
1604.2.24 Riksdag at Linköping deposed Sigismund III. Sweden
1604.3.19 James I expelled Jesuits and Catholic priests.
1604.5 Henri IV made trade treaty with Sultan Ahmed I.
1604 Denmark’s Council prevented war on Sweden.
1604 Poland’s army defeated Swedes invading Livonia. Sweden
1604 Norway received a new law code.
1604 Lope de Vega’s Capulets and Montagues played.
1604 Henri IV formed the East Indies company.
1604 James I wrote Counterblast against Tobacco.
1604 Anglican Church issued new canons. James I
1604 Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure played. 
1604 Shakespeare’Othelloplayed.
1604 George Chapman’s comedy All Fools played.
1604 Dekker’s The Honest Whore Part 1 played. 1604 Marston’s The Malcontent played.
1604.8 Treaty ended Anglo-Spanish War. Felipe III James I
1604.10 Dmitry, Poles & Cossacks invaded Russia.
1605.2.21Transylvanians made Istvan Bocskai their prince.
1605.4.20 Istvan Bocskai began to rule Hungary.
1605 Cervantes publishedDon Quixote.
1605 Lope de Vega’s Peribañez played.
1605 Baronius published his History of the ChurchSicily
1605 5,000 English recusants were fined. James I
1605 Scottish & English border police hanged thieves. Scotland
1605 Bacon publishedAdvancement of Learning. 1605 Shakespeare’s King Lear played.
1605 Chapman, Jonson & Marston’s Eastward Ho! ran.
1605 Dekker’s The Honest Whore Part 2 played.
1605 Marston’s The Dutch Courtesan played.
1605 Ben Jonson’s Volpone, or the Fox played.
1605 Middleton’s A Trick to Catch an Old One played.
1605.9.27 Poland’s army defeated more Swedes at Riga.
1605.11.5 Parliament opened; gunpowder plot failed. James I
1605-07 Vincent de Paul was a slave.
1605-13 Russia suffered “Time of Troubles.” 
1605-21 Pope Paul V ruled the Papal States.
1606.1 Guy Fawkes & 7 others were hanged for treason. James I
1606.3 Maximilien de Béthune became Duke of Sully. Henri IV
1606.5 Pope Paul V excommunicated Venetian Senate.
1606.5.26 Vasily Shuisky had Dmitry pretender killed. Time of Troubles
1606.6.23 Matthias made a treaty with the Turks.Bohemia Hungary
1606 English Parliament authorized £453,000 in taxes. James I
1606 Shakespeare’s Macbeth played.
1606 Middleton’s The Revenger’s Tragedy played.
1606.9 Oldenbarneveldt warned Holland on finances. Dutch
1606.12 Spanish army mutinied in Flanders. Spain
1606.12.29 Chancellor Kathay poisoned Bocskai & was killed. Hungary
1606-10 Tsar Vasily IV ruled Russia. Time of Troubles
1606-12 Doge Leonardo Dona governed Venice.
1607.4 Pope Paul V lifted the interdict from Venice
1607.4.25 Dutch navy defeated Spaniards at Gibraltar.
1607.5 Virginia Company established Jamestown. James I
1607.5-9 Russian army besieged rebels in Tula. Time of Troubles
1607.6 Dutch ships returned from the East Indies.
1607 Rudolf Hospinian wrote Discordant ConcordAustria
1607 Norway sent a new church code to Iceland.
1607 Arminius debated Calvinist Gomarus. Netherlands
1607 Levellers pulled down enclosures in Midlands. James I
1607 James I defended the oath of allegiance.
1607 Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra played.
1607 Chapman’s Bussy D’Ambois played.
1607 Beaumont’s Knight of the Burning Pestle played.
1607-8 Monteverdi opened Orfeo & Ariadne at Mantua. Milan
1607.7.6 Poland defeated Zebrzydowski’s revolt at Guzow.
1607.10.25 Five assassins attacked Sarpi in Venice.
1607-30 Germans executed many people for witchcraft.
1608 Poland and Sweden ended war with an armistice.
1608 Lope de Vega became an Inquisition officer.
1608 Santo Stefano Knights defeated Turks at Bona. Florence
1608 Shakespeare’s Coriolanus played.
1608 Shakespeare’s Timon of Athens played.
1608 Shakespeare’s Pericles, Prince of Tyre played.
1608 Chapman’s Conspiracy of Byron played. 
1608.7.20 Zygmunt III & Vasily IV signed a 4-year truce.
1608.10 Metropolitan Filaret was appointed patriarch. Russia Romanovs
1608.11.19 Matthias became King of Hungary & Croatia. Bohemia
1609.1 Moscow suffered under a blockade.Russia
1609.6.10 Brandenburg signed treaty at Dormund. German Empire
1609 Kepler discovered elliptical orbit of Mars.
1609 Grotius published The Free SeaNetherlands
1609 Mariana criticized Felipe’s inflationary policy. Spain
1609 Lope de Vega put out A New Way to Write Plays.
1609 Galileo invented the telescope.
1609 François de Sales wrote about the devout life.
1609 Shakespeare’s Cymbeline played.
1609 Beaumont and Fletcher’s Philaster played.
1609.7.9 Rudolf II recognized Bohemian rights.
1609.7 Maximilian organized Catholic League at Munich. German Empire
1609.9-12 Valencia expelled 116,122 Moriscos. Spain
1609-10 Swedes invaded Russia and were defeated.
1609-22 English colonized northern Ireland.
1609-21 Spain and Dutch had a Truce. Spanish Netherlands
1609-21 Grand Duke Cosimo II ruled Florence.
1610.1 Protestant Union expanded membership. German Empire
1610.1-5 Dirk Canter led Calvinist revolt in Utrecht. Netherlands
1610.5.13 Marie de Medici was crowned Queen of France.
1610.5.14 François Ravaillac assassinated Henri IV.
1610.6.6 Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary began. François de Sales
1610.6.23 Poland’s army defeated Muscovites at Klushino.
1610 Russian army drove away pretender’s troops.
1610 Dutch and French took over Jülich. Netherlands
1610 Spain expelled 78,000 Moriscos.
1610 New Christians in Portugal lost their privileges.
1610 Lope de Vega’s Best Boy in Spain played.
1610 Sarpi wrote “History of Ecclesiastical Benefices.”  Venice
1610 Loyseau published Treatise on OrdersFrance
1610 John Donne published Pseudo-martyr.
1610 Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale played.
1610 Chapman’s Revenge of Bussy D’Ambois played.
1610 Ben Jonson’s The Alchemist played.
1610 Fletcher’s The Woman’s Prize played
1610.7 Arminians signed “5 Articles of Remonstrance.” Netherlands
1610.7.27 Assembly deposed Tsar Vasily IV.Russia
1610.8 Protestants and French invaded Jülich. Austria
1610.10.17 Louis XIII was crowned King of France.
1610.12.21 Prince Urusov killed second “Dmitry” pretender. Russia
1610-19 Zygmunt III held Patriarch Filaret hostage. Russia
1610-23 Calvinist Elector Friedrich V ruled the Palatine.30-Year War
1611.2 Archduke Leopold’s army invaded Bohemia.Austria
1611.3.29 Poland’s army slaughtered 7,000 Muscovites.Russia
1611.4.4 Denmark declared war on SwedenSweden
1611.4 Poles captured Smolensk after 2-year siege. Poland
1611.5.23 Matthias became King of Bohemia. Austria
1611.6.13 Poland’s army captured and reduced Smolensk.Russia
1611 King James Bible was published. James I Bacon
1611 Donne satirized Jesuits in Ignatius his Conclave.
1611 Shakespeare’s The Tempest played.
1611 Ben Jonson’s Catiline His Conspiracy played.
1611 Middleton’s The Roaring Girl played.
1611 Tourneur’s The Atheist’s Tragedy was published.
1611.8.3 Danes captured Kalmar Castle. Denmark Sweden Norway
1611.9.26 Lope de Vega joined the Order of St. Francis. 
1611.10.16 Poland and Sweden agreed to an armistice.
1611.10.19 Vincent de Paul gave money to the Charity Hospital. 
1611.10.30 Sweden’s King Karl IX died.
1611.12 Sweden’s Gustav II accepted charter of rights.
1611-12 Russians besieged Polish troops in the Kremlin. Poland
1611-12 Cold winter reduced sheep herds in Naples.
1611-13 Danes invaded Sweden and raised taxes. Denmark Sweden
1611-16 Duke of Osuna was Viceroy of Sicily.
1611-17 Maximilian kept Archbishop of Salzburg in prison. German
1612.1.20 Emperor Rudolf II died at Hradschin. Austria Bohemia
1612.9.3 Russian army drove Polish army from Moscow.
1612.4 Protestant Union allied with England. German
1612 Johann Arndt wrote Garden of ParadiseGerman
1612 James I annexed Orkney. Scotland
1612 Webster’s The White Devil played.
1612.8 Denmark’s fleet attacked Vaxholm. Gustav II
1612.8.25 France & Spain agreed on Fontainebleau treaty.
1612.10.23 Felipe III decreed the Duke of Lerma a dictator. Spain
1612-19 Matthias was Holy Roman Emperor. Austria Bohemia
1613.1.20 Denmark & Sweden ended Kalmar War. Norway
1613.2.14 Friedrich IV married Elizabeth Stuart. German 364
1613.2 Arminian debate at Delft lasted two days. Netherlands
1613.2.21 Assembly elected Mikhail Romanov Tsar.
1613.3.23 Zygmunt III allied secretly with Emperor Matthias.
1613.5 Protestant Union made 15-year treaty with Dutch. German
1613 Sweden’s army invaded northwest Russia.
1613 Lope de Vega’s Lady Nitwit played.
1613 Antonio Serra wrote on wealth and poverty. Naples
1613 Welwood wrote Abridgment of all Sea LawesScotland
1613 Shakespeare’s Henry VIII played.
1613 Chapman’s Caesar and Pompey played.
1613 Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi played.
1613-17 Francis Bacon was Attorney General of England.
1613.8 Cervantes published his 12 Exemplary Novels.
1613.10.27 Transylvania elected Gabriel Bethlen prince.
1613.12 Poland-Lithuanian armies left Moscow.
1613-14 Dutch allied with Sweden and Hansa towns. Netherlands
1614.2.20 Matthias revived ban against Protestants. Hungary
1614 Russia enacted one-fifth wealth tax for 5 years.
1614 Sweden’s Gustav II created Court of Appeal.
1614 Spieghel published The Mirror of the HeartDutch
1614 Dutch Republic ended a truce in the East Indies. Netherlands
1614 University was founded in Groningen. Netherlands
1614 Ben Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair played.
1604-16 Raleigh wrote History of the World in prison. James I
1614..6.7 James I dissolved Parliament.
1614.8 Austrian army occupied Jülich.
1614.8.22 Fettmilch led attack on Jews in Frankfurt. German
1614.9.14 Louis XIII came of age at 13. France
1614.11.12 Xanten treaty divided Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Austria
1614-15 David Pareus wrote IrenicumGerman
1614-15 Estates-General met in Paris. France
1614-18 Landowner Bjelke was chancellor of Norway.
1615 Matthias approved Bohemia’s anti-German laws. Austria
1615 Bohemia made Czech its official language.
1615 Dutch made a treaty with Denmark. Netherlands
1615 Tirso de Molina’s Trickster of Seville played. 
1615 Montchrétien wrote a book on political economy. France
1615.11.24 Spain & Louis XIII had two royal weddings. France
1615-18 Habsburgs fought Uskok War against Venetians. Austria
1616.1 Imperial army helped Jews return to Worms. Austria
1616.1 James I made George Villiers Earl of Buckingham.
1616 Danish East India Company was organized. Denmark
1616 Chapman published English Iliad and Odyssey.
1616.9.24 Marie made Richelieu foreign affairs secretary. France
1616-20 Duke of Osuna was Viceroy of Naples.
1616-36 Imprisoned Messenius wrote history of Sweden.
1616-37 Péter Pazmany was Primate of Hungary.
1617.2 Calvinists attacked Remonstrants in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1617.2.27 Sweden made a treaty with Russia.
1617.4.24 Concini was killed; Louis XIII began to rule.
1617.6.5 Ferdinand II became King of BohemiaAustria
1617 Prince Wladyslaw invaded Russia. Poland-Lithuania
1617 Bredero’s comedy The Spanish Brabanter played. Netherlands
1617 Alarcon’s The Walls Have Ears played.
1617 Venice, Savoy & Spain allied against Uskoks. 
1617 Spanish forces occupied Montferrat. Milan
1617 Ben Jonson & James I published folios.
1617 James I visited Scotland.
1617.8.23 Vincent de Paul wrote a charter for ladies’ charity.
1617.8.4 Holland’s Sharp Resolution mobilized troops. Netherlands
1618.1 Leiden regents required militia to take an oath. Netherlands
1618.2.23 Vincent de Paul started Charité of Villepreux for women.
1618.4 Louis XIII sent Richelieu to Avignon.
1618.5 Bohemian nobles replaced imperialists.
1618.5 James I published the Book of Sports.
1618.6.2 Bohemia expelled Jesuits.
1618.6.15 Palatine militia destroyed Udenheim fortress. Bohemia
1618 Poland’s army failed to take Moscow. Russia
1618 Maurits led an army into Holland and Utrecht. Netherlands
1618 Arminians were purged from town councils. Netherlands
1618 Spain sent army of 8,000 to Bohemia.
1618 Sarpi completed History of the Council of Trent. Venice
1618 Webster’s The Devil’s Law Case played.
1618.7.1 Ferdinand II became King of Hungary & Croatia. Austria
1618.10.29 Walter Raleigh was beheaded. James I
1618.11.25 Swiss mercenaries captured Pilsen. 30-Year War
1618-21 Francis Bacon was Chancellor of England. James I
1618-48 Thirty Years’ War caused 5 million deaths. 30-Year War
1619.1.3 Poland and Russia agreed to a 14-year truce.
1619.1.19 Synod at Amsterdam expelled dissidents. Netherlands
1619.2.1 Felipe III’s Council proposed reforms. Spain
1619.2.8 Louis XIII appointed Vincent de Paul to visit prisons.
1619.4 Thurn’s army invaded Moravia.30-Year War
1619.4 Venice made a treaty with Piedmont.
1619.4.30 Louis XIII made Marie governor of Anjou.
1619.5.13 Oldenbarneveldt was beheaded for treason. Netherlands
1619 Kepler wrote Harmonies of the World.
1619 Wallenstein was appointed governor of Bohemia.
1619 Remonstrant Chuch was organized at Antwerp. Netherlands
1619 Felipe III spent 5 months in Portugal. Spain
1619.7.31 Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia confederated.
1619.8.7 Louis XIII defeated Marie’s rebels at Anjou.
1619.8.16 Massinger and Fletcher’s Olden Barnavelt opened.
1619.11.4 Friedrich V was crowned King of Bohemia.
1619.12 Catholic League funded an army. 30-Year Wa
1619-23 Patriarch Filaret helped govern Russia.
1619-37 Ferdinand II was Holy Roman Emperor. 30-Year War Imperial War
1620 Zygmunt III invaded Silesia. 30-Year War
1620 Brandenburg bought Royal Prussia from Poland.
1620 Gustav II began Swedish Trading Company.
1620 Genoino proposed reforms in Naples.
1620 Francis Bacon published Novum Organum.
1620 Massinger and Fletcher’s The False One played.
1620.7 Friedrich V allied with the Turks. 30-Year War
1620.7.17 Catholic League army invaded Upper Austria. 30-Year War
1620.8 30,000 Spaniards invaded the Palatinate. Spain
1620.8.25 Hungarians elected Bethlen their king. 30-Year War
1620.9-10 Turks defeated Polish army at Cecora. Poland
1620.12 Reformed Church deputies met at La Rochelle. Louis XIII
1620-21 Catholics defeated Protestants in Bohemia.
1621.4 Felipe IV resumed war against the Dutch. Felipe IV
1621.4 Elizabeth Sawyer was executed for witchcraft. Ford
1621.5.14 Protestant Union was dissolved. Ferdinand II
1621.6 Dutch West India Company was founded. Netherlands
1621 Imperialists punished 680 Bohemian families.
1621 Poles and Turks made a treaty. Poland
1621 Spain increased Flanders army to 60,000 men. Netherlands
1621 Famine in Naples led to riots and torture.
1621 Burton published The Anatomy of Melancholy.
1621 Ford-Dekker-Rowley’s Witch of Edmonton ran.
1621.7 James I canceled and prosecuted monopolies.
1621-22 Royal army fought rebels in southern France. Louis XIII
1621.8-9 Swedes invaded Livonia and captured Riga.
1621.12.21 Bethlen made peace with Ferdinand II. Hungary
1621-23 Pope Gregory XV financed Catholic wars.
1621-26 Felipe IV gained 13 million ducats by copper coins.
1621-31 Renier Zen tried to reform Venice.
1621-33 Isabella Eugenia governed Spanish Netherlands.
1621-36 Grand Duchess Christina governed Florence.
1621-65 Felipe IV ruled Spain.
1621-70 Ferdinando II de’ Medici ruled Tuscany.
1622.1 Pope Gregory XV began missionary administration.
1622.1.6 James I dissolved Parliament and arrested five.
1622.5.6 Imperialists defeated Protestants at Wimpfen.
1622 Marie de Gournay wrote on female equality. Louis XIII
1622 Vincent de Paul succeeded François de Sales.
1622 Middleton’s The Changeling played.
1622.11 Grotius’ book defending Holland was banned. Netherlands
1622-23 Habsburgs devalued their currency. Ferdinand II
1622-28 Cardinal Klesl was under house arrest in Rome. 30-Year War
1622-29 Viscount Falkland governed Ireland.
1623.2.10 Spain’s arbitristas enacted reform law.  Felipe IV
1623.2 Heidelberg’s library was sent to Pope Gregory XV.Ferdinand II
1623 Comenius wrote The Labyrinth of the World.
1623 Sweden began first secondary school.
1623 Poland’s army with allies invaded Sweden.
1623 Velasquez became Spain’s court painter. Felipe IV
1623 Venice allied with France and Savoy.
1623 Paris Parlement banned Régnier’s satirical poem. France
1623 Charles and Buckingham visited Madrid. James I
1623 First Folio of Shakespeare’s works was printed.
1623 Massinger’s The Bondman played.
1623.8.6 Imperial army defeated the Dutch at Stadtlohn. Netherlands
1623-44 Pope Urban VIII ruled the Papal States.
1624.5 Protestant ministers were expelled from Bohemia. Ferdinand II
1624.1.1 Jakob Boehme published The Way to Christ.
1624.2-5 English Parliament passed 73 statutes. James I
1624.3.23 James I canceled treaty with Spain.
1624 Kepler advised Wallenstein with astrology.
1624 Fire destroyed the city of Oslo. Norway
1624 Plague killed 21,692 in Amsterdam and Leiden. Netherlands
1624 Lope de Vega published Acting is Believing. Tirso
1624 Tirso de Molina’s Tamar’s Revenge played.
1624 John Donne published Devotions.
1624 Montagu wrote A New Gag for an Old GooseEngland
1624.8.13 Louis XIII made Richelieu his chief minister.
1624.8 Middleton’s Game at Chess satirized Spain. James I
1624.11 France sent 7,500 soldiers to the Valtelline. Venice Richelieu
1624-25 Spinola’s Spanish army besieged Breda. Felipe IV
1625.3.27 James I died, and Charles I became King. 
1625.4.7 Ferdinand II appointed Wallenstein commander.
1625.5.11 Charles I married Henriette Marie by proxy. Richelieu
1625.6.5 Dutch surrendered Breda to Spaniards. Netherlands Felipe IV Charles I
1625.6.13 England’s Charles I married Henriette Marie. England
1625.6 King Gustav II led Sweden’s invasion of Livonia.
1625.6-8 English Parliament met but could not agree. Charles I
1625 Denmark’s Kristian IV entered the Long War. Ferdinand II
1625 Danish West India Company began. Denmark Norway
1625 Vondel published his play PalamedesNetherlands
1625 Grotius published The Law of War and Peace.
1625 Lope de Vega published The Knight of Olmedo.
1625 Massinger’s A New Way to Pay Old Debts played.
1625.11 Imperialists killed 12,000 rebels in Linz. Ferdinand II
1625.11 English fleet lost 7,000 men at Cadiz. Charles I
1625-29 Doge Giovanni Corner governed Venice.
1625-47 Frederik Hendrik governed Dutch provinces. Netherlands at War
1626.1 King Gustav II led Sweden’s invasion of Latvia.
1626.2 Huguenots made peace with Louis XIII. Richelieu
1626.2-6 English Parliament created a Petition of Right. Charles I
1626.3 Denmark allied with the Dutch. Ferdinand II
1626.3 France & Spain accepted Valtelline peace.Venice Richelieu
1626.3.28 Catalonia’s Cortes met at Barcelona. Felipe IV
1626.4.13 Calvinist Smout urged attacks on Remonstrants. Netherlands
1626.4 Vincent de Paul gave his worldly goods to his family.
1626.5.5 France made a treaty with Spain. Richelieu
1626.5 Gustav II led Sweden’s invasion of Polish Prussia.
1626 Quevedo published The Swindler.
1626 French royal edict made dueling a capital crime. Richelieu
1626 Ben Jonson’s The Staple of News played.
1626 Massinger’s The Roman Actor played.
1626.7.1 Charles I dismissed most of his wife’s entourage. Richelieu
1626.8.6 King’s brother Gaston of Anjou gained Orléans. Richelieu
1626.8.18 Beheading Chalais ended dames conspiracy. Richelieu
1626.8.27 Imperialists defeated the Danes at Lutter. Denmark
1626.9.29 Swedish infantry beat Polish cavalry at Gniew. Gustav II
1626.10.6 Danish army surrendered and joined imperialists. Denmark
1627.1 French captured 200 English ships at Bordeaux. Richelieu
1627.1.31 Olivares declared Spain bankrupt. Felipe IV
1627.5 Louis XIII approved Congregation of the Mission. Vincent de Paul
1627.6.22 Duelers Bouteville & Chapelles were executed. Richelieu
1627 Swedes defeated Poland’s navy.
1627 Simon Episcopius published Free ReligionNetherlands
1627 Grotius published On Truth of Christian Religion.
1627 Quevedo published Sueños (Dreams).
1627 Pope Urban VIII began educating missionaries.
1627 Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis was published.
1627.7.13 Spain restricted book publication. Felipe IV
1627.7 Wallenstein’s army drove the Danes from Silesia.Ferdinand II
1627.7-10 English army besieged St. Martin fort. Charles I
1627-28 English fought French besieging La Rochelle. Richelieu
1629-67 Matthias de’ Medici governed Siena.Tuscany
1628.3.13 Charles I asked Parliament for money.
1628.4.28 Denmark & Sweden formed 3-year alliance.
1628.6.7 Charles I accepted Petition of Right as law.
1628.6 Commons condemned Buckingham. Charles I
1628 Kristian IV fled from Denmark. Ferdinand II
1628 Calderon wrote The Purgatory of Saint Patrick.
1628 Galileo wrote Dialog on the Two World Systems.
1628 Descartes wrote Rules for Direction of the Mind.
1628 Harvey published On the Motion of the Heart.  Charles I
1628.8.7 Felipe IV reduced coin tariff, causing deflation.
1628.9 31 Dutch ships captured Spain’s treasure fleet. Felipe IV
1628.10 Huguenots surrendered La Rochelle. Richelieu Charles I
1628-30 Scotland prosecuted people for witchcraft.
1629.1.15 Louis XIII increased his power over France. Richelieu
1629.2.2 Swedish army defeated Poles at Górzno. Gustav II
1629.3.4 Speaker John Eliot and 8 MPs were arrested. Charles I         
1629.3 Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution.
1629.4.8 Mantua allied with Venice, France & Pope Urban VIII.
1629.4 Dutch Republic’s army had 77,000 men. Netherlands
1629.4 England and France made peace at Susa. Richelieu Charles I
1629.5.22 Kristian IV and Wallenstein signed a treaty.   Ferdinand II Denmark
1629.6.16 Wallenstein became Duke of Mecklenburg. Ferdinand II
1629.6.28 Louis XIII & Huguenots ended the civil war. Richelieu
1629.6.29 Polish & imperialists beat Swedes at Trzciana. Gustav II
1629 Calderon’s The Phantom Lady played.
1629 Southern France suffered war, famine & plague. Richelieu
1629.8 Imperial army of 36,000 besieged Mantua. Milan
1629.9.25 Sweden and Poland made a 6-year truce. Gustav II
1629.12 Corneille’s first play was the comedy Mélite.
1629-30 Imperial siege of Mantua killed 10,000. Milan
1629-31 Spain suffered a depression. Felipe IV
1629-40 Charles I ruled without Parliament meeting. Charles I
1629-67 Matthias de’ Medici governed Siena. Milan
1630.1 Amsterdam banished Calvinist preacher Smout. Netherlands
1630.2-10 French army invaded Piedmont. Richelieu
1630.6 Leighton was punished for opposing bishops. Charles I
1630 Russia began trading grain for arms to Sweden.
1630.7 Sweden’s Gustav II invaded Pomerania. Swedes
1630.10.13 French imposed Regensburg peace on Mantua. Milan
1630.10.26 Mazarini stopped fighting with a peace treaty.  France
1630.11.12 Louis XIII had high officials arrested. France
1630-48 György Rákóczi was Prince of Transylvania.
1631.1.23 Sweden allied with France. Swedes Gustav II Richelieu
1631.4.13 Swedish army captured Frankfort. Gustav II
1631.4 Protestants agreed to fund an army of 40,000. Swedes
1631.4 Prince Gaston rebelled and went to Lorraine. Richelieu
1631.5.8 France allied with Bavaria at Munich. Richelieu
1631.5 Imperialists killed 20,000 at Magdeburg.Swedes
1631.6.19 Cherasco Treaty settled Italian issues. Felipe IV Milan France
1631 Comenius wrote The Gate of Languages.
1631 Grotius wrote book on Dutch jurisprudence. Grotius
1631 Hurricane sank Spain’s treasure fleet. Felipe IV
1631 Gazette de France was first weekly newspaper. Richelieu
1631 Shirley’s tragedy The Traitor played.
1631.7 Pope Urban VIII annexed Urbino to Papal States.
1631.8.23 Spaniards surrendered Maastricht to the Dutch. Netherlands
1631.9.13 Dutch defeated larger Spanish fleet at Volkerak. Netherlands
1631.9.17 Protestants beat imperialsts at Breitenfeld. Sweden
1631-34 Vizcaya revolted against Spanish taxes.  Felipe IV
1632.1.6 Lorraine’s Charles IV swore loyalty to Louis XIII. Richelieu
1632.5 Lope de Vega’s Punishment Without Revenge opened.
1632 250,000 Imperial troops were in Germany.
1632 Russian ironworks began using water power.
1632 Sweden began first school for girls. Gustav II
1632 University of Dorpat was founded. Gustav II
1632 Low Countries developed a postal service. Netherlands
1632 Holland revised land tax and rents.  Netherlands
1632 Cats published Mirror of the Old and New Times. Netherlands
1632 Prynne criticized plays in Histrio-mastix.  Charles I
1632.9.1 French army defeated rebels at Castelnaudary. Richelieu
1632.9 King Gustav II retreated from Nuremberg. Swedes
1632.11.16 King Gustav II was killed at Lützen. Swedes
1632-33 Tatars plundered southern & central Russia.
1632-34 Russian army besieged Smolensk.
1632-44 Council & Axel Oxenstierna governed Sweden.
1633.1.12 Urban VIII approved Vincent’s charity missions.
1633.1 Oxenstierna became Swedish legate to Germany. Swedes
1633 3.8 Charles fined London for neglecting Irish settlers. Ireland
1633.4.27 Oxenstierna organized League of Heilbronn. Swedes
1633.6.18 Charles I was crowned king in Scotland.
1633 Comenius wrote The School of Infancy.
1633 Calderon’s Love After Death played.
1633 Urban VIII sent missionaries to China & Japan.
1633 John Donne’s poems were published.
1633 Act of Revocation cancelled grants in Scotland.
1633 Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore was printed.           
1633.7 Ferdinand II let Kristian IV collect dues from Elbe. Denmark
1633.8.22 Ferdinand II replaced Wallenstein. Swedes
1633.9 Duke Charles IV ceded Metz to France. Richelieu
1633.11.29 Vincent & Louise began Daughters of Charity.
1633-41 Thomas Wentworth governed IrelandBritish
1633-42 Inquisition condemned and imprisoned Galileo.
1633-45 William Laud was Archbishop of Canterbury. England
1634-41 Fernando governed Spanish Netherlands. Imperial War
1634.1.12 Wallenstein had 49 officers sign Pilsen Reverse.Imperial War
1634.2 Wallenstein was accused of treason & murdered.Imperial War
1634.4.15 Dutch accepted a subsidy treaty with France.  Netherlands
1634.4.27 Ferdinand II appointed his son commander. Imperial War
1634.6 Russia and Poland made an “eternal treaty.”
1634 Bjelke published the first Norwegian dictionary. Norway
1634 Alarcon’s The Truth Suspected played. 
1634 Ford’s Perkin Warbeck was printed.           
1634.7.14 Irish Parliament approved six subsidies. Ireland
1634.7.29 Sweden adopted Instrument of Government.
1634.10 Spain allied with Emperor Ferdinand II. Olivares
1635.2.8 Dutch allied with France against Spain. Netherlands Richelieu
1635.4.28 Sweden confirmed its alliance with France. Richelieu
1635.5 France declared war on Spain.  Olivares Richelieu
1635.5.22 French army defeated Spaniards in Liege. Richelieu
1635 Primate Pazmany began a university in Budapest. Hungary
1635 Tirso de Molina’s The Doubter Damned played. 
1635 Calderon published Life Is a Dream.
1635 Calderon replaced Lope de Vega as court theater director.
1635 Calderon’s Secret Vengeance for Secret Insult
1635 Pallavicino’s novel Diana criticized Habsburgs. Venice
1635 Académie Française was founded. France
1635 English shipping levies yielded £218,500. England
1635 Shirley’s comedy The Lady of Pleasure played.
1635.7 French allied with Savoy and Parma. Richelieu
1635.9.12 Poland-Lithuania made peace with Sweden.
1635.12.30 Ferdinand II made a treaty with Spain. Imperial War
1636.5 France made a treaty with Sweden. Imperial War
1636 University of Utrecht was founded. Netherlands
1636 Quevedo wrote The Hour of All Men.
1636 Corneille’s The Theatrical Illusion played.
1636.7.4 Cardinal Fernando led Spanish army into Picardy. Richelieu
1636.10.4 Swedes defeated imperial army at Wittstock. Sweden
1636-37 Riots against Spanish taxes spread in Portugal.
1636-45 Dutch sold West Africans for 7 million guilders. Netherlands
1637 Poland’s army defeated the Cossack rebellion.
1637 Cossacks captured Azov from the Turks. Russia
1637 Spain imposed a stamp tax on documents. Olivares
1637.10 Dutch regained Breda from Spain. Netherlands Olivares
1637 Calderon’s Mighty Magician played.
1637 Vincent de Paul began a seminary at Saint-Lazare.
1637 Descartes published Discourse on Method.
1637 Corneille’s tragedy Le Cid played.
1637 New Book of Canons was published in Scotland.
1637.8 Puritan John Hampden refused to pay tax. England
1637-57 Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor. Imperial War
1638.2.28 Scottish gentry signed the National Covenant. Scotland
1638.5.14 Richelieu arrested Devouts’ leader Saint-Cyran. Vincent de Paul
1638 Poland cancelled Cossack self-government.
1638 Urban VIII banned slavery in Jesuit communities.
1638 Galileo wrote Discourses on Two New Sciences.
1638 Duke of Sully published Royal EconomiesFrance
1638 Anna van Schurman wrote on women’s aptitude. Descartes
1638 Charles I mobilized 21,000 soldiers at Berwick. Scotland
1638.11 Scottish General Assembly abolished episcopacy. Scotland
1638-40 Levellers Lilburne and Wharton were in prison. England
1638.6-9 French besieged Fuenterrabia. Olivares
1638.10 Marie de Medici found refuge in England.
1638.11 Ferdinand III used Kreis assemblies to expand. Imperial War
1638-42 Abbot of Saint-Cyran was in prison. Jansenism
1639.6.18 Charles I & Scots agreed on Berwick Pacification. Scotland
1639 Beverwijck wrote On Excellence of the FemaleNetherlands
1639 Corneille’s tragedy Cinna played.
1639 Wentworth imposed “Black Oath” in Ireland.
1639 Covenant became law in Scotland.
1639.10.21 Dutch fleet killed 5,000 Spaniards at Downs. Netherlands
1639-40 Tax revolt in Rouen was crushed. Richelieu
1639-43 Satirist Quevedo was imprisoned.  Olivares Spain Quevedo
1640.1.2 2,000 soldiers enforced tax collection at Rouen. Jansenism
1640.1.6 French surrendered Rosellon fort to Spain. Olivares
1640.3.26 Irish Parliament granted 4 subsidies to the King. British Conflict
1640.4-5 Short English Parliament did little.  British Conflict
1640.6 Scottish estates formed a parliament. British Conflict
1640 Kristina founded the first university in Finland. Sweden
1640 Corneille’s tragedy Horace played.
1640 Eighty Sermons by John Donne was published.
1640.8.20 Leslie led Scottish army across the Tweed. British Conflict
1640.8.28 Scots defeated the English at Newburn.  British Conflict
1640.10.16 Charles I paid Scots’ army not to advance. British Conflict
1640.11.3 England’s Long Parliament began. British Conflict
1640.12.1 Portuguese revolted against Spanish rule. Spain
1640.12.31 Mazarin negotiated peace at Turin. France
1640, 1644 Tatars ravaged Podolia and Volhynia. Poland-Lithuania
1640-42 Catalans revolted against Spain.
1640-56 Joao IV ruled PortugalSpain Portugal
1640-75 Duke Ernst ruled Saxony-Gotha. German
1640-88 Friedrich Wilhelm ruled Brandenburg. German
1641.1.16 Claris declared Catalonia a republic. Spain
1641.1.2 Catalans and French defeated Castilians. Richelieu
1641.1.28 Cortes of Portugal took control over taxes.
1641.2.16 Charles I approved the Triennial Act. British Conflict
1641.5.2 Prince Frederik married English Mary Henrietta. Netherlands
1641.5.12 Earl of Strafford (Wentworth) was executed.British Conflict
1641.5-9 200,000 Turks besieged Azov. Russia
1641.6.12 Joao IV granted Dutch free trade and religion. Portugal
1641 Opalinski wrote Conversation of a Village PriestPoland-Lithuania
1641 Pallavicino wrote Post-boy Robbed of his BagVenice
1641 Accetto wrote On Honest DissimulationNaples
1641 Descartes wrote Meditations on First Philosophy.
1641 Catholics gained a majority in Irish Parliament. British Conflict
1641 Shirley’s tragedy The Cardinal played.
1641.7.1 Portugal allied with France.
1641.7.5 England’s Star Chamber court was abolished. British Conflict
1641.8-11 Charles I visited Scotland.  British Conflict
1641.11.22 Commons passed a Grand Remonstrance. British Conflict
1641.12.21 Parliament party won elections in London. British Conflict
1641-43 Castro Wars were unpopular in Rome. Urban VIII
1641-97 John Evelyn kept a diary. Charles II
1642.1.11 Charles I fled to Hampton Court. British Conflict
1642.1.17 French and Germans defeated imperialists. Imperial War Richelieu
1642.2-3 Parliament sent aid to Protestants in Ireland. British Conflict
1642.3 Urban VIII condemned Jansen’s “Augustinus.”
1642.3.5 Parliament issued Militia Ordinance on its own. British Conflict
1642.3.28 Catalans and French defeated Spain at Monzon. Spain
1642.4.15 Royalists defeated Irish Catholics; Scots invaded. British Conflict
1642.6 Parliament took control of English government. British Conflict
1642 Denmark blockaded Hamburg.
1642 2,042 pamphlets were printed in England. British Conflict
1642 Thomas Browne publishedReligio Medici.
1642 Milton published Reason of Church-Government.
1642.7.11 Parliament declared that Charles I began war. British Conflict
1642.10.7 French and Catalans defeated Spain at Lérida.
1642.10.23 British Civil War began at Edgehill battle.
1642.12.1 Royalists led by Newcastle captured York. British Civil War
1642.12.4 Cardinal Richelieu recommended Mazarin & died.
1642.12.20 Parliament organized the Eastern Association.British Civil War
1642-60 English theaters were closed. Shirley
1643.1-4 British Civil War negotiations failed.
1643.5.14 Louis XIII died of illness. France
1643.5.19 French army defeated Spaniards at Rocroi. Spain France
1643.6.30 Newcastle’s Royalists defeated Fairfax’s army. British Civil War
1643 Peace talks began at Münster and Osnabrück. Imperial War
1643 Norway got its first printing press.
1643 Spain’s army drove French out of Aragon.
1643 Pallavicino wrote The Celestial Divorce. Venice
1643 Daughters of Providence began to help girls. Vincent de Paul
1643 Corneille’s tragedy Polyeuctus played.
1643 Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer. German
1643.7.10 Felipe IV met mystical nun Maria de Agreda. Spain
1643.7 Royalists took control of southwest England. British Civil War
1643.7 Vincent de Paul opened a house in Marseilles.
1643.7.29 French captured Gravelines in Flanders. France
1643.8.8-9 Many women asked Parliament for peace. British Civil War
1643.8.10 Parliament authorized impressment of men. British Civil War
1643.10.24 Irish formed Confederate General Assembly. British Civil War
1643.11 Scotland allied with Parliament. British Civil War
1643-44 Corneille’s tragedy Death of Pompey played.
1643-44 Milton published Doctrine & Discipline of Divorce.
1644.2 Swedish army occupied eastern Denmark. Sweden Norway
1644.6 John Milton published “Of Education.”
1644 Corneille’s comedy The Liar played.
1644.7.2 25,000 Parliamentarians defeated Royalists. British Civil War
1644.7 Descartes published Principles of Philosophy.
1644.8 French defeated Bavarians at Fribourg. France
1644.10.13 Swedish-Dutch fleet defeated Danes. Denmark
1644.11.23 Milton published Areopagitica on press freedom.
1644-45 Tatars invaded southern Russia.
1644-54 Queen Kristina ruled Sweden.
1644-55 Pope Innocent X ruled the Papal States.
1645.2 Parliament established the New Model Army. British Civil War
1645.5.5 Bavarian army beat the French at Mergentheim. France
1645.6.14 New Model Army defeated Royalists at Naseby. British Civil War
1645 Pope Innocent X sent nuncio and arms to Ireland.
1645 Vincent de Paul began houses in Genoa and Turin.
1645 Pascal invented a calculating machine.
1645 Molière was imprisoned for his company’s debts.
1645.7 36 people were tried for witchcraft in Essex. British Civil War
1645.7-10 Lilburne wrote England’s Birthright in prison.British Civil War
1645.8.3 French defeated imperialists at Nördlingen. France
1645.8.13 Denmark ceded Halland to Sweden. Norway
1645.8.24 Transylvania made peace with Ferdinand III.
1645.9.10 Fairfax’s New Model Army captured Bristol. British Civil War
1645.10 Walwyn published England’s Lamentable Slavery. Levellers
1645, 1648 Turks attacked and besieged Candia. Venice
1645-76 Tsar Aleksei ruled Russia.
1646.3.28 Ormond and Irish made peace at Dublin. British Civil War
1646.5.2 Charles I surrendered to Scots. British Civil War
1646.6.24 Parliamentary forces took over Oxford. British Civil War
1646 Russia repealed privileges of foreigners.
1646 Baltazar Gracian published The Discreet.
1646 Puritan Thomas Edwards wrote GangraenaBritish Civil War
1646.11 Lilburne printed London’s Liberty in ChainsLevellers
1646-47 Spanish taxes provoked revolt in Sicily. Spain
1646-51 France had bad harvests. Fronde Revolt
1646-58 Molière’s theatre company toured the provinces.
1647.1 Swiss cantons adopted the Defensionale of Wyl.
1647.1 Parliament paid Scotland £400,000 for Charles. British Civil War
1647.2.2 Irish Assembly rejected the peace treaty. British Civil War
1647.3 Leveller Large Petition criticized Parliament.
1647.6.5 New Model Army pledged Solemn Engagement. British Civil War
1647.6.14 Cromwell’s army declared liberty of conscience.  British Civil War
1647.6.23 English army published Humble RemonstranceBritish Civil War
1647 Comenius wrote On the Causes of the War.
1647 Poland-Lithuania and Russia allied against Tatars.
1647 Vondel’s play Lion Fallers celebrated peace. Netherlands
1647 Plague killed 70,000 in Valencia & Andalucia. Spain
1647 Gracian published The Manual Oracle.
1647 Spanish suppressed a rebellion in Sicily.
1647 Juan José de Austria became vicar in Italy. Spain
1647.7.26 Presbyterians took over the House of Commons. British Civil War
1647.10.27 Levellers put out An Agreement of the People.
1647.11.14 Cromwell crushed Leveller soldiers’ protest.
1647.12.15 Levellers presented Foundation of Freedom.
1647-48 Naples revolted against Spain.  316
1647-48 Portuguese lost 220 ships to the Dutch. Portugal
1647-52 Plague killed 500,000 people in Castile & Aragon. Spain
1647-56 Leopold governed Spanish Netherlands.
1647, 1654 Duke of Modena & French invaded Lombardy. Milan
1648.1.3 Spain and the Dutch agreed on a peace treaty. Spain
1648.1 Kristina appointed Karl Gustav commander.
1648.1.26 Tsar Aleksei married Maria Miloslavskaia. Russia
1648.1.31 Treaty ended 80-year war in the Netherlands. Netherlands
1648.3 Scots mobilized 30,000 soldiers. British Civil War
1648.3-4 High prices caused an insurrection in Granada. Spain
1648.4.23 Queen Anne raised taxes in France. Fronde Revolt
1648.5.13 Paris law-courts formed the Arrêt d’Union. Fronde Revolt
1648.5 Khmelnytsky’s Cossacks defeated Polish armies. Aleksei
1648.5 Turks besieged Candia. Venice
1648.5,9 Chmielnicki’s Cossacks defeated Poland’s army.
1648.6 Muscovites rioted against taxes and salt price. Russia Aleksei
1648.6 Portugal made peace with the Dutch.
1648.6 Dutch States General banned Catholic priests. Netherlands
1648 University of Harderwijk was founded. Netherlands
1648 Levellers began The Moderate newspaper.
1648 George Fox criticized the hiring fair at Mansfield.
1648 Portugal regained its Angola colony.
1648 Spanish army of 17,000 attacked Elvas. Portugal
1648.7.8 Scottish army led by Hamilton invaded England. British Civil War
1648.7 Paris Parlement revoked tax farmers’ contracts. Fronde Revolt
1648.7.18 French intendants were suspended. Fronde Revolt
1648.7.31 Anne & Mazarin renewed the paulette tax. Fronde Revolt
1648.8 Cromwell’s army defeated Scots near Preston.British Civil War
1648.8 Paris people built 1,260 barricades. Fronde Revolt
1648.8.20 France & Sweden defeated Leopold at Lens. Netherlands
1648.8.26 Parlement arrested Broussel and Blancmesnil. Fronde Revolt
1648.8.28 Royalists surrendered at Colchester. British Civil War
1648.10 Imperial army had 76,363 soldiers. German
1648.10 Protestant allies had 63,398 soldiers. German
1648.10.24 Osnabrück treaty was signed. Peace France Spain
1648.10.24 Anne reduced the taille tax 20%. Fronde Revolt
1648.11.20 Imperial army had withdrawn from Bohemia. Peace
1648-49 Cossacks and peasants killed 200,000 Jews. Aleksei
1648-49 Pogroms caused Polish Jews to flee west. Poland
1648-50 Bad weather delayed French grape harvests. Fronde Revolt
1648-52 Juan José was viceroy in Sicily. Spain
1648-53 Naples Viceroy Oñate gave amnesty to rebels.
1648-53 One million French died in Fronde rebellion.
1648-68 Jan II Kazimierz ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1648-70  Frederik III ruled Denmark and Norway.
1648-80 Elector Karl Ludwig governed the Palatinate. German
1649.1.6 Regent Anne and Mazarin left Paris. Fronde Revolt
1649.1.9 Paris Parlement banished Mazarin. Fronde Revolt
1649.1 Condé’s troops besieged Paris; flour price rose.Fronde Revolt
1649.1 Russia promulgated new laws. Aleksei
1649.1.18 Retz and aristocrats supported Parlement. Fronde Revolt
1649.1.17 Ormonde & Irish accepted “Articles of Peace.” Cromwell
1649.1.20 Trial of Charles I for treason & murder began. British Civil War
1649.1.30 Charles I was beheaded in London. British Civil War Cromwell
1649.2.18 Peace of Westphalia was ratified. German
1649.2.13 Milton published Tenure of Kings and MagistratesCromwell
1649.2.5 Scotland proclaimed Charles II king.
1649.2 English Parliament elected a Council of State. Cromwell
1649.2 France stopped paying interest. Fronde Revolt
1649.2 French soldiers left Lombardy. Milan
1649.3.15 Council appointed Cromwell commander in chief.
1649.3 England abolished kingship and House of Peers. Cromwell
1649.3.29 Parliament detained Leveller leaders.
1649.4.2 Parliament punished London’s mayor.
1649.4.16 Lilburne and Levellers issued a manifesto. Cromwell
1649.4-6 Central Paris was flooded. Fronde Revolt
1649.4.27 Leveller Robert Lockyer was executed. Cromwell
1649.5.9 Cromwell promised land to unpaid soldiers.
1649.5.14 England’s army suppressed Leveller mutinies. Cromwell
1649.5.16 Levellers organized a commune in Weybridge. Cromwell
1649.5.19 Parliament declared England a Commonwealth.
1649.6.1 Tsar Aleksei expelled foreigners.
1649 Plague killed 150,000 people in Seville. Felipe IV
1649 Poland-Lithuania had 250,000 Jews.
1649 Russians built Fort Okhotsk on the Pacific coast. Aleksei
1649.8.2 Parliamentarians defeated Irish near Dublin. Ireland
1649.8.15-7 Poles fought Cossacks & Tatars at Zboriv. Poland-Lithuania Aleksei
1649.8.18 Royal family returned to Paris.  Fronde Revolt
1649.8-9 Pope Innocent X revived the Castro War.
1649.9.1 Lilburne wrote Outcry of the Young MenCromwell
1649.9.11 Cromwell’s army defeated Irish at Drogheda. Ireland
1649.9.20 Parliament required a license to print.
1649.9.21 Swedes agreed to a withdrawal plan. German
1649.9.27 Parliament repealed mandatory church attending.
1649.11 Descartes published The Passions of the Soul.
1649.12.11 Riots broke out in France. Fronde Revolt
1649-50 Nuremberg Congress supervised demobilization. German
1649-50 Descartes tutored Queen Kristina.
1649-51 Juan José was viceroy of Sicily.
1649-51 Dutch imprisoned navy captain Witte de With. Netherlands
1649-53 Milton supervised propaganda and censorship. Cromwell
1649-59 Portugal made New Christians’ property immune.
1650.1.2 Parliament passed the Act for Subscribing.
1650.1.18 Mazarin arrested Condé, Conti & Longueville. Fronde Revolt
1650.2.11 Descartes died of pneumonia in Sweden. Kristina
1650.3.28 Kilkenny surrendered to Cromwell. Ireland
1650.4.27 Royalists in Scotland were defeated.
1650.4.30 Marshal Turenne joined the Fronde cabal. Fronde Revolt
1650.5.10 Parliament imposed death penalty for sex crimes.
1650.5 Holland States voted to disband their army. Netherlands
1650.6.23 Charles II arrived in Scotland.
1650.6.6 Nedham began Mercurius Politicus newspaper. Cromwell
1650 Baxter published The Saints’ Everlasting RestCromwell
1650 London had 350,000 people. Cromwell
1650 Jeremy Taylor’s Rule & Exercises of Holy LivingCromwell
1650 Justice Bennet named Fox’s followers Quakers.
1650 Florence acquired Pontremoli from Genoa. Tuscany
1650  70,000 pilgrims visited Rome during a jubilee. Popes
1650 Emperor Ferdinand III ordered crosses restored. Austrian Empire
1650 George Calixtus wrote Judicium de ControversiisGerman
1650 Krzysztof Opaliński published his Satires.  Poland-Lithuania
1650.7 France’s royal army besieged Bordeaux. Fronde Revolt
1650.7.30 Willem II had 6 Holland deputies arrested. Netherlands
1650.8.16 Charles II signed Covenanters’ Declaration. Scotland
1650.9.3 Cromwell’s army defeated Scots at Dunbar. Scotland
1650.9.30 Mazarin dismissed Governor Duke of Epernon. Fronde Revolt
1650.10.20 Kristina was crowned Queen of Sweden.
1650.10.30 Judges sentenced George Fox to six months.
1650.11.6 Stadtholder Willem II died of smallpox. Netherlands
1650.12.15 Louis XIV’s army defeated Turenne’s rebels.Fronde Revolt
1650.12 Vincent sent priests to help poor in Picardy. France
1650.12.21 Dordrecht elected Johan de Witt pensionary. Netherlands
1650.12.31 Milton registered Defense of the English People.  Cromwell
1650-51 England passed Navigation Acts. Cromwell
1650-54 Portugal was at war against England.
1650-54 Comenius founded a pansophic school.
1651.1.1 8th Earl of Argyll crowned Charles II at Scone. Scotland
1651.1 Dutch Great Assembly met. Netherlands
1651.2.9 Militia kept Louis and Anne from leaving Paris. Fronde Revolt
1651.2.14 Vincent was made secretary of state during war. France
1651.2 Paris Parlement exiled Mazarin. Fronde Revolt
1651.2 Pierre Corneille’s Nicomedes opened.
1651.2.17 Parlement banned foreigners from Royal Council. Fronde Revolt
1651.3 Vincent raised 80,000 livres to feed people. France
1651.4 Rioting in Dordrecht was suppressed. Netherlands
1651.4.28 Parlement cleared Condé, Conti & Longueville. Fronde Revolt
1651.4.30 Ferdinand III married Eleanora of Gonzaga. Austrian Empire
1651.5 Norway’s governor Sehested resigned.
1651.6 Polish army crushed Cossack-Tatar rebels. Poland-Lithuania Aleksei
1651 Jeremy Taylor’s Rule & Exercises of Holy DyingCromwell
1651 Harvey wrote On the Generation of AnimalsCromwell
1651 Francis Glisson published his Treatise on RicketsCromwell
1651 Thomas Hobbes publishedLeviathan.
1651 Anonymous Tragedy of Cicero was published. Plays
1651 Languedoc and Roussillon had longest drought. Fronde Revolt
1651 Colbert began managing Mazarin’s fortune. Louis XIV
1651 University of Naples hired more professors.
1651 Imperial commissions registered non-Catholics.  Austrian Empire
1651 Brandenburg tried to settle Jülich-Cleves dispute. German
1651 Rhenish circles formed in Germany.
1651 English seized 140 Dutch merchant ships. Netherlands
1651 Peasants in Greater Poland revolted. Poland-Lithuania
1651.8 British prohibited Dutch imports. Netherlands
1651.8.21 Paris Parlement met protected by retainers. Fronde Revolt
1651.9.7 Parlement declared Louis XIV old enough to rule. Fronde Revolt
1651.9.3 Cromwell’s army defeated Scots at Worcester. Scotland
1651.9 Vincent de Paul sent missionaries to Warsaw. France
1651.9.22 Bordeaux Parlement supported Condé. Fronde Revolt
1651.9.27 Regent Anne left Paris for Poitiers. Fronde Revolt
1651.10 Charles II fled from Scotland to France.
1651.10 Turenne resumed his loyalty to Louis XIV. Fronde Revolt
1651.10 Parlement offered a reward for killing Mazarin. Fronde Revolt
1651.10.15 5th Monarchists’ Model of a New RepresentativeCromwell
1651.10.27 Dubh O’Neill surrendered Limerick. Ireland
1651.12.4 Paris Parliament declared Mazarin an enemy. Fronde Revolt
1651.11.26  Henry Ireton died of the plague in Ireland.
1651.12 Troops were withdrawn from Jülich-Cleves. German
1651.12.24 Mazarin returned to France with 6,000 Germans.  Fronde Revolt
1651.12.24 Edinburgh castle surrendered to the English. Scotland
1652.1 Parliament fined and banished John Lilburne.
1652.1.11 Louis XIV supported Mazarin. Fronde Revolt
1652.1.24 Gaston d’Orléans allied with Prince of Condé. Fronde Revolt
1652.2 Guelph duchies formed Hildesheim Union. German
1652.2.18 Parliament promoted Propagation of the Gospel.
1652.2.29 Rohan’s rebels surrendered in Anjou to Turenne. Fronde Revolt
1652.3.9 Lithuanian deputy first used the veto.
1652.4.6 Dutch founded Capetown colony at Table Bay. Netherlands
1652.4.1 Regency and Parlement agreed on peace. Fronde Revolt
1652.4 Charles IV of Lorraine invaded northeast Spain. Fronde Revolt
1652.4 Condé was victorious and returned to Paris. Fronde Revolt
1652.5 Cordoba & Seville suppressed bread riots. Felipe IV
1652.5 Irish rebellion ended at Galway. Ireland
1652.5.29 English navy defeated Dutch off Dover. Cromwell
1652.6.2 Cossacks & Tatars defeated Poles at Batih. Poland-Lithuania Aleksei
1652.6 Mazarin bought off Lorraine who left France. Fronde Revolt
1652.6.30 England declared war on the Netherlands. Cromwell
1652 Boate’s Natural History of Ireland was published. Ireland
1652 Menasseh ben Israel published Hope of IsraelCromwell
1652 Gaston d’Orléans retired to Blois. Fronde Revolt
1652 Spaniards captured Gravelines and Dunkirk. Mazarin
1652 Vincent de Paul advised Anne and Mazarin.
1652 Pope Innocent X reformed prisons with cells.
1652 Karl Ludwig used mercantilism in Mannheim. German
1652 Bern devalued the batzen by half. Swiss
1652 Zeeland appointed Willem III & Willem Frederik. Netherlands
1652 Germans got a suburb in northeast Moscow. Aleksei
1652 Russians settled at Kumarsk in Siberia. Aleksei
1652.7 Civil war erupted in Paris. Fronde Revolt
1652.7.22 Tsar Aleksei made Nikon Patriarch of Moscow.
1652.8.6 Ferdinand III increased rights of Jews in Vienna. Austrian Empire
1652.8.2 English army rejected the Perpetuation Bill. Cromwell
1652.8.19 Mazarin went to Bouillon. Fronde Revolt
1652.8.12 English confiscated most of Irish land. Ireland
1652.9 Gaston and Condé left Paris. Mazarin
1652.10.13 Barcelona surrendered to Spanish armies. Felipe IV
1652.10.21 Louis XIV returned to Paris. Fronde Revolt
1652.11 French Estates General elections were called. Fronde Revolt
1652.11.24 English navy reported mutinies on 3 ships. Cromwell
1652.11.30 Dutch navy defeated English at Dungeness. Cromwell
1652-54 Tsar Aleksei led Russians in the Polish war.
1653.1-4 Peasant rebellion spread in Switzerland. Swiss
1653.2 Holland made Jan de Witt Grand Pensionary. Netherlands
1653.2.3 Mazarin returned to Paris. Fronde Revolt
1653.2.20 English navy defeated the Dutch at Portland. Cromwell Netherlands
1653.4.20 Cromwell dismissed the Rump Parliament.
1653.5 Queen Kristina sold Eastern Pomerania. German
1653.5.31 Innocent X condemned 5 errors of Jansen.
1653.6.3 English navy defeated the Dutch at Gabbard Sands. Cromwell
1653.6 Tsar Aleksei made Khmelnytsky a hetman.
1653 George Wither wrote The Modern StatesmanCommonwealth
1653 Shirley’s Cupid and Death performed & printed. Plays
1653 Spain went bankrupt again. Felipe IV
1653 Brandenburg mandated elementary schools. German
1653 Dutch Protestants rioted against Catholics. Netherlands
1653 Denmark closed the Sound to English ships. Frederik III
1653 Ukrainian and Muscovite churches united. Aleksei
1653 Archpriest Avvakum accused Nikon of heresy.Aleksei
1653 Nikon sent Avvakum to Siberia for 9 years. Aleksei
1653.7.4 New English Parliament met with 140 members. Cromwell
1653.7.9 Levellers published Fundamental Laws & LibertiesCromwell
1653.7.21 Saxons claimed leadership of Lutherans. German
1653.7.31 Prince of Conti surrendered Bordeaux. Fronde Revolt
1653.8.1 Lilburne published The Upright Man’s Vindication.Cromwell
1653.8.5 English Parliament abolished Court of Chancery. Cromwell
1653.8.10 English navy defeated Dutch at Sheveningen. Cromwell Netherlands
1653.10 Unpaid English sailors mutinied. Cromwell
1653.10.27 English cavalry put down a riot near Whitehall. Cromwell
1653.12.16 Parliament made Cromwell Lord Protector.
1653-56 Juan José was viceroy in Catalonia. Felipe IV
1653-57 Parliament kept Lilburne in prison until he died. Cromwell
1654.1.8 Russia annexed Ukraine under Khmelnytsky. Aleksei
1654.1 Portuguese drove the Dutch out of Brazil. Netherlands
1654.1.18 Khmelnytsky and Tsar Aleksei agreed. Poland-Lithuania
1654.2 Spain arrested Duke Charles IV of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1654.4.11 England and Sweden made a commercial treaty. Cromwell
1654.4.12 Parliament united with Scotland and Ireland. Cromwell
1654.4.15 Swiss mediated English-Dutch treaty. Cromwell
1654.4.22 Dutch and the English made peace. Netherlands
1654.5.4 Holland ratified exclusion of Willem of Orange. Netherlands
1654.5.15 Russians invaded Lithuanian Belarus. Aleksei
1654.5 Imperial Diet elected Ferdinand IV King. Austrian Empire
1654.5.30 Milton wrote 2nd Defence of the English PeopleCromwell
1654.6.7 Louis XIV was crowned at Rheims. Mazarin
1654.6.5 Queen Kristina abdicated to Karl X.
1654 Bishop Ussher calculated creation was in 4004 BC. Ireland
1654 Society of Friends began meetings in London.
1654 John Locke wrote a poem praising Cromwell.
1654 Cadiz had 1,500 African slaves. Felipe IV
1654 Spain’s debt was 120 million ducats. Felipe IV
1654 Portuguese expelled many Dutch from Brazil. Portugal
1654 Comenius published Orbis Pictus.
1654 Brandenburg annexed East Pomerania. German
1654 Polish army killed or captured many Ukrainians. Aleksei
1654.7.9 King Ferdinand IV died of smallpox. Austrian Empire
1654.7 Portugal gave British a trade monopoly. Cromwell
1654.7 English army defeated Scottish rebellion. Scotland
1654.7-8 Condé, Lorraine and Spaniards besieged Arras. Mazarin
1654.8 Royalist invasion of Scotland was suppressed. Cromwell
1654.9.3 Parliament met with 300 members. Cromwell
1654.9.12 Cromwell forced 240 MPs to sign “Recognition.” 
1654.10.12 Delft gunpowder explosion injured thousands. Netherlands
1654.10 Overijssel made Willem III stadtholder.  Netherlands
1654.10.24 Karl X married Hedvig Eleonora.
1654.11.23 Pascal had his second conversion.
1654.12 England joined the war against Spain. Felipe IV
1654.12 Rhenish Alliance was formed. Austrian Empire
1654.12.23 Pope Innocent X welcomed Kristina to Rome. Karl X
1654-55 First Protectorate Parliament passed no bills.
1654-60 King Karl X ruled Sweden.
1655.1 Pascal moved to the Port Royal monastery.
1655.2 Cromwell interviewed George Fox.
1655.3.12 Royalist uprising was suppressed at Salisbury. Protectorate
1655.3 Sweden’s Riksdag gave Karl X war authority.
1655.4.13 Louis XIV ordered Paris Parlement. Mazarin
1655.4 English siege of Santo Domingo failed. Felipe IV
1655.4 Joao IV put missions in Brazil under Jesuits. Portugal
1655.5.19 English took Jamaica from the Spanish. Cromwell Penn Spain
1655.6.13 Swedes led by Karl X landed at Riga. Poland-Lithuania
1655.6 Leopold became King of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1655 Milton published satirical Defense of HimselfCromwell
1655 32 nations had ambassadors in London. Protectorate
1655 Roger Crab published The English Hermit.  Protectorate
1655 William Prynne published The Quakers Unmasked. Quakers
1655 Fuller published Church-History of BritainCharles II
1655 Molière’s The Blunderer played in Lyons.
1655 Isaac de la Peyrère published Prae-AdamitaeNetherlands
1655.7.14 Landrecies surrendered to Turenne’s siege. Mazarin
1655.7 Swedish armies invaded Poland-Lithuania. Karl X Aleksei
1655.7.25 Swedes defeated Poles at Ujście. Karl X Poland-Lithuania
1655.8.9 Cromwell named generals to govern 11 districts.
1655.8 Russian army defeated Lithuanians twice. 
1655.8.17 Karl X & Lithuanian Radziwiłł made a treaty.
1655.9.8 Swedes occupied Warsaw. Karl X Poland-Lithuania
1655.9 Spain embargoed English property. Felipe IV
1655.9 Dutch took over Fort Kristina on the Delaware. Karl X
1655.10 English Book of Common Prayer was banned. Cromwell
1655.10 Swedes defeated and captured Krakow. Karl X Poland-Lithuania
1655.10 Swiss Catholics redid Golden Borromaic League.
1655.10.26 Cromwell allied England with France.
1655.11 Mazarin made a trade treaty with Cromwell.
1655.11 Brandenburg allied with Prussia. Karl X
1655.11-12 Swedes besieged Jasna Góra monastery. Karl X Poland-Lithuania
1655.11.24 Cromwell banned Anglican services.
1655.12.25 Kristina arrived in Rome. Popes
1655.12.29 Potocki organized nobles to fight Swedes. Poland-Lithuania
1655-56 Plague spread from Leyden to Amsterdam. Netherlands
1655-60 Allies fought Sweden in Northern War .German
1656.1.17 Brandenburg & Sweden allied. German Karl X
1656.1.24 Kristina began an academy to discuss ethics. Popes
1656.1.24 Swiss Catholics defeated Bern and Zürich.
1656.2.18 Swedes defeated Poles at Gołąb. Karl X
1656.3.7 Swiss made a peace treaty at Baden.
1656.4.1 Jan II Kazimierz promised to help the serfs. Poland-Lithuania
1656.4 General Hospital opened in Paris. Mazarin
1656.4 Royal edict prohibited begging in Paris. Mazarin
1656.4.22 Charles II in Brussels allied with Spain. Cromwell
1656.4.26 Swedes burned Leszno. Comenius
1656.5 Russia’s Aleksei declared war on Sweden. Karl X
1656.6.25 Parliament permitted Jewish public services. Cromwell
1656.6.25 Sweden’s Karl X allied with Brandenburg.
1656  92 Quakers were arrested in Ireland
1656 Menasseh b. Israel wrote In Defense of the JewsCromwell
1656 Harrington wrote Commonwealth of Oceana.
1656 Spain’s 2 archbishops refused to pay taxes. Felipe IV
1656 Spain rejected a treaty proposed by Mazarin. Felipe IV
1656 Plague killed a million people in Naples.
1656 Transylvania’s Rákóczi II allied with Sweden. Austrian Empire
1656 Descartes’ books were published in Dutch. Netherlands
1656 Huygens invented the pendulum clock. Netherlands
1656 Catholic soldiers burned the Leszno school. Poland-Lithuania
1656.7 German Calvinists condemned Cartesian ideas. Netherlands
1656.7 35,000 Russians invaded Livonia. Karl X
1656.7 Swedes defeated Poles at Warsaw. Karl X Poland-Lithuania
1656.7.27 Amsterdam Jews expelled Spinoza.
1656.7.30 Brandenburg and Swedes captured Warsaw. German
1656.8-10 Russians besieged Riga. Aleksei
1656.9.8 English took Spanish treasure off Cadiz. Cromwell Felipe IV
1656.9 Leopold became King of Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1656.9 Polish cavalry defeated Swedes at Gniew. Poland-Lithuania
1656.10.22 Swedes defeated Lithuanians at Philipowo. Karl X
1656.10.8 Lithuanians & Tatars defeated Swedes at Prostki. Karl X
1656.11.3 Russians made peace with Poland-Lithuania.
1656.11.20 Karl X admitted Friedrich Wilhelm in Prussia. German
1656.12.1 Poland-Lithuania allied with the Austrian Empire.
1656.12.6 Sweden allied with György Rákóczi II. Karl X
1656-57 Turenne’s army besieged Valenciennes. Mazarin
1656-57 Pascal wrote his Provincial Letters.
1656-59 Juan José governed Spanish Netherlands. Felipe IV Netherlands
1656-62 Alfonso VI’s mother Luisa governed Portugal.
1656-79 Count Sinzendorf ran Austria’s finances. Austrian Empire Leopold
1657.1 Transylvania’s Rákóczi invaded Poland-LithuaniaAustrian EmpireKarl X
1657.1.30 English Parliament funded war against Spain. Cromwell
1657.2 Danes & Dutch drove Swedes away from Danzig. Karl X
1657.2.23 Denmark voted for war against Sweden. Frederik III
1657.3.23 France and England allied at Paris. Mazarin Netherlands
1657.4.2 Emperor Ferdinand III died. Austrian Empire
1657.4 English destroyed a Mexican convoy by Canaries. Felipe IV
1657.4.19 Transylvanians and Swedes captured Lublin. Austrian Empire
1657.5.25 Parliament added a new House of Lords. Cromwell
1657.6.16 Academy of Experiment began in Florence. Tuscany
1657.6.17 Transylvanians and Swedes captured Warsaw. Austrian Empire
1657 Brian Walton completed 6-volume Polyglot BibleCromwell
1657 William Coles published Adam in Eden.  Cromwell
1657 France had an army of more than 200,000 men. Mazarin
1657 Paul Scarron wrote Roman comiqueMazarin
1657 Cyrano wrote Histoire Comique des EtatsMazarin
1657 Dutch blockaded Lisbon for three months. Portugal Netherlands
1657 Turks took over Tenedos and Lemnos islands. Venice
1657 Comenius published Didactica Opera Omnia.
1657 Stockholm Bank issued first bank notes. Karl X
1657.7 Denmark declared war on Sweden. Karl X
1657.7 Empire & Poland defeated Transylvanians. Austrian Empire
1657.7.31 Tatars defeated Transylvanians. Austrian Empire August II
1657.8.6 Bohdan Khmelnytsky died. Poland-Lithuania 1648-73
1657.9.19 Poland-Lithuania & Denmark made peace at Wehlau. German
1657.10.24 Frederiksodde garrison capitulated to Swedes. Frederik III
1657.11.3 Transylvanian Estates elected Ferenc Rhédry. Austrian Empire
1657.11.30 Louis XIV ordered Provence to pay for soldiers. Mazarin
1657.11.6 Friedrich-Wilhelm and Poland-Lithuania allied. German
1657.12.7 Pope Alexander VII reprovedProvincial Letters.
1657-59 English blockaded the Spanish coast. Felipe IV
1657-59 Bishop Comenius aided Protestants.
1657-61 France had bad harvests. Fronde Revolt
1658.1 Transylvanian Estates recognized Rákóczi II. Austrian Empire
1658.1.30 Swedes crossed ice to attack Fünen. Frederik III Karl X
1658.2.26 Denmark & Sweden got peace at Roskilde. Frederik III Karl X
1658.2-7 Tax rebellion spread in southern France. Mazarin
1658.4 Peasants rioted in Sologne and were suppressed. Mazarin
1658.6.14 French and British captured Dunkirk. Mazarin Felipe IV Netherlands
1658.6 France gave Dunkirk to the English. Cromwell Mazarin
1658 Newcastle produced 529,032 tons of coal. Cromwell
1658 Quakers held Yearly Meeting for all of England.
1658 Davenant’s Cruelty of Spaniards in Peru played.
1658 France gained Furnes, Gravelines, Menin, Ypres. Mazarin
1658 Fouquet bought the Belle isle fortress. Mazarin
1658 Spanish army had 70,000 men in Flanders. Netherlands
1658 Poland-Lithuania banished Arians.
1658.7 Tsar Aleksei restrained Patriarch Nikon.
1658.7-10 Portuguese besieged Badajoz. Felipe IV
1658.7.18 Germans elected Leopold Emperor.  Austrian Empire
1658.8.14 France allied with fifty German princes. Mazarin Leopold
1658.9.3 Cromwell died, succeeded by his son Richard.
1658.9.6 Hetman Vyhovskyi signed a treaty with Poland. Aleksei
1658.9 Imperial allies attacked Holstein. German
1658.9 Swedes invaded Norway and besieged Halden.
1658.9.16 Cossack Hetman Wyhowski accepted Ruthenia. Poland-Lithuania
1658.10 Spaniards defeated Portuguese at Badajoz.  Felipe IV
1658.10-12 Norwegians besieged Trondheim. Norway
1658.11 Dutch relieved Swedish siege of Copenhagen. Netherlands
1658.12 Molière’s Sganarelle opened in Paris.
1658.12.20 Russia & Sweden made a treaty at Valiesar. Karl X Aleksei
1658-63 Russia’s copper coins caused wild inflation. Aleksei
1659.1 Portuguese defeated Spanish at Elvas. Portugal
1659.1.21 Denmark and Brandenburg made a treaty. Frederik III
1659.2 Milton published A Treatise of Civil PowerEngland
1659.2.11 Swedes failed to take Copenhagen. Frederik III Karl X
1659.2.15 Republicans presented The Humble PetitionEngland
1659.4.22 Richard Cromwell dissolved Parliament. England
1659.5.7 France and Spain agreed to a truce. Mazarin
1659.5.7 General Fleetwood recalled the Rump Parliament. England
1659.5.22 Ruthenia joined Poland-Lithuania.
1659.5.25 Richard Cromwell resigned. England
1659 Thomas Willis described typhoid fever. Cromwell
1659 Harrington wrote Aphorisms Political.
1659 Davenant’s opera The Siege of Rhodes played.
1659 Davenant’s History of Sir Francis Drake played.
1659 Henry More published Immortality of the SoulCharles II
1659 Perrin’s Pastorale was the first opera in French. Mazarin
1659 Royal Library was founded in Berlin. German
1659 Praetorius published Ludicrum Chiromanticum.  German
1659.7 Russian army was devastated at Konotop. Aleksei
1659.7.23 Swedes defeated Danes & Dutch in Ebeltoft Bay.  Karl X
1659.8.23 Lambert’s army defeated royalists near Northwich. England
1659.9 Ukraine recognized Yuri Khmelnytsky as hetman. Aleksei
1659.10.13 Lambert’s army dissolved the Rump Parliament. England
1659.11.14 Swedes surrendered Nyborg. Frederik III
1659.11.7 France & Spain agreed on Pyrenees peace. Mazarin
1659.11.18 Molière’s Affected Young Ladies opened.
1659.12.13 Irish officers declared a parliament in Dublin. Ireland
1659.12.26 English Parliament reconvened. England
1659-75 Domenico Contarini was Doge of Venice.
1660.1-69.5 Samuel Pepys kept a diary. Charles II
1660.2.13 Sweden’s Karl X died of pneumonia.
1660.2.3 General Monck’s army entered London. England
1660.2 Milton wrote in favor of republican government. England
1660.2 John Tatham’s The Rump was performed. Plays
1660.2 Norwegians defeated Swedes at Hundebunden. Norway
1660.2.21 Rump Parliament recalled Presbyterians. England
1660.3.2 Louis XIV changed Marseille’s administration. Mazarin
1660.3.13 Rump Parliament annulled 1650 Engagement. England
1660.3.16 Rump Parliament dissolved itself. England
1660.4.4 Charles II issued his Declaration of Breda. England
1660.5.3 Mazarin mediated peace at Oliwa. Karl XI Poland-Lithuania
1660.4.25 Convention Parliament met in London. England
1660.5.1 Convention Parliament invited Charles II.
1660.5.17 Ottoman Turks defeated Transylvanians at Gilau. Austrian Empire
1660.5.14 Irish Convention proclaimed King Charles II. Ireland
1660.5.14 Scots celebrated restoration of Charles II. Scotland
1660.5.27 Copenhagen treaty settled Scandinavian borders. Karl XI
1660.5.27 Denmark & Sweden signed Copenhagen treaty. Frederik III
1660.5.29 Charles II arrived in London. England
1660.6.7 Rákóczi II died. Austrian Empire
1660.6.9 Louis XIV married Maria Teresa. Mazarin Felipe IV
1660 Catholics owned only 9% of Ireland’s land.
1660 James Howell published Lexicon TetraglottonCharles II
1660 George Fox and 11 signed Quaker declaration.
1660 Imperial army had 18,000 troops in Hungary. Austrian Empire
1660  Otto von Guericke predicted a storm. German
1660 Staedtler began a pencil factory in Nuremberg. German
1660 Pufendorf published Universal Jurisprudence.
1660 Russian army in Volynia surrendered. Aleksei
1660.7.8 Poland-Lithuania defeated Russians.
1660.8 Charles II authorized two theatrical companies. Theatre
1660.8.29 Parliament pardoned all but 57 people. Charles II
1660.9 Parliament passed a Navigation Act. Charles II
1660.9 Charles II ended England’s war against Spain. Felipe IV
1660.9.26 States of Holland repealed the Exclusion Act. Netherlands
1660.9.27 Vincent de Paul died. Mazarin
1660.10 Poland-Lithuania defeated Yuri Khmelnytsky’s Cossacks.
1660.10.25 Charles II proclaimed liberty for Christians.
1660.11.4 Denmark created administrative departments. Frederik III
1660.11 Royal Society was founded in London. Charles II
1660-97 Karl XI was King of Sweden.
1661.1.1 Transylvanian Estates elected Janos Kemény. Austrian Empire
1661.1.3 Willem’s mother Mary Henrietta died of smallpox. Netherlands
1661.1.3 Polish Mercury began publishing at Krakow. Poland-Lithuania
1661.1.6 Thomas Venner led a 5th Monarchy uprising. Charles II
1661.1.10 Denmark got Autocratic Hereditary Government. Frederik III
1661.1 Relacion o Gazeta began publishing in Spain. Felipe IV
1661.1.22 Charles II banned dissenting meetings in Ireland.
1661.2 Denmark created a supreme court. Frederik III
1661.3.8 Jean Baptiste Colbert was made an intendant. Louis XIV
1661.3.9 Cardinal Mazarin died, left money to the Pope.
1661.3.10 Louis XIV declared that he would rule.
1661.3.21 Louis XIV ordered nobility titles searched.
1661.3.31 Charles’ sister Henrietta married Duke of Orléans. Charles II
1661.4 Il Mondo Festeggiante ballet danced in Florence. Tuscany
1661.4-7  Anglican and Presbyterian leaders met. Charles II
1661.5.8 Cavalier Parliament began. Charles II
1661.5 Louis XIV exiled Comte de Soissons for dueling.
1661.5 Treaty at Oliva ended Northern War. German
1661.5.17 Norway’s Estates accepted King Frederik III.
1661.5.20 Church of England was re-established. Charles II
1661.5.27 8th Earl of Argyll was beheaded in Scotland.
1661.6.23 Portugal signed a treaty with England.
1661.6.24 Molière’s School for Husbands opened.
1661.6.21 Sweden made peace with Russia at Kardis. Karl XI Aleksei
1661.6.30 House of Lords restored the bishops. Charles II
1661 Robert Boyle published The Skeptical ChymistCharles II
1661 Evelyn published Fumifugium on London smoke. Charles II
1661 Davenant opened Lincoln’s Inn Theatre.
1661 Brandenburg made a treaty with England. German
1661 Poor harvest in Denmark caused hunger. Frederik III
1661 Russia required squires to return peasants. Aleksei
1661.7 Committee for Trade and Plantations was formed. Charles II
1661.9.5 Louis XIV had Fouquet arrested.
1661.9 Transylvania executed Akos Barcsay. Austrian Empire
1661.10 Louis XIV had the Spanish ambassador recalled.
1661.11.1 Queen Marie-Thérèse gave birth to Louis. Louis XIV
1661.11.6 Carlos II was born with severe disabilities.
1661.11 Molière’s The Pests opened in Paris.
1661.12 Dutch & Spanish divided southern Netherlands.
1661.12.20 Corporation Act excluded dissident municipalities. Charles II
1661-62 300 were executed for witchcraft in Scotland.
1661-64 9th Earl of Glencairn was Chancellor of Scotland.
1662.1.6 Vieira asked Joao IV to help the Indians. Portugal
1662.1 Emperor Leopold’s advisor Leopold Wilhelm died. Austrian Empire
1662.1.22 Turks defeated Transylvanians at Nagyszöllös. Austrian Empire
1662.3 Parliament imposed the hearth tax. Charles II Ireland
1662.4.10  Charles II granted forfeited rights in Ireland.
1662.4.27  Johan de Witt allied with France.
1662.5 Uniformity Act imposed Book of Common PrayerCharles II
1662.5 Spaniards led by Juan José invaded Portugal.
1662.5.21 Charles II married Catarina de Bragança. Charles II Portugal
1662.6.14 Henry Vane was beheaded for treason. Charles II
1662.6 Louis XIV sent Duke of Créqui to the Vatican. Popes
1662 England’s Press Act required licenses for printing.Charles II
1662 Britain had 1,300 Quakers in prison.  Charles II
1662 Margaret Cavendish published 14 plays. Charles II
1662 Thomas Fuller published Worthies of EnglandCharles II
1662 Thomas Gouge began teaching children in Wales. Charles II
1662 English Parliament banned export of Irish wool. Ireland
1662 Joseph Glanville published Lux OrientalisVegetarians
1662 Louis XIV lowered the tailles tax.
1662 Hungry in Boulonnais rebelled & were punished. Louis XIV
1662 Louis XIV imposed censorship.
1662 De la Court published Interest van HollandNetherlands Netherlands
1662 Denmark created civil districts under amtmen.  Frederik III
1662 Norwegian burghers gained privileges. Norway
1662.7 Russians defeated Khmelnytsky’s Cossacks. Aleksei
1662.7 Russians protested inflation at Tsar’s palace. Aleksei
1662.7.28 Iceland assembly accepted King Frederik III.
1662.8.19 Blaise Pascal died of illness.
1662.8.20 Roman guards besieged French embassy. Louis XIV
1662.8.24 1,909 dissenting clergy lost parishes in Britain. Charles II
1662.9 Netherlands allied with England.
1662.10 France bought Dunkirk for 3,500,000 livres. Louis XIV
1662.10.27 Britain sold Dunkirk to France for £400,000.  Charles II
1662.12.26 Molière’s School for Wives opened.
1662-68 Marquess of Ormonde governed Ireland.
1663.1.10 Charles II chartered the Royal African Company.
1663.3.23 Charles II rewarded 8 nobles with colonial land.
1663.4 Cavalier Parliament repealed the Triennial Act. Charles II
1663.4 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV declared war. Austrian Empire
1663.4.20 Danes took Fort Christiansborg and Carlsborg. Frederik III
1663.5 Duke’s Players opened Theatre Royal.
1663.6.1 Molière’s Critique of the School for Wives.
1663.6.8 Portuguese routed Spanish at Ameixial. Felipe IV Portugal
1663 England began turnpike tolls. Charles II
1663 Colbert founded academies of letters and art. Louis XIV
1663 Maria de Guevara wrote “Treatise on Warnings.”  Spain
1663 Portugal made peace with the Dutch.
1663 Academy of Investigation began in Naples.
1663 Brandenburg aided Austrians against the Turks. German
1663 Gryphius wrote satirical HorribilicribrifaxGerman Swiss
1663 Vondel’s The Batavian Brothers played. Netherlands
1663 Empire sent Bishop of Münster money. Netherlands
1663 Denmark joined the Rhenish Alliance. Frederik III
1663.7.15 Irish rebels were punished. Ireland
1663.7.25 States of Holland re-elected Johan de Witt.
1663.7.27 Staple Act restricted trade of British colonists. Charles II
1663.7.8 Charles II gave Rhode Island religious freedom.
1663.9 Swiss extended mercenary service.
1663.11 Polish allies invaded eastern Ukraine. Aleksei
1663-64 Locke wrote Essays on Natural Law.
1663-68 Count of Castelo Melhor governed Portugal.
1664.1 Louis danced in Molière’s The Forced Marriage
1664.1 Imperial Diet approved 21,000 troops. Austrian Empire
1664.1 Miklos Zrinyi led attack on Turkish Hungary. Austrian Empire
1664.2.12 Pope Alexander VII & Louis XIV made a deal.
1664.3.22 Charles II gave his brother James colonial land. 
1664.5 Versailles held the Festival of Pleasures. Louis XIV
1664.5 Dutch invaded Münster, took Dijlerschans fort. Netherlands
1664.6 Turks captured Zerinvar fortress in Hungary. Austrian Empire
1664.6.20 Racine’s La Thébaide opened in Paris.
1664 Conventicle Act persecuted religious dissenters. Charles II
1664 Quaker Margaret Fell was sentenced to life.
1664 Evelyn wrote Sylva, a Discourse of Forest TreesVegetarians
1664 The Indian Queen by Dryden & Howard played.
1664 Colbert began Council of Commerce. Louis XIV
1664 Colbert’s mercantilism imposed tariffs. Louis XIV Netherlands
1664 France formed East and West Indies Companies. Louis XIV
1664 Rancé founded silent Trappist order at Soligny. Quietism
1664 Maria de Guevara wrote on “Valorous Women.” Spain
1664 Portugal mobilized an army of 28,000 men.
1664 Friedrich Wilhelm banned Lutheran syncretism. German
1664 Pufendorf wrote State of the German Empire.
1664 24,000 died of plague in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1664 Russia began hunting fugitive peasants. Aleksei
1664 Russia began a postal service. Aleksei
1664.7.4 Portuguese beat Spaniards at Castelo Rodrigo. Felipe IV
1664.7.29 Cardinal Chigi apologized to Louis XIV.
1664.8.1 Rhine League defeated Turks near St. Gotthard. Austrian Empire
1664.9.4 Leopold ratified treaty with the Turks. Austrian Empire
1664.9.8 English changed New Amsterdam to New York. Netherlands
1664.9 Bishop of Münster declared war on the Dutch. Netherlands
1664.12.20 Louis XIV imprisoned Fouquet for life with no books.
1664-67 2nd Anglo-Dutch war was fought. Netherlands
1664-69 Ulrik Frederik Gyldenlöve governed Norway.
1665.2.14 Molière’s tragicomedy Don Juan opened.
1665.2 Emperor Leopold decided to rule himself. Austrian Empire
1665.2.22 England declared war on the Dutch.  Charles II
1665.6.3 English defeated the Dutch off Lowestoft. Charles II Netherlands
1665.6.17 Portuguese beat Spanish at Montes Claros. Felipe IV Portugal
1665 British jurors must own land. Charles II
1665 Dryden’s The Indian Emperor played.
1665 Boileau’s Satire V portrayed the nobles.
1665 Dutch spent 30 million guilders on war. Netherlands
1665 Arnold Geulincx published Ethics (De virtute)Netherlands
1665 Enden’s Free Political Institutions was published. Spinoza
1665 Denmark made a secret treaty with England. Frederik III
1665 Jerzy Lubomirski led a rebellion in Poland-Lithuania.
1665.7.14 Jan Sobieski married Marysieńka.
1665.8.11 Dutch made De Ruyter navy commander. Netherlands
1665.8 Louis XIV became patron of Molière’s company.
1665.9 87 nobles in Clermont were condemned. Louis XIV
1665.9.17 Spain’s Felipe IV died of illness. Felipe IV
1665.10.11 Ukrainian hetman & Tsar Aleksei agreed.
1665.10 5-Mile Act restricted nonconformist preaching. Charles II
1665.11.14 Denmark got the new King’s Law. Frederik III
1665.11.16 London Gazette began publishing from Oxford.  Charles II
1665.12.4 Racine’s Alexander the Great opened.
1665-66 Plague killed nearly 100,000 Londoners.  Charles II
1665-67 Inquisition imprisoned Antonio Vieira. Portugal
1665-78 La Rochefoucauld published his Moral Maxims.
1665-1700 Feeble Carlos II was King of Spain.
1666.1.20 Queen Mother Anne died of breast cancer. Louis XIV
1666.2 Denmark allied with the Dutch. Frederik III
1666.4 Dutch and Münster made peace at Cleves. Netherlands
1666.4 Holland adopted Prince Willem of Orange. Netherlands
1666.6 Dutch defeated English off North Foreland. Charles II Netherlands
1666.6 Molière’s The Misanthrope opened.
1666 Margaret Fell wrote Women’s Speaking JustifiedQuakers
1666 Colbert founded Academy of Sciences. Louis XIV
1666 Oriental Trading Company began in Vienna. Austrian Empire
1666 Hymn-writer Paul Gerhardt was dismissed. German
1666 Münster overran Drenthe and invaded Frisia. Netherlands
1666 Dutch and allies controlled the Baltic Sea. Netherlands
1666 Danes colonized the Virgin Islands. Denmark
1666 Poet Simeon of Polotsk began a Latin school. Aleksei
1666 Juraj Križanić wrote On PoliticsAleksei
1666.7.13 Lubomirski’s rebels won battle of Mątwy. Poland-Lithuania Sobieski
1666.8.4 English defeated the Dutch at Terschelling. Netherlands
1666.8 Molière’s Doctor in Spite of Himself opened.
1666.8 Bording published Denmark’s first newspaper. Frederik III
1666.9.2-6 Fire destroyed much of London. Charles II
1666.9.20  Austrian Jesuit Nithard was naturalized in Spain.
1666.10.11 Dutch beheaded Henri Buat for conspiracy. Netherlands
1666.11.15 Scots rebelled in Galloway.  Scotland
1666.12.12 Leopold married Spain’s Margaret Theresa. Austrian Empire
1666.12 Il pomo d’oro opera was performed in Vienna. Austrian Empire
1666.12 Treaty divided Jülich-Cleves. German
1666.12 Nikon was imprisoned in a monastery. Aleksei
1666-67 Unemployment & taxes caused riots in London. Charles II
1666-69 Nithard was Inquisitor General. Spain
1666-69 138,000 people died in Candia. Venice
1667.2.9 Poland-Lithuania and Russia made a treaty. Aleksei
1667.3 Charles II and Louis XIV made a secret treaty. Charles II
1667.3 Portugal allied with France.
1667.4 French put tariff on Dutch fine cloth. Netherlands
1667.5.8 Louis XIV claimed land in NetherlandsSpain
1667.5.24 Louis XIV began the War of Devolution. Netherlands
1667.6.18 Dutch navy invaded the Thames River. Charles II Netherlands
1667 Dryden’s tragicomedy Secret Love opened.
1667 Louis XIV took Montespan as his mistress.
1667 Pierre Corneille’s Attila played.
1667 Dutch blockaded southeast England. Netherlands
1667 Russia implemented mercantile policies. Aleksei
1667.7 Pope Clement IX sent 30,000 scudi to Venice.
1667.7.21 Treaty of Breda ended 2nd Anglo-Dutch War. Charles IINetherlands
1667.8.5 Molière’sTartuffewas banned.
1667.8 French captured Bergues, Ath, Tournai, etc. Louis XIV
1667.9.14 Mariana put Juan José in charge in Flanders. Spain
1667.9.25 Lille surrendered to the French. Louis XIV
1667.10 Sobieski’s army beat Tatars at Podhajce. Poland-Lithuania
1667.11 Louis XIV revised civil procedure without debate.
1667.11 Infante Pedro began ruling in Portugal. Spain
1667.11 Grigorii Kotoshikin, author of On Russia, died. Aleksei
1667.11.17 Racine’s Andromache opened. 
1667.12 Earl of Clarendon was banished for life.  Charles II
1667, 1674 John Milton published Paradise Lost.
1668.1.13 Molière’s Amphitryon opened.
1668.1 Hetman Doroshenko & Tatars rebelled. Aleksei
1668.1.23 Dutch, England and Sweden allied. Netherlands
1668.1-4 Charles II allied with the Dutch and Sweden. Charles II
1668.2.13 Spain recognized Portugal’s independence.
1668.2 Louis XIV went to war against the Triple Alliance.
1668.2.20  Robert Howard’s The Great Favourite opened.
1668.3 Swiss Confederation strengthened Defensionale.
1668.5.2 Pope Clement IX mediated peace with France. Louis XIV
1668.6.2 Mallada was executed for a plot against Nithard. Spain
1668.6.8 Doroshenko had the Ukrainian Hetman killed. Aleksei
1668 John Wilkins proposed decimal metric system.  Charles II
1668 Isaac Newton built a reflecting telescope.
1668 Nell Gwynn became Charles II’s mistress. Restoration
1668 Colbert became secretary of state. Louis XIV
1668 Boileau’s Satire VIII criticized theologian Morel.
1668 La Fontaine published 124 Fables.
1668 Venice lost 4,600 soldiers on Crete.
1668 Comenius published The Way of Light.
1668 Grimmelshausen publishedSimplicissimus.
1668 University of Lund was founded. Karl XI
1668 Poland-Lithuania outlawed leaving the Catholic religion.
1668.9.9 Molière’s The Miser opened.
1668.9.16 Jan II Kazimierz abdicated to be an abbot. Poland-Lithuania
1668.11 Molière’s Georges Dandin opened in Paris. 
1668.11 Racine’s comedy The Litigants played.
1668.11 Pope Clement IX granted Kristina a pension.
1668, 1673 Peasants rebelled in the Austrian Empire. Leopold
1668-76 Solovetskii Monastery withstood a siege. Aleksei
1668-83 Pedro governed Portugal as Prince Regent.
1669.1 Pope Clement IX ended persecution of Jansenists.
1669.2.4 Pope Clement IX declared a jubilee for France.
1669.2.5 Molière’sTartuffere-opened.
1669.2 Tsar Aleksei made concessions to Ukrainians.
1669.6.7 Scottish Privy Council restored ministers. Scotland
1669.6.25 6,000 French attacked Turks at Candia. Venice
1669 James informed Charles II he was Catholic. Charles II
1669 French court began drinking coffee. Louis XIV
1669 Portugal renewed its treaty with Holland.
1669 Jan Swammerdam published History of InsectsNetherlands
1669 English and French invaded the Dutch Republic. Netherlands
1669 Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus printed. Netherlands
1669 Dutch writers formed a literary society. Netherlands
1669 Steno explained fossils and stratigraphy. Frederik III
1669 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV allied with Cossacks. Poland-Lithuania
1669 Belgorod and Sevsk armies had 112,000 men. Aleksei
1669.8.13 Louis XIV forced Parlement to register 25 new laws.
1669.9.6 Candia’s garrison surrendered and left. Venice
1669.11 Dutch imposed tariffs on French imports. Netherlands
1669.12.13 Racine’s Britannicus opened.
1669-70 Leopold ordered all Jews to leave Vienna. Austrian Empire
1669-73 King Michał ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1669-76 Juan José was viceroy of Aragon. Spain
1670.2.9 Frederik III died, succeeded by Kristian V.
1670.2.27 King Michał married Leopold’s daughter. Poland-Lithuania
1670.4 Leopold arrested conspirators against him. Austrian Empire
1670.5.2 Charles II chartered the Hudson Bay Company.
1670.5.22 Charles II made a secret treaty with France.
1670.5-8 Austrian army invaded Hungary. Austrian Empire
1670.6.1 France & England made a secret treaty at Dover. Louis XIV
1670 Milton published Paradise Regained & Samson.
1670 Mouton measured the Earth decimally. Louis XIV
1670 Louis XIV founded a home for disabled soldiers.
1670 French forces occupied Lorraine. Louis XIV
1670 Louvois introduced French army uniforms. Louis XIV
1670 Pascal’s Pensées (Thoughts) was published.
1670 Cologne elector & Münster bishop aided French. German
1670 Stenka Razin led a Cossack revolt. Aleksei
1670.7 Colbert prevented sorcery trials at Rouen. Louis XIV
1670.7  Griffenfeldt formed Denmark’s Privy Council.
1670.7.18 Spain made peace with England.
1670.7.24 City of Vienna bought the Jewish quarter. Austrian Empire
1670.8 Louis XIV had Paris ramparts demolished.
1670.11.21 Racine’s Bérénice opened.
1670.11.23 Molière’s The Bourgeois Gentleman opened.
1670-71 Dryden’s tragedy Conquest of Granada played.
1670-72 John Berkeley governed Ireland for Catholics.
1670-74 Claude Lamoral was viceroy of Sicily.
1670-99 Kristian V ruled Denmark and Norway.
1670-1723 Cosimo III ruled Florence. Tuscany
1671.3 Wycherley’s comedy Love in a Wood opened.
1671.3 Imperial troops occupied towns in Hungary. Leopold
1671.4.30 Petar Zrinyi and 5 others were executed. Leopold
1671.6 German states allied against the French.
1671 English government dismissed tax farmers. Charles II
1671 Chief Justice Vaughan recognized jury rights. Quakers
1671 King’s Players opened Dorset Garden Theatre.
1671 Pope Clement X allowed nobles to be merchants.
1671 Palermo spent a million scudi to subsidize bread. Sicily
1671 Austrian Empire imprisoned 2,000 rebels. Leopold
1671 Dutch spent 8,700,000 guilders on the military. Netherlands
1671.11 Dryden’s comedy Marriage a la Mode opened.
1671.11 Leopold was neutral in the Franco-Dutch war. Louis XIV
1672.1.2 England stopped paying back loans. Charles II
1672.1.5 Racine’s Bajazet opened.
1672.2 Leopold set up a Hungarian Chamber.
1672.2.24 Dutch made Willem III admiral-general. Netherlands
1672.3.11 Molière’s The Learned Ladies opened.
1672.3.15 Declaration of Indulgence lasted one year. Charles II
1672.3.17 Charles II declared war on the Dutch. Netherlands
1672.4.6 France declared war on the Dutch. Louis XIV Netherlands
1672.4 Doroshenko aided Turks’ invasion of Ukraine.Aleksei
1672.5.2 Brandenburg allied with the Dutch. German Netherlands
1672.6.12 French army crossed the Rhine. Louis XIV Netherlands
1672.6.15 Amsterdam flooded fields to halt French. Louis XIV Netherlands
1672.6 Austria allied with Brandenburg-Prussia.  Leopold German
1672.6 Utrecht surrendered to the French. Louis XIV Netherlands
1672.6.21 Johan de Witt was wounded with a knife. 
1672 English Africa Co. got a monopoly on slave trade. Charles II
1672 Petty published The Political Anatomy of IrelandIreland
1672 Louis XIV ransomed 20,000 Dutch prisoners.
1672 Black plague killed 60,000 people in Lyons. Louis XIV
1672 Pope Clement X gave 125,946 scudi to the poor.
1672 Famine in Naples led to gangs robbing.
1672 Pufendorf wrote Law of Nature and of Nations.
1672 Dutch experienced a year of disaster. Netherlands Willem III
1672 Dutch allied with Empire and Brandenburg. Willem III
1672 Sweden allied with France. Karl XI
1672 Moscow’s first plays were by Gregorii. Aleksei
1672.7.2-8 Zeeland & Holland made Willem III Stadtholder. Netherlands
1672.7.9 French captured Nijmegen. Netherlands
1672.7 Holland judges banished Cornelis de Witt. Netherlands
1672.8.4 Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt resigned. Netherlands
1672.8.20 The Hague mob murdered the De Witt brothers. Netherlands
1672.8.27 Holland gave Willem power over councils.
1672.9 Kurucs began attacking imperial garrisons. Leopold
1672.9 French occupied the Dutch Republic. Willem III
1672.9 Denmark allied with the Empire & Brandenburg.
1672.9 Turks captured Kamieniec Podolski. Poland-Lithuania
1672.10.18 Sobieski made a treaty with the Turks. Poland-Lithuania
1672.11 Pope Clement X sent a subsidy to Poland.
1672.12 Austrian Empire allied with Dutch. Leopold
1672.12 Karl XI confirmed Chancellor de la Gardie.
1672-73 French army fought Germans along the Rhine. Louis XIV
1672, 1674 French invaded Franche Comté. Swiss
1672-77 Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex, governed Ireland.
1673.1 Racine’s Mithridate played.
1673.2 Parlement could no longer object to royal edicts. Louis XIV
1673.2.10 Molière’s The Hypochondriac opened.
1673.2.17 Molière’s died after a performance.
1673.3.8 Test Act established Church of England. Charles II
1673.6.6 Brandenburg made peace with France. Louis XIV German
1673.6 Dutch defeated Anglo-French fleet off Zeeland. Willem III
1673 Plantation Duty Act restricted colonial trade. Charles II
1673 Wycherley’s Gentleman Dancing-Master.
1673 Imperial army drove French from the Rhine. Leopold
1673 William Temple published ObservationsWillem III
1673 Kristian V appointed Griffenfeldt chancellor. Denmark
1673.7.1 Maastricht surrendered to the French.  Louis XIV
1673.7 Willem III of Orange allied with Denmark. 
1673.8 Spain supported Dutch against the French. Willem III
1673.9.1 Dutch EIC defeated English East India Co. Willem III
1673.9.30 Duke James married Mary Beatrice of Modena. Charles II
1673.10.16 Spain declared war on France. Louis XIV
1673.11.11 Sobieski’s army defeated Turks at Khotyn. Poland-Lithuania
1673.11.12 Willem III led capture of Bonn. 
1673.11.9 Charles II dismissed Chancellor Shaftesbury.
1673-75 Austrian Empire persecuted Hungarians. Leopold
1674.2.19 Treaty ended 3rd Anglo-Dutch War. Charles II Willem III
1674.4 Dutch readmitted 3 provinces. Willem III
1674.5.3 Swiss Diet at Baden declared neutrality.
1674.5 French troops left Gelderland and Overijssel.  Willem III
1674.5.28 Imperial Diet declared war on France. Louis XIV Austrian Empire
1674.6.30 Denmark allied with Holland.
1674 Willis diagnosed diabetes by blood sugar.  Charles II
1674 Tax rebellion broke out in Roussillon. Louis XIV
1674 Boileau published L’Art poétique.
1674 Spanish troops suppressed a revolt in Sicily. Spain
1674 French defeated imperialists, ravaged Palatinate. Leopold
1674 Germans allied with the Austrian Empire. Leopold German
1674 Denmark began diplomatic relations with China.
1674 Louis XIV made Swedes attack Brandenburg. Karl XI
1674.7 Dutch banned Spinoza’s Theologico-Politicus.
1674.8.11 French defeated Dutch allies at Seneffe. Louis XIV Willem III
1674.10.16 Leopold banished Prince Lobkovic.
1674.11.27 Franciscus van den Enden was hanged in Paris. Netherlands
1674.12 Racine’s Iphigénie played.
1674, 1676 Austria prohibited French imports. Leopold
1674-76 Messina revolt was aided by the French. Sicily
1674-81 Clement XI suspended Inquisition in Portugal.
1674-96 King Jan III Sobieski ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1675.1.5 French defeated allies at Turckheim.  Louis XIV German
1675.1.12 Wycherley’s The Country Wife opened.
1675.3.17 Norway’s teachers needed a bachelor’s degree.
1675.4 French occupied Sicily. Louis XIV
1675.5 French troops invaded Catalonia. Spain
1675.6.11 Jan III Sobieski made a secret treaty with Louis XIV.
1675.6 Shadwell’s comedy The Libertine opened.
1675.6.18 Brandenburg beat Swedes at Fehrbellin. German Karl XI
1675 Thomas Traherne’s Christian Ethics published. Charles II
1675 John Flamsteed equipped Greenwich observatory. Charles II
1675 William Penn wrote “A Treatise of Oaths.” 
1675 Dryden’s tragedy Aureng-Zebe played.
1675 Tax rebellion erupted in Brittany. Louis XIV
1675 Miguel de Molinos published his Spiritual GuideSpain
1675 Brandenburg formed a navy. German
1675 Pietist Philipp Spener published Pia desideriaPufendorf
1675 Russia prohibited selling peasants without land. Aleksei
1675.7.2 Danes defeated the Swedes at Køge Bay. Denmark
1675.7.27 Marshal Turenne was killed by a cannonball. Louis XIV Austrian Empire
1675.8.1 Imperial army defeated the French at Altenheim. Leopold
1675.8 Danes invaded Mecklenburg in Scanian War. Denmark
1675.8.24 Sobieski’s army defeated Turks at Lwów.
1675.9 Sobieski aided Magyar rebels against Austria.
1675.9.18 Duke Charles IV of Lorraine died. Louis XIV
1675.11 14-year-old Carlos II was declared of age.
1675.11 Cardinal Leopoldo died in Florence. Tuscany
1675.11 Empire annexed Liegnitz, Brieg, and Wohlau. Leopold
1676.2 Leopold released Protestant clergy.
1676.3.2 Etherege’s comedy The Man of Mode opened.
1676.3.11 Kristian V had Griffenfeldt arrested for treason. Denmark
1676.4 Danish navy led by Nils Juel captured Gotland. Denmark
1676.4.22 Admiral De Ruyter was mortally wounded. Willem III
1676.6.1 Danish-Dutch fleet beat Swedes off Öland. Denmark Karl XI
1676.6.16 Louis XIV ordered a hospital in every major city.
1676.6.29 Danes seized Helsingborg. Denmark
1676 Sydenham published Observations of MedicineCharles II
1676 Shadwell’s comedy The Virtuoso played.
1676 French armies invaded the Spanish Netherlands. Louis XIV
1676 Leeuwenhoek detected single-celled organisms. Netherlands
1676.8 Turks invaded southern Poland. Sobieski
1676.8.17 Swedes defeated Danes at Fyllebro. Denmark Norway
1676.10.17 Poland and Turks agreed to an armistice. Sobieski
1676.11 Willem III expelled Cocceians from Zeeland.
1676.12.4 Swedes led by Karl defeated Danes at Lund. Denmark Karl XI
1676.12.14 Leopold married Eleonore of Neuburg.
1676.12 Wycherley’s comedy The Plain Dealer opened.
1676.12 Doroshenko’s rebels surrendered. Russia
1676-80 Johan Gyllenstierna was Chancellor of Sweden. Karl XI
1676-82 Miloslavskii helped Fyodor III rule Russia.
1676-84 Doge Alvise Contarini presided in Venice.
1676-89 Pope Innocent XI spent 5 million florins on war.
1676-98 Count Griffenfeldt was held in prison. Denmark
1677.1.1 Racine’s Phèdre opened.
1677.1 Juan José led an army from Aragon to Madrid. Spain
1677.1 Favorite Valenzuela was banished to Philippines. Spain
1677.2.21 Spinoza died of tuberculosis.
1677.3 Aphra Behn’s The Rover Part 1 opened.
1677.4.11 French defeated the Dutch at Mont-Cassel. Louis XIV Willem III
1677.4 Zaragoza Cortes voted supplies for troops. Spain
1677.5 Peace talks began at Nijmegen.  Louis XIV
1677.5.31 Danish navy defeated Swedes. Karl XI
1677.6 45,000 Turks besieged Chyhyryn. Russia
1677.6.26 Danes attacked Malmö. Denmark
1677 Boileau & Racine became royal historiographers.
1677 Dutch army expanded to 77,000 men. Willem III
1677 Spinoza’s Ethics was published.
1677 Pufendorf became Sweden’s Historiographer.
1677.7.1-2 Danes led by Nils Juel beat Swedes at Køge Bay. Denmark
1677.7.14 Swedes defeated Danes at Landskrona. Denmark Karl XI
1677.8 Russians defeated Turks & Tatars at Chyhyryn.
1677.8.21 Sobieski’s Poland allied with Sweden.
1677.8.28 Norwegians defeated Swedes at Uddevalla. Norway
1677.11 Willem III married England’s Princess Mary. 
1677.12 Dryden’s tragedy All for Love opened.
1677.12 Germans captured Stettin fortress from Swedes. German
1677-78 Cardinal Portocarrero was viceroy of Sicily.
1677-80 Gazeta Ordinaria de Madrid published weekly. Spain
1677-85 Ormonde governed Ireland again.
1677-88 Pufendorf was Sweden’s royal historiographer.
1678.1.10 Dutch and English signed a trade treaty. Charles II Willem III
1678.1.24 Fife landlords submitted to Scottish soldiers. Scotland
1678.3.11 Dryden’s farce The Kind Keeper opened.
1678.3 French captured Ghent and Ypres. Louis XIV
1678.3 Mme. de Lafayette wrote Princess of Cleves.
1678.4.21 Bossuet condemned Simon’s Critical HistoryLouis XIV
1678.5 French forces captured Puigcerda in Catalonia. Spain
1678.6 70,000 Turks besieged Chyhyryn. Russia
1678 Ralph Cudworth wrote True Intellectual System.  Charles II
1678 John Bunyan published The Pilgrim’s Progress.
1678 Viceroy Gonzaga abolished Sicily’s city council.
1678 Imri Thököly led Kurucs against Austrian troops. Leopold
1678 Turks led by Mustafa invaded imperial Hungary. Leopold
1678 Imperial army had 74,100 men. German
1678 Germans drove Swedes from Rügen & Stralsund.
1678 Hamburg got Germany’s first opera house.
1678 Utrecht renewed censorship. Willem III
1678.7 Swiss soldiers defended the Rhine border.
1678.8.5 Kristianstad surrendered to the Swedes. Denmark
1678.8.10 France and the Dutch agreed on peace. Louis XIV Willem III
1678.8.15 Dutch & Spanish defeated French at Saint Denis. Willem III
1678.8.13 Charles II learned of a Popish Plot.
1678.8 John Welsh preached to 7,000 in Ayrshire. Scotland
1678.9.19 France & Spain signed treaty of Nijmegen. Louis XIV Felipe V
1678.10 Thököly rebels raided Slovakia, Silesia, Moravia. Leopold
1678.10.16 Ireland banished Catholic bishops & Jesuits. Charles II
1678.11 14,000 armed Scots met near Dumfries. Scotland
1678.11 Friedrich Wilhelm claimed West Pomerania. German
1678.11.30 Parliament excluded Catholics. Charles II
1678-79 Sejm in Lithuania passed more than 200 laws. Sobieski
1678-80 Hungary, Austria & Bohemia suffered plague. Leopold
1678-87 Viceroy Benavides abolished elections in Sicily.
1678-94 La Fontaine published more Fables.
1679.1 Germans gave territory back to Sweden.
1679.1.24 Charles II dissolved the Cavalier Parliament.
1679.2.5 Leopold agreed to peace with France. Louis XIV Austrian Empire
1679.5.3 Covenanters killed Archbishop James Sharp. Scotland
1679.5.27 Charles II dissolved Parliament for excluding.
1679.6.1 1,500 Scots beat dragoons on Drumclog Moor. Scotland
1679.6.19 French gave territory back to Sweden. Karl XI Sobieski
1679.6.22 Monmouth’s army beat 6,000 rebels at Bothwell. Scotland
1679 Chief Justice Scroggs sentenced 21 men to death. Charles II
1679 Aphra Behn’s The Feigned Courtesans played.
1679 Louis XIV and nobles agreed to ban dueling.
1679 377 aristocrats were arrested in France. Louis XIV
1679 Pope Innocent XI balanced the papal budget.
1679.9.16 Denmark and Sweden made peace at Lund. Karl XI
1679.9.17 Juan José de Austria died of illness. Spain
1679.10.2 Dutch and Sweden made peace at Nijmegen. Willem III
1679.10.25 Friedrich Wilhelm allied with Louis XIV. German
1679-80 Peasants in Bohemia revolted. Leopold
1680.1 Charles II got petitions with 90,000 signatures.
1680.1-4 Peasants revolted in Bohemia.  Leopold
1680.2.10 Spain devalued its copper coin by half.
1680.4.2 Sinzendorf was removed for embezzling. Leopold
1680.5.6 Karl XI married Danish Ulrika Eleonora. Denmark
1680.6.10 Charles II made a treaty with Spain.
1680.6 Karl XI began ruling Sweden himself.
1680.6.30 Inquisition burned 21 people in Madrid. Spain
1680 1,800 pamphlets were published in England.  Charles II
1680 Henry Neville published Plato RedivivusCharles II
1680 Bunyan wrote Life & Death of Mr. Badman.
1680 Nathaniel Lee’s Lucius Junius Brutus played.
1680 Otway’s tragedy The Orphan played.
1680 Huguenots were excluded from offices. Louis XIV
1680 Spain’s deficit was 9.2 million ducats.
1680 Russia got Grand Treasury & a national budget. Russia
1680.11.15 House of Lords defeated 2nd Exclusion Bill. Charles II
1680.12.11 Karl XI ordered a budget office established.
1681.1.3 Russia and the Ottoman Empire made peace.
1681.1.11 Louis XIV and Brandenburg allied.
1681.2.24 Charles II chartered Pennsylvania for Penn.
1681.3 Brandenburg made a trade treaty with England. German
1681.4 Tories began publishing The ObservatorCharles II
1681.5 BanksThe Unhappy Favourite played.
1681.5 Hungarian Estates elected Count Esterházy. Leopold
1681.5.22 Przyjemski’s veto broke up the Sejm. Sobieski
1681 Whigs published Prospect of a Popish SuccessorCharles II
1681 Bank checks were first issued in England.  Charles II
1681 Chelsea Hospital was begun for wounded soldiers. Charles II
1681 Dryden’s The Spanish Friar opened.
1681 Aphra Behn’s The Rover Part 2 played.
1681 Jansenist Quesnel was banished from Paris.
1681 French forces invaded Flanders again. Spain
1681 Naples banned public plays.
1681 Plague killed 83,000 people in Prague.  Leopold
1681 Imperial Diet organized military in ten circles. German
1681 Russia took Tatar land and imposed Christianity.
1681.9.30 French took over Strasbourg. German
1681.10.8 Leopold decreed peace and rights in Hungary.
1681.10 Dutch allied with Sweden. Willem III Karl XI
1681.11.17 Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel satirized. Charles II
1682.1.12 Tsar Fyodor abolished the precedence system. Russia
1682.2 Otway’s tragedy Venice Preserved opened.
1682.2 French attacked Spanish Netherlands. Willem III
1682.4.11 Pope Innocent XI condemned Louis XIV’s articles.
1682.4.14 Church Council had Avvakum burned to death.Russia
1682.5 Louis XIV’s court moved to Versailles.
1682.6.15 Thököly married wealthy widow Ilona Zrinyi. Leopold
1682.6.24 Thököly allied with Transylvania and Turks. Leopold
1682.6.25 Ivan and Petr were crowned tsars. Russia
1682 John Bunyan published The Holy WarCharles II
1682 William Penn completed No Cross, No Crown
1682 Tryon published Health’s Grand PreservativeVegetarians
1682 Aphra Behn’s comedy The City Heiress played.
1682 Jean Mabillon published De re diplomaticaLouis XIV
1682 Bossuet wrote Discourse on Universal HistoryLouis XIV
1682 Louis XIV expelled Jews from Marseille.
1682 France demolished Protestant churches. Louis XIV
1682 Madame Guyon published Spiritual TorrentsQuietism
1682 Bayle wrote On the Comet of 1680.
1682 Brandenburg chartered African Trading Co. German
1682 Leibniz began scientific Acta EruditorumGerman
1682 Kristian V gave Copenhagen a police chief. Denmark
1682 8 of Sweden’s Council fined for corruption. Karl XI
1682 Russia began a Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy.
1682.9 Sobieski allied Poland-Lithuania with Austria.
1682.10 Thököly and Turks invaded Upper Hungary. Leopold
1682.12 Leopold recognized Thököly in eastern Hungary.
1682-83 Riksdag gave Karl XI authority over land.
1682-89 Sofia & Vasilii Golitsyn governed Russia.
1683.1 Fontenelle published New Dialogs of the Dead.
1683.1.21 Earl of Shaftesbury died in Holand. Charles II
1683.4.1 Sobieski made a treaty with Leopold. Leopold
1683.5 Languedoc Canal joined Atlantic & Mediter. Sea. Louis XIV
1683 France invaded the Spanish Netherlands again. Louis XIV
1683 Ernst August of Hanover imposed primogeniture. German
1683 Germans sent troops to defend Vienna.
1683 Denmark’s new law code was completed.
1683.7.1 Archbishop of Armagh was hanged in Ireland.
1683.7.14 140,000 Turks & allies besieged Vienna. Leopold Sobieski
1683.7.28 Princess Anne married Prince George of Denmark. Charles II
1683.8 Sapieha’s Lithuanians plundered Austria. Sobieski
1683.9.6 Jean Baptiste Colbert died. Louis XIV
1683.9.12 Christian armies defeated Turks at Vienna. Leopold Sobieski
1683.10.9 Sobieski’s army defeated Turks at Párkány.
1683.11.16 Spain authorized newspapers again.
1683.12.7 Algernon Sidney was beheaded for a plot. Charles II
1683.12 Spain declared war against France. Louis XIV
1683.12.25 Mehmet IV executed Kara Mustafa at Belgrade. Leopold
1683-84 Pope Innocent XI promoted war against Turks.
1683-89 Monk Marco d’Aviano advised the imperial army. Leopold
1683-1706 Pedro II ruled Portugal as King.
1684.1.12 Leopold pardoned Thököly’s followers.
1684.3 Pope Innocent XI organized Holy League at Linz. Leopold
1684.5 French destroyed two-thirds of Genoa.  Louis XIV
1684.6.7 French siege of Luxemburg ended. Louis XIV Willem III
1684.6.14 Charles II authorized torture in Scotland.
1684.6 Dutch accepted a truce with France. Willem III
1684 Titus Oates was imprisoned for sedition. Charles II
1684 East India Company began trading at Canton. Charles II
1684 Marquis de Dangeau began a diary about Louis XIV.
1684 Bayle founded a review of books.
1684 Malebranche published his Treatise on Ethics.
1684 French squadron bombarded Genoa. Milan
1684 Jacques Basnage wrote on Jews and debate. Willem III
1684.7.14 Imperial army besieged the Turks at Buda. Leopold
1684.8.6 Morosini’s Venetians captured Santa Maura. Venice
1684.8.15 Spain & France made a truce at Ratisbon. Louis XIV Felipe V
1684.11.1 Christian armies went into winter quarters. Leopold
1684-85 New laws protected Norwegian peasants. Norway
1684-87 Britain suffered an economic depression. Charles II
1685.2.1 England’s King Charles II died of a stroke. Charles II
1685.6.30 9th Earl of Argyll was executed at Edinburgh. James II
1685 Guinea Company exploited the slave trade. Louis XIV
1685 Dragonnades forced Protestants to convert. Louis XIV
1685 Pope Innocent XI defended Jews & Huguenots.
1685 About 40,000 Germans fought in Hungary. Leopold
1685 Seckendorf published Christian StateSwiss
1685 Dutch allied with Brandenburg. Willem III
1685.7.5 James of Monmouth’s rebellion was defeated. James II
1685.7.15 Maximilian II of Bavaria married Maria Antonia. Leopold
1685.7 Madame Guyon published Method of OrisonsQuietism
1685.8 Brandenburg allied with the Dutch. German
1685.8-9 Chief Justice Jeffreys tried 1,300 rebels. James II
1685.9 Inquisition of Zaragoza arrested Molinos. Spain
1685.10 Kurucs accepted Leopold & religious freedom.
1685.10.19 Louis XIV destroyed Protestant churches.
1685.11.8 Friedrich Wilhelm offered refuge to Huguenots. German
1685.11.27 France expelled Protestants from armed forces. Louis XIV
1685.11.20 James II prorogued Parliament. 
1685-88 James II favored Catholics in Britain.
1685-90 Philipp-Wilhelm changed Palatine religion. German
1685-91 Count of Oropesa was chief minister in Spain.
1686.2 Friedrich Wilhelm allied with Sweden’s Karl XI. German
1686.3 James II issued Directions to Preachers.
1686.4.1 Brandenburg sent 8,000 troops to Hungary. Leopold
1686.4 Aphra Behn’s The Lucky Chance played.
1686.4 French attacked Protestants in Vaudois. Louis XIV
1686.4 Brandenburg army aided Austrians in Hungary. German
1686.6 Godden v. Hales dispensed with Test Acts. James II
1686 Spain devalued silver.
1686 Leibniz wrote Discourse on Metaphysics.
1686 Sweden’s Riksdag passed tariffs and taxes. Karl XI
1686.7.7 Chancellor Ahlefeldt died; Kristian ruled alone. Denmark
1686.7 League of Augsburg opposed France. German Karl XI
1686.7-9 Sobieski’s army invaded Moldavia.
1686.8 James II allowed Catholic worship.
1686.9.1 Siamese embassy met with Louis XIV.
1686.9.2 Christian army captured Buda. Leopold
1686.11 James II licensed dissenters. 
1686.12.22 Sobieski and Russia made peace. 511
1686, 1713 Bayle published Commentaire philosophique.
1687.2 Earl of Tyrconnell became Lord Deputy of Ireland. James II
1687.2 Count Caraffa executed 17 valued Hungarians. Leopold
1687.2 Sweden established Lutheran uniformity. Karl XI
1687.2, 4 James II issued Declarations of Indulgence.
1687.5 Golitsyn led 150,000 men against Tatars. Russia
1687 James II appointed 455 justices of the peace.
1687 Vauban estimated 10% of French were beggars. Louis XIV
1687 Innocent XI condemned Quietism of Molinos.
1687 Fénelon published On the Education of Girls.
1687 Waldenses fled from Savoy to Geneva. Swiss
1687.7.5 Newton published Principia Mathematica.
1687.8 Allies led by Morosini captured southern Morea. Venice
1687.9 France revived Colbert tariffs on the Dutch. Willem III
1687.9.28 Turks surrendered Athens to Venetians. Venice
1687.12.9 Leopold’s son Joseph became King of Hungary.
1687-88 Bishop Burnet wrote Ill Effects of AnimositiesJames II
1687-88 Old Believers at Paleostrov killed themselves. Russia
1687-96 Inquisition held Molinos in prison until his death. Spain
1687-96 Viceroy Uceda made Messina a free port. Sicily
1688.1 James II recalled soldiers from the Dutch army.
1688.1 Fontenelle published On the Ancients & Moderns.
1688.2 James II withdrew British from the Dutch army. Willem III
1688.3 Venice elected Morosini Doge.
1688.4 Locke published Letter Concerning Toleration.
1688.4.29 Friedrich Wilhelm died, succeeded by his son. German
1688.5.9 Diet of Transylvania accepted Emperor Leopold.
1688.5-6 7 bishops petitioned James II and were arrested.
1688.6.17 Leopold gave Transylvania religious freedom.
1688.6.10 James II and Mary of Modena had a son born.
1688.6 Willem III allied secretly with the Empire.
1688.6.30 7 English leaders invited Willem of Orange. James II
1688 Marquis of Halifax wrote Letter to a Dissenter.  James II
1688 Insurance deals began in Lloyd’s coffee house. William III
1688 Aphra Behn published her novella Oroonoko.
1688 Pufendorf moved to Berlin.
1688 English and Dutch hired Swiss mercenaries.
1688 Amsterdam had 200,000 people. Willem III
1688.7 English invited Willem III to invade.
1688.8.16 French army occupied Cologne. German Willem III
1688.9.6 Maximilian II’s army captured Belgrade. Leopold
1688.9 French armies invaded the Rhineland. German
1688.9.24 Louis XIV made demands on Germans. 
1688.9.28 James II reversed several policies.
1688.9.30 Willem issued Declaration of the ReasonsJames II
1688.10.14 A thousand attacked a Catholic chapel in Norwich. James II
1688.10.22 Germans formed the Magdeburg Concert.
1688.10.29 French captured Philippsburg. Louis XIV German
1688.11.5 Willem III’s army invaded England at Torbay. James II
1688.11 Prince Ferdinando married Violante of Bavaria. Tuscany
1688.11.19 James II joined his army at Salisbury.
1688.11.26 The French and Dutch declared war. Louis XIV Willem III
1688.11.27 James II agreed to summon Parliament.
1688.12.10 Mary fled, and James II disbanded his army. James II
1688.12 History of Oracles was published. Fontenelle
1688.12.18 Willem III’s army entered London. James II
1688.12.23 James II escaped to flee to France. Louis XIV
1688.12.25 Presbyterians ejected 200 Episcopalian ministers. James II
1688-90 Morosini’s Venetians attacked Negropont. Venice
1688-94 La Bruyère published hisCharacters.
1688-94 Doge Morosini led Venetians. Venice
1688-97 9-year war stopped French aggression. German Willem III
1689.1 60,000 Protestants rebelled in northern Ireland. William III
1689.1 French armies ravaged Heilbronn & Heidelberg. German
1689.1 Ernst August of Hanover began conscription.  German
1689.1.24 Imperial Diet declared war on France. Louis XIV
1689.1.26 Racine’s Esther played at court.
1689.1.27 Tsar Petr married Evdokiia Lopukhina. Russia
1689.1.22 Convention Parliament met in London. William III
1689.2.6 Convention proclaimed William III & Mary monarchs.
1689.3.12 James II in Ireland summoned its parliament.  William III
1689.3.14 Ulster Protestants defeated Catholics. William III
1689.4.3 Emperor Leopold declared war on France. Austrian Empire
1689.4.11 William III & Mary II were crowned.
1689.4 Irish besieged Londonderry; French army arrived. William III
1689.4 Scottish estates accepted William III & Mary II.
1689.5.7 England declared war on France.  William III
1689.5.12 Austrian Empire allied with the Dutch.
1689.5 Catholics dominated parliament at Dublin.  William III
1689.5 William III mobilized British against France. Willem III
1689.5-7 Golitsyn’s Crimean campaign failed again. Russia
1689.5.24 Toleration Act became law in Britain. William III
1689.5.27 Holland made Heinsius grand pensionary. Willem III
1689 Malebranche’s Metaphysics was banned.
1689 Di Capoa wrote Thoughts and Arguments.  Naples
1689 France hired Swiss mercenaries.
1689 Livonians protested Swedish language. Karl XI
1689 Louis XIV bribed Swedish ministers. Karl XI
1689.7.25 France declared war on Britain. Louis XIV
1689.7.27 Jacobites defeated English at Killiecrankie. William III
1689.8 Arnaud led Waldenses back to Savoy. Swiss
1689.8 Locke wrote Two Treatises on Government.
1689.8.27 Russia made a treaty with China.
1689.8.30 Imperial army drove Turks out of Belgrade. Austrian Empire
1689.9 Imperial army drove the French out of Mainz. Austrian Empire
1689.9 Tsar Petr replaced Sofia as ruler of Russia.
1689.12 Parliament enacted a Bill of Rights. William III
1689-91 English army suppressed Irish rebellion.  William III
1689-91 Aphra Behn’s The Widow Ranter played.
1689-97 France and Spain fought another war. Louis XIV
1689-1702 William III ruled England, Scotland & Ireland. War
1690.1.23 German princes made Joseph King. Austrian Empire
1690.4.18 Duke Charles V of Lorraine died. Austrian Empire
1690.5.1 English army ended Scottish resistance. William III
1690.6 Scottish Parliament imposed Presbyterianism. William III
1690 Baron van Helmont published Conway’s Principles. Vegetarians
1690 Locke wrote Essay on Human Understanding.
1690 Duc de Saint-Simon began keeping a diary. Louis XIV
1690 Huygens published his Treatise on LightNetherlands
1690 Academy of Dorpat began, using Swedish. Karl XI
1690.7.1 French defeated allies near Fleurus. Louis XIV
1690.7.1 William III’s army defeated Catholics at Boyne. Willem III
1690.7.10 French beat allies off Beachy Head. William III Louis XIV Willem III
1690.8.11 Thököly’s rebels beat imperial army at Zernest. Austrian Empire
1690.8 Imperial commission confiscated estates. Austrian Empire
1690.8.21 Leopold granted religious freedom to Serbians. Austrian Empire
1690.9.22 Diet of Transylvania elected Thököly prince. Austrian Empire
1690.9.27 Marlborough’s army captured Cork. William III
1690.10.8 Turks destroyed the Belgrade fortress. Austrian Empire
1690-1716 Johann Wilhelm II ruled the Palatinate. German
1691.1.5 Racine’s Athalie played once.
1691.2-7 Papal States had 180 murders. Popes
1691.3.25 Jakub Sobieski married a Palatine princess. Sobieski
1691 Henry More’s An Account of Virtue was published. Charles II
1691 Moses Pitt published The Cry of the Oppressed.  William III
1691 5 French armies invaded Flanders. Louis XIV
1691 Austrian Empire hired Swiss mercenaries.
1691 Balthasar Bekker published Bewitched WorldWillem III
1691 Denmark & Sweden agreed to armed neutrality. Denmark
1691 Northern kingdoms allied to defend trade. Norway
1691.7.12 English army defeated Jacobites at Aughrim. William III
1691.7 Louvois died and was replaced by his son. Louis XIV
1691.8.19 Christians defeated Turks at Szalánkemén. Austrian Empire
1691.10.2 Parliament approved army of 65,000 men. William III
1691.10.3 Limerick treaty upset Protestants.  William III
1691.12.4 Leopold confirmed privileges in Transylvania. Austrian Empire
1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII appointed 30 cardinals.
1692.1 Denmark’s tax reform helped towns. Denmark
1692.2.12 Campbells murdered 37 MacDonalds at Glencoe.  William III
1692.3.7 Locke wrote Some Thoughts on Education.
1692.3 Hanover became the 9th imperial electorate. German
1692.5 English & allies beat French fleet at La Hogue. William III
1692.5-8 French besieged Namur; Allies got it back. Louis XIV Willem III
1692.6.22 Pope Innocent XII prohibited enriching relatives.
1692 Daniel Defoe was imprisoned because of debts. Anne
1692 Plague killed 30,000 in Transylvania. Austrian Empire
1692 Christian Thomasius wrote Doctrine of Morals.
1692 Willem III replaced 7 republican regents.
1692.8.13 French bombarded Brussels. Willem III
1692.10 Protestants took over the Dublin parliament. William III
1692.12 Ernst August of Brunswick became an elector. Austrian Empire
1693.3.4 William III vetoed the Triennial Bill. 
1693.3 Congreve’s comedy The Old Bachelor played.
1693.5 French army destroyed Heidelberg. German
1693 England had 40,000 soldiers in Flanders. William III
1693 Penn published his essay on peace in Europe. Quakers
1693 Penn published Some Fruits of SolitudeQuakers
1693 France had an army of 400,000 men.  Louis XIV
1693 Boileau published Satire X Against Women.
1693 Army dispersed rebelling peasants in Valencia. Spain
1693 Gold was discovered in Brazil. Portugal
1693 Savoy’s Vittorio made peace with France. Milan
1693 Leibniz wrote Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus.
1693 Swiss Brethren founded the Amish church.
1693 Sweden’s Karl XI was given absolute power.
1693.7.29 French defeated allies at Neerwinden. Louis XIV
1693.10.4 French defeated Savoy at Marsaglia. Louis XIV
1693.12 Congreve’s comedy The Double Dealer played.
1694.1.25 Tsar Petr’s mother Natalia Naryshkina died.
1694.2 Southerne’s The Fatal Marriage opened.
1694.4.25 Tonnage Act created the Bank of England.William III
1694.4.27 Friedrich August became Elector of Saxony.
1694.5 French forces invaded Catalonia. Louis XIV
1694 Journal of George Fox was published.
1694 Penn published an essay on Quakers.
1694 Friedrich August became Elector of Saxony. German
1694 Friedrich III began the University of Halle. German
1694 Denmark imposed a tax on interest.
1694 Molesworth published An Account of DenmarkDenmark
1694.9.7-15 Venetians drove Turks out of Chios. Venice
1694.10 Paris Archbishop condemned Guyon’s books. Quietism
1694.12 William III approved the Triennial Bill.
1695.2.9 Venetians and Turks fought a naval battle. Venice
1695.2 Lwów defeated Tatar attack. August II
1695.4 England’s Licensing Act expired. William III
1695.4.30 Congreve’s comedy Love for Love opened.
1695 Bank of Scotland was founded. William III
1695 Locke wrote The Reasonableness of Christianity.
1695 Quesnel published Morality of the GospelsJansenism
1695 Pufendorf’s Law of Diplomacy was published.
1695.7-10 Tsar Petr’s Russian army besieged Azov.
1695.9.5 Allies captured Namur from the French. Louis XIV
1695.9.7 Mustafa II’s Turks captured Lippa. Austrian Empire
1695.9.22 Pope Innocent XII reformed canon laws.
1695.10.11 William III dissolved Parliament. 
1695-96 One-third of Finns died during a famine. Karl XI
1695-1703 Madame Guyon was in prison. Quietism
1696.1 England issued new coins. William III
1696.1 Cibber’s comedy Love’s Last Shift opened.
1696.1.28 Tsar Petr’s brother Ivan died.
1696.2 Fenwick & six conspirators were executed. William III
1696.2 Amsterdam riots protested taxes. Netherlands
1696.2.21 Venetians left Chios. Venice
1696.5.15 William III began Board of Trade & Plantations.
1696 England had 68,000 soldiers in Flanders. William III
1696 1 in 4 of the English depended on alms. William III
1696 Scottish Act for Settling Schools passed. William III
1696 Fénelon became Archbishop of Cambrai.
1696.7.19 Russians & Cossacks captured Azov. Petr
1696.11 Vanbrugh’s The Relapse played.
1696.12.1 English Parliament began a budgeting process. William III
1696.12 Southerne’s tragicomedy Oroonoko opened.
1696-1701 Pedro Manuel Colón was viceroy of Sicily.
1696-1703 Jansenist Quesnel was in prison.
1697.4.5 Sweden’s Karl XI died of stomach cancer.
1697.4 Louis XIV expelled the Commedia dell’Arte.
1697.6.1 Saxony’s August II became a Catholic. German
1697 Defoe’s Essay on Projects advised reforms. Anne
1697 Fénelon wrote On the Interior Life.
1697 Royal Society of Medicine began at Seville. Spain
1697 Upper Hungary peasants rebelled against taxes. Austrian Empire
1697.8.10 Barcelona’s garrison surrendered to the French. Louis XIV
1697.9.11 Eugene’s imperial army defeated Turks at Zenta. Austrian Empire
1697.9.15 Saxony’s August II became King of Poland.
1697.9.20 Ryswick treaty ended 9-year war. William III France Spain Netherlands
1697.10.30 German Empire signed the Ryswick treaty. Austrian Empire
1697.12 Duke Louis of Burgundy married Marie Adélaïde. Louis XIV
1697-98 15 new English plays failed. Theatre
1697-98 Tsar Petr visited European cities.
1697, 1702 Bayle published Historical and Critical Dictionary.
1697-1718 King Karl XII ruled Sweden.
1697-1733 August II ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1697-1739 Fontenelle was Academy of Sciences secretary.
1698.6.12 Sweden’s Karl XII made a treaty with France.
1698 London began the world’s first stock exchange. William III
1698 William Molyneux published The Case of IrelandWilliam III
1698 Collier wrote on the immorality of English plays. Cibber
1698 Aulic Council forced Estates to pay imperial tax. German
1698 Lucas Rotgans published epic Willem IIINetherlands
1698 Tsar Petr had rebels & musketeers executed.
1698.9.9 Polish army defeated Tatars at Podhajce. August II
1698.9 Venetians defeated Turks by Dardanelles. Venice
1698.10.11 Partition treaty was signed at The Hague. William III
1699.1.26 Christians & Turks agreed at Karlowitz.   Venice Austrian Empire, Aleksei
1699.1.29 Louis XIV regulated the Academy of Sciences.
1699.2.1 England reduced the size of its army. William III
1699.2.6 Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria died at Brussels. Austrian Empire
1699.3.12 Pope Innocent XII condemned Fénelon’s ideas.
1699.3 Fénelon submitted to Pope Innocent XII.
1699.4.11 Russia allied with Denmark. Petr
1699.5 England restricted Ireland’s wool exports. William III
1699.6 Sejm ratified August II’s pacta conventa.
1699 Scotland suffered from a famine. William III
1699 Quesnel published New Testament ReflectionsJansenism
1699 Fénelon published Adventures of Telemachus.
1699 Vico gave the first in a series of orations.
1699 Leopold ended Silesian & Moravian immigration. Austrian Empire
1699 Polhem began a metal-working factory. Karl XII
1699.8.25 Kristian V died, succeeded by Frederik IV. Denmark
1699.11 Tsar Petr made a treaty with August II.
1699-1730 Frederik IV ruled Denmark and Norway. Denmark
1700.1.1 German Protestants adopted Gregorian calendar.
1700.1.1 Russia adopted the Julian calendar. Petr
1700.2.11 Saxony’s August II invaded Livonia. Karl XII
1700.2, 6 August II’s army besieged Riga.
1700.3.1 Denmark-Norway adopted Gregorian calendar.
1700.3 Congreve’s The Way of the World opened.
1700.3-8 Danes besieged Tönning. Denmark
1700.4 Parliament revoked William III’s Irish land grants.
1700.5 Saxon troops invaded Livonia. August II
1700 Louis XIV made Quesnel a cardinal. Jansenism
1700 Vienna had more than 100,000 people. Austrian Empire
1700 Friedrich III began Berlin Academy of Sciences. German
1700 Copenhagen had 70,000 people. Denmark
1700 Sweden’s army had 77,000 men. Karl XII
1700 Saxony’s August went to war against Sweden.August II
1700.7.9 Eugene’s imperial army defeated French at Carpi. Austrian Empire
1700.7 Russia and the Turks ended 5 years of war. Petr
1700.8.18 Denmark & Sweden made Travendal treaty. Denmark Karl XII
1700.10.2 Carlos II made Duke of Anjou his heir. France
1700.11.1 Spain’s Carlos II died.
1700.11.20 Swedes defeated Russians at Narva. Karl XII Petr
1700-21 Pope Clement XI gave a million scudi in alms.
1700-21 Pope Clement XI ruled the Papal States.
1701.1.18 Friedrich III became King Friedrich I of Prussia. German
1701.2.6 Pope Clement XI recognized Felipe V.
1701.2 William III recognized Anjou as Felipe V. France
1701.2 French invaded the Spanish Netherlands.
1701.5.8 Cortes in Madrid accepted King Felipe V.
1701.6 Tories passed the Settlement Act. William III
1701 Sephardic Jews built a synagogue in London. William III
1701 Louis XIV sent French forces into northern Italy.  Felipe V
1701 Petr founded the School of Mathematics.
1701.7 Eugene of Savoy’s army invaded Italy.  Felipe V
1701.9.7 Grand Alliance opposed France & Spain. Netherlands
1701.9.11 Felipe V married Maria Luisa.
1701.9 Conspirators in Naples were executed.  Felipe V
1701.9.16 James II died; Louis XIV recognized James III. France
1701.9.19 Emperor Leopold ratified alliance against France. Austrian Empire
1701.10.2 Barcelona estates paid homage to Felipe V.
1701.12.29 Russians defeated Swedes at Errestfer. Petr
1702.1 Karl XII led Swedish army into Poland.
1702.2.1 Eugene of Savoy captured Cremona. France Felipe V
1702.3.8 William III died in England.
1702.3.11 Daily Courant began publishing in London. Anne
1702.3 Grand Alliance opposed France and Spain. German
1702.5.15 Allies declared war on FranceAnne Netherlands
1702.6 English & Dutch gave Portugal naval support.
1702.6.19 Swedes defeated Saxons at Kliszów. August II
1702 Hyde’s History of the Great Rebellion published. Anne
1702 Defoe’s Shortest-Way satirized High Anglicans. Anne
1702 Dutch hired Swiss mercenaries.
1702 Bynkershoek proposed 3-mile sea territory. Netherlands
1702 Frederik freed serfs born after August 25, 1699. Denmark
1702.7.19 Duke Frederik IV of Holstein-Gottorp was killed. Denmark
1702.7.19 Swedes defeated a Saxon-Polish army. Karl XII August II
1702.9 Polish deputies gave August II an army.
1702.10.11 Petr’s Russian army captured Nöteborg.
1702.10.14 Imperial army defeated French at Friedlingen. Austrian Empire
1702.10.23 Allies beat French & Spanish in Vigo Bay.Anne Felipe V
1702.10.23 Allies led by Marlborough captured Liege. France
1702-14 Queen Anne reigned in Britain.  Anne
1702-14 French fleets took 4,545 ships in Spanish War. France
1703.1.2 Russia’s first newspaper, Vedomosti, began. Petr
1703.1 Spain adopted French flintlocks with bayonets. Felipe V
1703.1.18 Cardinal Portocarrero retired. Felipe V
1703.3.9 French led by Villars took Kehl. France
1703.3.11 Bavarians defeated imperial army at Seigharding. France
1703.3 Rowe’s tragedy The Fair Penitent opened.
1703.3 Spain began conscripting 1% of men. Felipe V
1703.4 Bavarian army took Ratisbon. France
1703.4.21 Swedes defeated Saxons at Pułtusk. August II
1703.5.15 Bonn surrendered to the Allies. France
1703.5 England allied with PortugalAnne
1703.5 50,000 allies went from Rhine to Danube.  Anne
1703.5 Oppenheimer’s death left the Empire bankrupt. Austrian Empire
1703.5 Bavarians allied with France. German
1703.5 Petr began building St. Petersburg.
1703.5.16 Allies signed a treaty at Lisbon. Austrian Empire
1703.5-12 Ferenc II Rákóczi led Hungarian rebels. Austrian Empire
1703.6.18 French and Bavarians captured Kufstein fortress. Austrian Empire
1703.6.30 French defeated Anglo-Dutch allies at Eeckeren. France
1703 Marlborough’s army took Bonn, Hoy & Limbourg. Anne
1703 Protestants owned 86% of Ireland’s land. Anne
1703 Brandenburg conscripted men. German
1703 Russians occupied Ingria. Petr
1703.7.2 Bavarians entered Innsbruck. Austrian Empire
1703.8.21 Bavarians retreated to Munich. Austrian Empire
1703.9 French defeated imperial army at Hochstedt. France
1703.9 Spain bought 10,000 flintlocks & 5,280 swords. Felipe V
1703.9 Charles in Vienna was proclaimed Spain’s king. Felipe V
1703.9 Allies captured Ulm and occupied Bavaria. German
1703.9 Poles in Thorn surrendered to the Swedes. Karl XII
1703.9.20 Franco-Bavarian army defeated imperialist army. Austrian Empire
1703.10 England allied with Savoy. Anne
1703-27 Newton was president of the Royal Society.
1704.1 Middelburg Orangists seized the town hall. Netherlands
1704.2.16 August II was deposed in Poland. Karl XII
1704.3.15 Protestant Camisards defeated the French.  France
1704.3 Archduke Charles took allies to Lisbon. Felipe V
1704.4 Tories Nottingham and Seymour resigned. Anne
1704.4.16 French forces defeated Camisards at Nagés. France
1704.4.30 Spain’s Felipe V declared war on Portugal.
1704.5 French army captured Salvatierra garrison. Felipe V
1704.5 French & Spanish invaded Portugal.
1704.5.6 Camisards submitted to Louis XIV. France
1704.6.21 Allies took Schellenberg from Bavarians.Anne
1704 Swift published A Tale of a TubAnne
1704 Irish Parliament discriminated against Catholics. Anne
1704 Daniel Defoe published his novel, The StormAnne
1704 Cibber’s The Careless Husband played.
1704 Poland-Lithuania allied with Russia. August II
1704.7.2 Allies defeated the French at Donauwroth. France
1704.7.12 Poland elected Stanislaw Leszczynski king. Karl XII August II
1704.7 British navy took Gibraltar from Spaniards. Anne
1704.8.3 Allies captured Gibraltar from Spain. France Portugal
1704.8.9 Russians captured Narva. August II
1704.8.13 French lost at Blenheim. Anne France Austrian Empire German Netherlands
1704.9.6 August II’s army recaptured Warsaw.
1704-13 Defoe wrote and published The ReviewAnne
1705.1.1 Russia monopolized the sale of salt. Petr
1705.3 British Navy captured Barcelona. France
1705.4 Queen Anne dissolved Parliament.
1705.5.5 Emperor Leopold died, succeeded by Joseph. Austrian Empire
1705.5 English relieved the siege of Gibraltar. Anne
1705.6 Whigs gained 35 seats in the Commons. Anne
1705 Sibbald founded Edinburgh Philosophical Society. Anne
1705 Catalans joined Allies against France & Spain. Felipe V
1705 16,000 pounds of gold was brought to Lisbon. Portugal
1705 Johann Wilhelm II freed religion in Palatinate. German
1705 Bavarian peasants revolted & were suppressed. German
1705 Thomasius wrote Natural and International Law.
1705 Hoeven published a study of Johan de Witt. Netherlands
1705 Hooghe wrote on republican institutions. Netherlands
1705.7.8 Transylvania elected Ferenc II Rákóczi prince. Austrian Empire
1705.7.15 Swedes defeated Russians at Gemauerthof. Karl XII, 520
1705.7 Austrian war council began recruiting Bavarians. Austrian Empire
1705.8 Allies established a base in Valencia. Felipe V
1705.8.16 Vendome’s French defeated Eugene at Cassano. France
1705.9 Sweden & Poland made a treaty at Warsaw. Karl XII
1705.10.9 Allies captured Barcelona. Anne Felipe V
1705.12.16 Allies captured the city of Valencia. Felipe V
1705.12.28 French forces entered Zaragoza. Felipe V
1705-09 Amelot was France’s ambassador to Spain. Felipe V
1705-11 Archduke Charles III ruled Catalonia. France
1706.2.13 Swedes beat Poles & Russians at Fraustadt. Karl XII August II
1706.3.13 Russian army ended rebellion in Astrakhan. Petr
1706.4-6 Allies from Portugal invaded Spain to Madrid. Felipe V
1706.5.7 Anglo-Dutch fleet drove French from Barcelona. Felipe V
1706.5.23 Allies defeated French at Ramillies. Anne France Netherlands
1706.5-6 Allies captured 10 cities in Spanish Netherlands. France
1706.6.5-6 Brabant & Flanders recognized Charles III. Netherlands
1706.6 Allies from Portugal captured Madrid. Anne
1706.6.26 Earl of Galloway’s Protestants entered Madrid. France
1706.6-7 Allies took Antwerp, Ostend, Ghent & Brussels.Anne
1706 Farquhar’s The Recruiting Officer played.
1706.7 England & Scotland agreed on a Union Treaty. Anne
1706.7 Eugene’s army plundered the Papal States. Popes
1706.9.7 Allies defeated French at Turin. France Milan Popes Austrian Empire
1706.9.26 Felipe V’s army regained Madrid. France
1706.9.26 Austrian imperial army took over Milan.
1706.10.4 Felipe V returned to Madrid.
1706.10.13 August II renounced the Polish throne.
1706.10.29 Poles & allies beat Swedes at Kalisz. Karl XII, August II Petr
1706.11.11 Austrian army defeated Kurucs at Zsibó.
1706.12.9 Portugal’s King Pedro II died.
1706.12 Anne dismissed 5 Tories from her Privy Council.
1706-50 King Joao V ruled Portugal.
1707.1-3 Scottish Parliament accept union & adjourned.  Anne
1707.3.8 Farquhar’s The Beaux’ Stratagem opened.
1707.3 French troops withdrew from northern Italy. Austrian Empire
1707.4.10 Duke Philippe of Orléans arrived in Madrid. Felipe V
1707.4 Ferenc II Rákóczi claimed Transylvanian throne. Austrian Empire
1707.4.25 French beat Allies at Almansa. Anne France Felipe V Portugal
1707.5.1 Parliament of Great Britain began. Anne
1707.5 French & Spanish regained Valencia & Zaragoza. Felipe V
1707.6.1 Hungarian Diet rejected Emperor Joseph. Austrian Empire
1707 Revolt in Palermo was suppressed. Sicily
1707 Naples census counted 216,608 people.
1707 Imperial army occupied Naples. Austrian Empire
1707 Norway’s merchants had 568 ships.
1707 Sweden’s army had 120,000 men. Karl XII
1707.7.15 Felipe V dissolved the Council of Aragon.
1707.8 Savoy’s army devastated Provence. France
1707.8 Chancery court was established in Valencia. Felipe V
1707.8 Prussia and Sweden agreed on an alliance. German
1707.8.31 Treaty of Altranstädt ended Polish civil war. Karl XII
1707.10.9 Cossacks killed Prince Iurii V. Dolgorukii. Petr
1707.10.23 Parliament began investigating British Navy. Anne
1707.11 Tsar Petr married Ekaterina.
1707-09 18,000 people died of smallpox in Iceland.
1707-13 Spinola was viceroy of Sicily.
1707-33 Austrian Empire ruled Naples.
1707-42 Joao V ruled Portugal.
1708.2 Groningen made Johan Friso stadtholder. Netherlands
1708.5.11 Harley and Henry St. John resigned. Anne
1708.5.24 Imperial troops invaded Papal States. Popes Naples Austrian Empire
1708.6 Russian army defeated Cossack rebels. Petr
1708.6-7 French army besieged Tortosa. Felipe V
1708 Karl XII’s Swedish army invaded Russia. Petr
1708.7.7 Austrian army invaded NaplesPopes
1708.7.13 Clement XI had Quesnel’s Reflections burned. Jansenism
1708.7.11 Allies defeated French at Oudenarde. Anne France Netherlands
1708.7.14 Swedes defeated Russians at Holowczyn. Karl XII Petr
1708.7 Vendome’s French army regained Ghent. France Netherlands
1708.7 Whigs gained a majority in Commons elections. Anne
1708.8.4 Austrian army defeated Kurucs at Trencsen. Austrian Empire
1708.10 Pope Clement XI declared war on Habsburgs. Naples
1708.10.22 Eugene of Savoy’s army captured Lille. France
1708.10.27 Joao V married Maria Anna of Austria. Portugal
1708.10.28 Papal troops surrendered to the imperial army. Popes
1708.10.28 Sweden allied with Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Karl XII Petr
1708.11.2 Russian cavalry destroyed Mazepa’s capital. Petr
1708.12.18 Tsar Petr organized Russia into nine provinces.
1708-10 Plague killed many in Danzig, Torun & Krakow. August II
1709.1.15 Clement XI allowed imperial army passage. Felipe V
1709.1 Cold winter killed 24,000 people in Paris. France
1709.1 Cold devastated the Swedish army in Ukraine. Karl XII
1709.4.1 Karl XII’s Swedish army besieged Poltava. Petr
1709.5.14 Russians defeated Zaporozhian Cossacks. Petr
1709.5.22 France’s Torcy asked for peace at The Hague.
1709.6 Louis XIV recalled French troops from Spain. Felipe V
1709.6.20 Karl XII was shot in the foot.
1709 War cost Britain £9,000,000. Anne
1709 British began making coke out of coal.  Anne
1709 Malebranche’s Search for Truth was banned.
1709 Felipe V seized papal revenues in Spain. Popes
1709 Portugal sold offices to get money.
1709 Allies regained Ghent and Bruges. Netherlands
1709.7.8 Russians defeated Swedes at Poltava. Karl XII Petr
1709.8.11 Defoe pleaded for refugees from the Palatinate. Anne
1709.8 Riot over food prices erupted in Santiago. Felipe V
1709.9.11 Allies defeated French at Malplaquet. Anne France Netherlands
1709.10.9 August II and Tsar Petr made a treaty at Thorn.
1709.10.10 Pope Clement XI recognized Charles III of Spain.
1709.10 British and Dutch signed the Barrier Treaty. Anne Netherlands
1709.10.28 Denmark declared war on Sweden.
1709-13 Karl XII’s small army resided in Bessarabia.
1709-22 Ukrainians supported ten Russian regiments. Ukraine
1710.2.15 Future Louis XV was born. France
1710.2.28 Swedes defeated Danes at Helsingborg. Denmark
1710.3 Parliament convicted Sacheverell of sedition. Anne
1710.4.1 Britain passed the first Copyright Act. Anne
1710.4 Duchess of Marlborough left Anne’s court. Anne
1710.4 Poland-Lithuania confirmed King August II.
1710.4.17 Duke of Medinaceli was imprisoned. Felipe V
1710.6 Allies captured Douai and Béthune. France
1710.6-7 Russians invaded Finland, Livonia & Estonia. Karl XII
1710 Bellers published his European peace plan. Quakers
1710 Berkeley’s Principles of Human Knowledge.
1710 France increased income tax to 10%.
1710 Fénelon wrote “Condition of the French Army.”
1710 Felipe V took a million scudi from Spanish clergy. Popes
1710 Paolo Mattia Doria published The Public SquareNaples
1710 Germans had 343,000 soldiers.
1710 Leibniz published his Theodicy.
1710 Swedes retreated from Poland to Pomerania. Karl XII
1710 Poland-Lithuania ratified peace with Russia. August II
1710.7.4 Swedes surrendered Riga to Russians. Petr
1710.7.27 Allies defeated Spaniards near Lleida. Felipe V
1710.8.19 Russians invaded Poland. Petr
1710.8.20 Allies defeated Spaniards at Zaragoza. Felipe V
1710.11 Tories gained 104 seats in the Commons.  Anne
1710.11.21 Turks declared war on Russia. Karl XII
1710.12.9 British were defeated at Brihuega in Spain. Anne
1710.12.10 Spain’s army defeated Allies at Villaviciosa. France Felipe V
1711.1.21 Petr’s niece Anna became Duchess of Kurland.
1711.2.22 Tsar Petr created a Senate he appointed.
1711.3.8 Guiscard stabbed Harley and was killed.  Anne
1711.4.12 Dauphin Louis died of smallpox.  France
1711.4.13 Tsar Petr signed a treaty with Moldavia’s prince.
1711.4 Tories’ October Club had 150 members. Anne
1711.4.17 Emperor Joseph died, succeeded by Charles VI. Austrian Empire
1711.5.1 Kurucs accepted Hungarian agreement. Austrian Empire
1711.5 Alexander Pope published his Essay on CriticismAnne
1711 Tories passed Land Property Qualification Act. Anne
1711 Shaftesbury published Characteristics of MenLocke
1711 Fénelon’s “Questions for the Royal Conscience.”
1711 Böttger began manufacturing hard porcelain. German
1711 Plague spread in Scandinavia. Denmark
1711 Alexander Pope wrote Essay on Criticism.
1711.7 Marlborough’s army of 85,000 invaded France. Anne
1711.7.14 Johan Willem Friso drowned. Netherlands
1711.9 Marlborough’s army captured Bouchain. France
1711.9.25 Stenbock’s Swedish army relieved Stralsund. Karl XII
1711.9.27 Emperor Charles VI left Barcelona. Felipe V
1711.10.25 Prince Aleksei married Charlotte in Saxony. Petr
1711.11 Swift published The Conduct of the AlliesAnne
1711.11.15 Madrid cheered returning Felipe V.
1711.12.29 Queen Anne dismissed Marlborough. 
1711-13 Taxes increased in Scotland. Anne
1711-14 Britain’s economy recovered. Anne
1711-40 Karl VI ruled the Austrian Empire.
1712.1 Commons arrested Secretary of War Walpole. Anne
1712.1 Peace conference began at Utrecht. France Felipe V
1712.1 Senate at St. Petersburg passed 37 decrees. Petr
1712.2.18 Dauphin Louis of Burgundy died of fever. France
1712.3.8 Duke Louis of Brittany died of measles. France
1712.6 Henry St. John became Viscount Bolingbroke. Anne
1712 67,000 newspapers sold each week in Britain. Anne
1712 Toleration Act helped Episcopalians in Scotland. Anne
1712 Parliament’s Stamp Act taxed documents. Anne
1712 Steam engine pumped water from coal mines. Anne
1712 Berkeley published sermons on not resisting.
1712 Saint-Pierre published Paix Perpetuelle.
1712.7.8 Felipe V renounced the French throne. France Felipe V
1712.7 British withdrew troops from the war. Anne
1712.7.19 Louis XIV gave Dunkirk to the British. France
1712.7.30 Eugene’s army besieged Marchiennes. France
1712.8.1 British imposed a tax on news and ads. Anne
1712.8.11 Peace of Aarau ended the Toggenberg war. Swiss
1712.8.11 Swiss cantons made peace at Aargau.
1712.8 Hungarian Diet recognized autonomy of Croatia. Austrian Empire
1712.8.19 France, Spain & Britain agreed on an armistice. Netherlands
1712.10.6 Madrid Cortes convened. Felipe V
1712.11.8 Portugal agreed to an armistice.
1712.12.20 Swedes defeated the Danes at Gadebusch. Denmark Karl XII
1712, 1714 Alexander Pope published The Rape of the LockAnne
1713.1.29 Dutch accepted the 2nd Barrier Treaty. Netherlands
1713.2.25 Friedrich III died, succeeded by his son. German
1713.4.11 Papal States lost Parma and Piacenza to Austria. Popes
1713.4 Utrecht treaty was signed. Anne France Felipe V Popes Netherlands
1713.4.19 Karl VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction. Austrian Empire
1713.5.16 Danes defeated Swedes at Tönning. Denmark Karl XII
1713.6.5 Ahmed III and Tsar Petr made peace. Karl XII
1713.6-7 Dutch made peace with Spain, England & Savoy. Netherlands
1713 Tories gained 354-148 advantage in Commons. Anne
1713 Spain’s revenues were 229 million reales. Felipe V
1713 Robinet began directing Royal Library in Spain. Felipe V
1713 Utrecht treaty gave Sicily to Vittorio of Savoy.
1713 Ferenc II Rákóczi moved to Poland and France. Austrian Empire
1713 French took over Landau and Freiburg. German
1713 Utrecht treaty recognized Swiss neutrality.
1713 Dutch army reached high of 130,000 men. Netherlands
1713 Russians plundered Finland. Karl XII Petr
1713 Tsar Petr forced Muslim nobles to convert.
1713 Spain lost territory to the Austrian Empire.
1713.9.8 Unigenitus bull condemned Moral ReflectionsJansenism
1713.12.19 Felipe V took control of Spain’s Church.
1713-14 Utrecht treaties ended a European war. Austrian Empire
1713-20 Duke Vitorrio II of Savoy ruled SicilyLombardy
1713-40 Friedrich Wilhelm ruled Prussia & Brandenburg. Germans
1713-47 Karl Leopold ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Germany
1714.2.14 Queen Maria Luisa died of tuberculosis. Felipe V
1714.2.19 Russians defeated Swedes & Finns at Isokyro. Petr
1714.3.7 France and Austria agreed to Rastatt treaty. Austrian Empire
1714.3.23 Tsar Petr decreed primogeniture.
1714.5 Duke Charles of Berry died. France
1714.6 Russia made a treaty with Prussia.
1714 Britain’s debt reached £36,200,000. Anne
1714 Rowe’s Tragedy of Jane Shore played.
1714 France’s debt reached £124,000,000.
1714 Fahrenheit invented mercury thermometer. German
1714 Jews got first synagogue in Berlin. German
1714 Leibniz wrote his Monadology.
1714 Tsar Petr required nobles to learn arithmetic.
1714.7.27 Russian navy defeated Swedes off Cape Hangö. Petr
1714.8.1 Queen Anne died, ending Stuart dynasty. Britain
1714.9.7 France & Habsburgs agreed to Baden treaty.
1714.9.7 Swiss Confederation treaty favored Catholics.
1714.9.11 Barcelona surrendered to Bourbon rulers. France
1714.9.13 Barcelona surrendered after a 13-month siege. Felipe V
1714.9 Treaty at Baden ended Spanish Succession War. German
1714.9.16 Felipe V married Elizabeth Farnese of Parma.
1714.11.11 Karl XII arrived at Stralsund.
1714.11 Felipe V limited Inquisition to spiritual issues.
1714.12.9 Ottoman Empire declared war on Venice.
1714-19 Alberoni helped govern Spain.
1714-27 George I ruled Britain.
1714-96 Austrian Empire ruled Lombardy.
1715.1 341 Whigs & 217 Tories were elected. George I
1715.2.6 Spain & Portugal made peace.
1715.2.7 Felipe V dismissed reformer Macanaz and Orry.
1715.2 Spain made peace with PortugalFelipe V
1715.3 Louis XIV promised Karl XII an annual subsidy.
1715.3 British Parliament impeached 4 Tories. George I
1715.3-12 Netherlands’ Treasury was closed.
1715.4.15 Denmark allied with England, Prussia & Poland.
1715.4 Brandenburg-Prussia declared war on Sweden. Karl XII
1715.4 Prussia allied with Poland, Denmark & Russia. Germans
1715.4-5 Addison’s tragedy Cato played for 30 nights.
1715.5.9 Catholic cantons secretly allied with France. Swiss
1715.5 Swiss Confederation allied with Louis XIV.
1715.6 French & Spaniards took back Majorca. France Felipe V
1715 Rowe’s Tragedy of Lady Jane Grey played.
1715 Gazeta de Lisbon was Portugal’s first newspaper.
1715 Elisabetta Farnese of Parma married Felipe V. Sicily
1715 France’s deficit was 78 million livres. France
1715 Spanish Royal Academy was founded. Spain
1715 Hanover from war gained Bremen and Verden. Germans
1715 Russia made a silk trade treaty with Persia.
1715.7 British Riot Act gave magistrates more power. George I
1715.9.1 Louis XIV died. France
1715.10 Russia made a treaty with Hanover.
1715.11.15 Austrian Empire allowed the Dutch garrisons. Netherlands
1715.11.15 Barrier treaties allowed Dutch garrisons. Austrian EmpireNetherlands
1715.11.26 Saxons agreed to a confederation at Tarnogród. Poland-Lithuania
1715.12.13 Karl XII returned to Sweden.
1715.12.13 Karl XII returned to Sweden.
1715.12 Britain and Spain made a commercial treaty. George I
1715.12 Britain, Hanover and France allied. Germans
1715.12.24 Prussians and allies captured Stralsund. Germans Denmark
1715-16 Jacobites revolted in Scotland. George I
1715-17 Venice and allies fought the Turks. Clement XI
1715-23 Philippe II of Orléans was France’s Regent.
1716.1 Felipe V made Catalans citizens.
1716.1 Swedenborg began Daedalus Hyperboreus.
1716.2 British and Dutch allied. George I
1716.2 Tax on Old Ritualists was doubled in Russia. Petr
1716.3.9 Sweden’s army invaded Norway.
1716.4.13 Austrian Empire joined war against Turks. Venice
1716.5 British allied with Emperor Karl VI. George I
1716.5.26 Philippe authorized John Law to start a bank.
1716.6.5 Austrian Empire allied with Britain.
1716.6.29 Swedish army withdrew from Norway. Denmark
1716 Disarming Act compensated for weapons. George I
1716 Berlin Merchants Guild barred Jews & criminals. Germans
1716 Russian army of 30,000 occupied Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1716 Russia, France & Prussia made friendship treaty.
1716.7.8 Turks invaded the island of Corfu. Venice
1716.8.5 Austrian Imperial army beat Turks in Serbia. Clement XI Venice
1716.10.13 Austrian Imperial army took Temesvár in Hungary. Clement XI
1716-17 Pope Clement XI financed war against Turks.
1716-37 Austrians built the Karlskirche church.
1717.1 British, France and Dutch allied. George I
1717.2 Mute Sejm met at Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1717.6.4 Freemasons began a lodge in Covent Garden. George I
1717.6 Pope Clement XI suspended taxes in Spain.
1717.6 Spanish forces attacked Sicily. Clement XI
1717 Cervera University replaced Catalan universities. Spain
1717 London coffee house admitted women. George I
1717 John Law founded the Mississippi Company. France
1717 Prussia made elementary school compulsory. Germans
1717 Britain banned trade with Sweden.
1717.7.8 Danish navy defeated Sweden at Dynekilen. Norway
1717.7 Spain declared war on Austrian Empire.
1717.7.19 Portuguese defeated Turks at Cape Matapan. Portugal
1717.8.4 France and Russia signed a friendship treaty.
1717.8.17 Christians took Belgrade from Turks. Clement XI Venice Austrian
1717.8-11 Spain reconquered Sardinia. Sicily Clement XI
1717-18 Voltaire was in prison.
1717-33 Poland-Lithuania had a dark period.
1718.6.26 Prince Alexei died after being whipped. Petr
1718 Britain sent convicts to Maryland & Virginia. George I
1718 English bank notes were issued. George I
1718 Matthew Prior published Alma and poetry. George I
1718 Lady Montagu promoted smallpox inoculation. George I
1718 Saint-Pierre published Traite de la PolysynodieFrance
1718 France began transporting tramps to Louisiana.
1718 Russia’s government was reorganize. Petr
1718 Russia confiscated coins from merchants. Petr
1718.7.13 Spanish forces captured Palermo. Spain Sicily
1718.7.21 Treaty ended Turks’ war against VeniceAustrian Empire
1718.8.2 France allied with Austria and Savoy. Clement XI
1718.8.11 British beat Spaniards off Cape Passaro. Spain Sicily
1718.8 Austrians, British, French & Dutch allied. Spain Netherlands
1718.9-12 Swedes invaded Norway again. Denmark
1718.10.15 Spaniards defeated Austrian army at Milazzo.
1718.11 Governor Bienville founded New Orleans. France
1718.11.30 Karl XII was shot dead at Frederiksen. Denmark Norway
1718.12.4 French government took over bank issues. France
1718.12 Maine conspirators were arrested. France
1718.12 Quadruple Alliance declared war on SpainGeorge I
1718-20 Ulrika Eleonara governed Sweden as regent.
1719.1.9 France declared war against Spain.
1719.1 British & allies opposed Russia & Prussia.
1719.1 Whigs repealed Conformity Act. British
1719.3 Prussia abolished serfdom on crown land. Germans
1719.4 Defoe published Robinson Crusoe.
1719.4 Marquis de Pontcallec led Breton rebellion. France
1719.4.21 French army invaded northern Spain.
1719.6.18 Fuenterrabia surrendered to the French. Spain
1719.6.20 Spaniards defeated Austrians at Francavilla. Spain Sicily
1719 Law took over African & East Indies companies. France
1719 France devalued banknotes.
1719 France suppressed a tax rebellion in Brittany.
1719 Emperor Karl VI recognized Liechtenstein. Germans
1719.7 Denmark’s Navy captured Marstrand. Norway
1719.10.10 British captured Vigo in Galicia. Spain
1719.12.19 Felipe V expelled Cardinal Alberoni.
1719-20 South Sea stock rose and fell. British
1719-20 Louisiana suffered a famine and an epidemic. France
1720.1.5 John Law became Finances Controller-General. France
1720.1.21 Sweden ceded most of Pomerania to Prussia. Germans
1720.1.26 Spain joined the Quadruple Alliance. Felipe V
1720.2.17 Four Allies made peace with Spain. British Austria Netherlands
1720.3 Prince of Conti & Duke of Bourbon obtained gold. France
1720.3.24 French banks closed. France
1720.5 French prices doubled. France
1720.6 Defoe published “Wise Sayings.”
1720.6 France had 300 merchant ships.
1720 British Parliament authorized workhouses for offenders.
1720 Swift wrote Universal Use of Irish ManufactureIreland
1720 Defoe published Memoirs of a Cavalier.
1720 Defoe published Captain Singleton.
1720 Bubonic plague killed 100,000 in Marseilles. France
1720 Portugal founded its Royal Academy of History.
1720 Wolff published German Ethics.
1720 Greenland Company began. Denmark
1720.7.3 Denmark & Sweden made peace. Norway
1720.7 Russian Navy defeated a Swedish fleet off Åland. Petr
1720.7.16 A bank riot in Paris killed about 20 people. France
1720.11.1 John Law fled to Italy. France
1720-25 Spanish Inquisition executed Jewish conversosSpain
1720-35 Austrian Empire ruled Sicily.
1720-51 Fredrik I reigned but did not rule Sweden.
1721.3 Spain and the Pope were reconciled. Clement XI
1721.3.27 Spain allied with France.
1721.6 Britain allied with Spain and France.
1721 Bailey published Universal Etymological DictionaryBritain
1721 Montesquieu published Persian LettersFrance
1721 J. S. Bach performed his Brandenburg Concertos. German
1721 Petr decreed Ecclesiastical Regulation.
1721.8.30 Sweden & Russia made peace at Nystad. Petr
1721.10 Petr was proclaimed Emperor of Russia.
1721, 1726 Justices of the peace kept wages low. Britain
1721-35 Hans Egede led missionaries in Greenland. Denmark
1722.1 Defoe published Moll Flanders.
1722.2 Tsar Petr devised the Table of Ranks.
1722.6.30 Hungarian Diet accepted the Pragmatic Sanction. Austrian Empire
1722 Defoe published Col. Jack.
1722 Zinzendorf gave refuge to Moravian Brethren. Germans
1722 Friedrich Wilhelm warned about unjust wars. Germans
1722 Russian soldiers suffered ergotism at Astrakhan. Petr
1722.10 Petr led an army to the mouth of the Volga. Petr
1722.11.7 Steele’s The Conscious Lovers opened.
1722.12 Karl VI chartered Ostend East India Co. Austrian Empire Netherlands
1722-42 Robert Walpole was Britain’s first minister.
1723.2.16 Parlement declared Louis XV of age to rule at 13. France
1723.4.6 Marivaux’s comedy Double Infidelities opened.
1723 Defoe published the novel Rob RoyBritain
1723 Molesworth wrote about the poor in Ireland.
1723 Giannone published his History of NaplesNaples
1723 Sweden’s Riksdag increased lawmaking & taxing.
1723 Potatoes were planted in Sweden.
1723.7 Defoe wrote “Insufficient Causes of Great Wars.”
1723.8.10 Cardinal Dubois died of syphilis. France
1723.10.10 Prussia and Britain made a treaty. Germans
1723.10 Britain banned trade with the Ostend Company.
1723.12.2 Regent Philippe died of a stroke.
1723-37 Last Medici Grand Duke Gastone ruled Tuscany
1723-38 Caps party governed Sweden.
1724.1 Voltaire published La Henriade.
1724.1 Russian Academy of Science was founded. Petr
1724.2 Defoe published The Fortunate Mistress
1724.3.4 France imposed death for theft & preaching.
1724 Fontenelle published The Origin of FablesFrance
1724 Possochkov published Book on Poverty & WealthPetr
1724.7 Lutherans destroyed a Jesuit chapel at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724.12.7 Nine Lutherans were executed at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724-30 Pope Benedict XIII consecrated 360 churches.
1725.1.28 Emperor Petr died.
1725.4 Three men were hanged in London for sodomy. Britain
1725.4 Voltaire’s Hérode et Mariamne played.
1725.5 Spain allied with the Austrian Empire.
1725 Chancellor Macclesfield was fined for taking bribes. Britain
1725 Hutcheson published Ideas of Beauty and VirtueIreland
1725 Hutcheson wrote Inquiry on Moral Good and Evil.
1725 Famine caused food riots in Paris. France
1725 Vivaldi published his concertos at Amsterdam. Venice
1725.9.5 Louis XV married Marie Leszczynska. France Poland-Lithuania
1725-27 Ekaterina I ruled the Russian Empire.
1725-41 Maria Elizabeth governed Austrian Netherlands.
1725-45 Karl Albrecht ruled Bavaria. Germans
1726 Defoe wrote Political History of the Devil.
1726 Jonathan Swift published Gulliver’s Travels.
1726 French militia were revived. France
1726 Sweden enforced Lutheran dogma.
1726.8.6 Russia allied with the Austrian Empire.
1726.8.9 Dutch allied with Hanover. Netherlands
1726.10.8 Fleury repealed the tax on clergy.
1726.12 Bolingbroke & Pulteney began The CraftsmanBritain
1726-28 Voltaire was in England.
1726-36 Patiño was Spain’s chief minister.
1726-43 Cardinal Fleury was prime minister of France.
1727.2-6 Spanish siege of Gibraltar failed. Spain
1727.4 Denmark allied with Britain and France.
1727.5 British got Karl VI to suspend Ostend Company. Austrian Empire
1727.5.31 Ostend Company was suspended. Netherlands
1727 Stephen Hales published Vegetable StaticksBritain
1727 430 Whigs & 128 Tories were elected. George II
1727 Jansenist weekly Nouvelles ecclésiastiques began. France
1727 Orthodox bishops lost power in Austrian Empire.
1727-30 Petr II ruled the Russian Empire.
1727-33 Queen Isabel ruled Spain for her ill husband.
1727-34 Apostol was Hetman of the left-bank Ukraine.
1727-60 George II ruled Britain.
1728.1.29 John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera opened.
1728 Chambers published CyclopaediaGeorge II
1728 Swift wrote Short View of the State of Ireland.
1728 Law wrote Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life.
1728 Hutcheson wrote Essay on the Moral Sense.
1728 Fire devastated Copenhagen. Denmark
1728 First Masonic lodge opened in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1728.8 Bering discovered strait between Asia & America.Russia
1728-47 Denmark’s theaters were closed.
1729 Swift wrote the satire, A Modest ProposalIreland
1729 France allied with Britain and Spain.
1729 Le Sage revised Asmodeus: Devil on 2 Sticks.
1729 Franz Stefan became Duke of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1729 Copenhagen investors bought Norway’s trade.
1729.11 Britain & Spain made peace at Seville.
1729.11 Dutch joined the Quadruple Alliance. Netherlands
1729-51 Willem IV tried to govern the Netherlands.
1729-74 Polish Courier newspaper was published.
1730.1.23 Marivaux’s Game of Love and Chance opened.
1730 Walpole reduced the army and taxes.Britain
1730 Lesage’s comedy Turcaret played.
1730 Anna exiled the Dolgorukys and the Golitsyns. Russia
1730.10.30 Louis XV banned Mariamberg’s MemoirFrance
1730.12 Voltaire’s Brutus opened.
1730-32 Corsicans revolted against Genoese rule. Lombardy
1730-40 Pope Clement XII restored papal finances.
1730-40 Anna Ivanovna ruled the Russian Empire.
1730-46 Kristian VI ruled Denmark and Norway.
1730-73 Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy ruled Sardinia. Lombardy
1731.3.16 British allied with Austrian Empire at Vienna.
1731.3 Vienna treaty ended France’s alliance with Britain.
1731.6 George Lillo’s The London Merchant opened.
1731 Jethro Tull published Horse-Hoeing HusbandryBritain
1731 Protestants founded the Dublin Society. Ireland
1731 France’s Royal Academy of Surgery began
1731 Fleury imprisoned a hundred dissenters.
1731 Voltaire published his History of Charles XII.
1731 Prévost published his novelManon Lescaut.
1731 A Spanish army occupied Tuscany.
1731 Swedish East India Company began. Sweden
1731.7 Austria let Spain garrison Parma and Tuscany.
1731, 1734 Karl VI restricted Protestants in Hungary. Austrian Empire
1731-38 Griffith Jones founded 37 schools in South Wales. Britain
1732.2 Dutch signed Vienna treaty of Austria & Britain. Netherlands
1732.3.12 Marivaux’s The Triumph of Love opened.
1732.3.9 Carlos entered Florence to govern Tuscany. Naples
1732.3 Britain’s tobacco & wine taxes lasted one week. George II
1732.4.23 Salzburg expelled 20,000 Protestants. Austrian Empire Germans
1732 Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia. George II
1732 Prussia began compulsory military service. Germans
1732 Dutch Willem IV made agreement with Prussia.
1732 Konarski published Polish legislation. Poland-Lithuania
1732 Canal from the Neva to the Volkhov was finished. Petr
1732.7 Louis XV banished 139 members of Parlement. France
1732.8.13 Voltaire’s Zaire was produced.
1732.11 Spaniards reconquered Oran. Spain
1732-34 Dalin published satires in The Swedish ArgusSweden
1733.2 French army escorted Stanislas to Poland. France
1733 Britain taxed molasses, sugar & rum.
1733 John Kay patented a wheeled shuttle for a loom. Britain
1733 Richardson printed House of Commons journals.
1733 Voltaire published his Letters on the English.
1733 Voltaire married Émilie du Châtelet.
1733 Denmark purchased St. Croix.
1733 Kristian VI visited Norway.
1733 Russian army invaded Poland.
1733.8.14 Karl VI recognized August III of Saxony. Austrian Empire
1733.9.12 13,000 Poles voted for Stanisław. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.5 Russians urged 1,000 nobles to elect August III.Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.10 France declared war against Austrian Empire. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.26 Felipe V put his son Carlos in command in Italy.
1733.11 Felipe V & Louis XV formed Family Compact. France
1733-34 Alexander Pope’sEssay on Manwas printed.
1733-36 Poland’s Sejm excluded Protestants. Poland-Lithuania
1733-38 War of the Polish Succession. Austrian EmpirePoland-Lithuania
1733-63 Saxon August III ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1734.1 August III was crowned at Krakow. Poland-Lithuania
1734.2 Austrian Empire’s Ostend Company stopped trading.
1734.2-6 Russian army besieged Stanisław at Danzig. Poland-Lithuania
1734.3 Willem IV married Anne of Hanover.
1734.4.9 Austrian Empire declared war against France.
1734.5.10 Carlos and Spaniards entered Naples. Spain
1734.5.25 Spanish army defeated Austrians at Bitonto. Naples
1734.5 French occupied Lorraine and Trèves. France
1734.6.30 Russian forces drove French from Danzig. France
1734 Montesquieu published a book on the Romans.
1734 Denmark allied with Sweden and Britain.
1734 Sweden got a new law code.
1734 Swedenborg wrote “Against War with Russia.”
1734.9.1 Palermo Senate recognized Carlos in Sicily. Spain
1734, 1737 Index banned books by Locke. Naples
1734-59 Carlo ruled Naples and Sicily.
1735.1.26 Stanisław renounced the Polish throne. Poland-Lithuania
1735.5 Russian army defeated Dzikow Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1735 Le Sage completed his novel Gil Blas.
1735 Linnaeus published his Systema NaturaeSweden
1735 Russians fought the French on the Rhine.
1735.6 Britain passed the Engraving Copyright Act.
1735.10.5 French began negotiating secretly with Austria. France
1735.10.14 John Wesley began his public journal.
1735.10 Austrian Empire regained Parma and Piacenza. Naples
1735-37 Portugal & Spain fought over Plata Rio colonies.
1735-39 35,000 Ukrainians died in a Russo-Turkish War. Ukraine
1736.1 Voltaire’s Alzire was produced.
1736.2.14 Maria Theresa married Franz of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1736.5.4 Karl VI made Franz governor of Belgium. Austrian Empire
1736.6 Russians sacked Tatar capital Bakhchisarai.
1736 Britain repealed the Witchcraft Act.
1736 Joseph Butler published The Analogy of Religion.
1736 Voltaire’s La Mort de César flopped.
1736 Voltaire published “The Worldly Man.”
1736 Rousseau wrote Dissertation on Modern Music.
1736 Denmark made confirmation a law.
1736 Poland’s Sejm confirmed King August III. Poland-Lithuania
1736 Russia withdrew troops from Poland.
1736 Russia declared war on the Turks.
1736.7 Irish building workers rioted in East London. Britain
1736-48 Historian Giannone was in prison for heresy. Naples
1737.1 Carlo of Naples ceded Parma & Piacenza. Spain
1737.1 Austrian Empire took over Tuscany.
1737.2 Militaristic minister Chauvelin was exiled. France
1737 Licensing Act began censoring plays. Britain
1737 Saint-Pierre wrote books on universal peace. France
1737 Pope Clement XII recognized Spain’s rights.
1737 Felipe V ceded Tuscany to Francis of Lorraine. Naples
1737 Carlo had an opera house built in Naples.
1737 Algarotti published Newton’s PhilosophyVenice
1737 Swedish Playhouse opened. Sweden
1737 Anna made Biron the Duke of Courland. Russia
1737 Russians made Okhotsk a Pacific port.
1737 Russians captured Ochakov.
1737.7.9 Last Medici ruler Gastone died. Tuscany
1737.7 Franz became Grand Duke of Tuscany. Austrian Empire
1737.7 Austrian Empire allied with Russia against the Turks.
1737.8.4 Turks defeated Christian allies at Banja Luka. Austrian Empire
1737-66 Stanisław was Duke of Lorraine. Poland-Lithuania
1738.2.4 Württemberg executed banker Oppenheimer. Germans
1738 France compelled labor to repair roads.
1738 Voltaire published his book on Newton.
1738 Spain began its Royal Academy of History.
1738 Daniel Bernoulli published HydrodynamicsSwiss
1738 Denmark banned comedy and gambling.
1738.11.18 Vienna treaty ended Polish War. Austrian Empire
1738-41 One-sixth of the French died of hunger. France
1738-47 Satirist Weyerman was in prison. Netherlands
1738-65 Hats party governed Sweden.
1738-1803 Karl Friedrich ruled Baden. German States
1739.4.1 John Wesley preached to 3,000 at Bristol.
1739 Scotland began growing potatoes. Britain
1739 Feijóo completed his Teatro critico universalSpain
1739 Denmark financed elementary schools.
1739 Norwegian Company began. Norway
1739 Linnaeus began Sweden’s Academy of Science. Sweden
1739 Moldavian nobles joined the Russian Empire.
1739.7-9 Ottoman siege captured Belgrade. Austrian Empire
1739.9.18 Austrian Empire ceded Serbia to Ottoman Empire.
1739.10.3 Russia and the Turks made a treaty at Niš.
1739.10.8  Britain declared war against Spain.
1739.11.22 British ships captured Porto Bello in Panama. 
1739-43 British and Spain fought a war.
1739-40 Friedrich II & Voltaire wrote on Machiavelli.
1739-42 Norway suffered famine and disease.
1739-48 British spent £6.6 million on wars.
1740 Samuel Richardson publishedPamela.
1740 2 Sicilies and Ottoman Empire made a treaty. Naples
1740.10-11 Biron was Regent of Russia for 25 days.
1740.12 August III allied with Austria’s Maria Theresa. Poland-Lithuania
1740.12.16 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Silesia. Austrian Empire
1740.12.25 Moravians celebrated Christmas in Bethlehem. Germans
1740-41 Ivan’s mother Anna was Regent of Russia.
1740-44 418 mosques were destroyed in Kazan. Russia
1740-48 War of the Austrian Succession.
1740-58 Pope Benedict XIV was a reformer & scholar.
1740-86 Friedrich II ruled Prussia.
1741.3-5 10,000 British died at the Cartagena siege.
1741.4.10 Prussians fought Austrians at Mollwitz. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1741.5 France entered the Austrian War.
1741.5.28 Spain & France allied with Bavaria. Austrian Empire
1741.6.5 France allied with Prussia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741.6.25 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741 Spain imposed a 10% tax on income.
1741 Danes fought Russians in Finland. Norway
1741 Uppsala Astronomical Observatory was built. Sweden
1741.2 Henry Fielding published Joseph Andrews.
1741.3-5 Spaniards defeated the British at Cartagena. Spain
1741.4.25 Voltaire’s Mahomet opened at Lille.
1741.7 Britain gave Austrian Empire a subsidy of £300,000.
1741.8.15 A French army crossed the Rhine. France
1741.9.14 French and Bavarians captured Linz. France Austrian Empire
1741.9 Franz became co-regent of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741.9.19 Saxony allied with France against Britain.
1741.10.9 Austrian Empire ceded Lower Silesia to Prussia. Germany
1741.11.25 French and Bavarians captured Prague. France Austrian Empire
1741.12.19 Karl Albrecht was crowned King of Bohemia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741-42 Hume wrote Essays, Moral and Political.
1741-43 Sweden and Russia fought a war.
1741-61 Elizaveta ruled the Russian Empire.
1742.2.12 Emperor Karl VII was crowned in Frankfurt. France Austrian Empire
1742.2.12 Austrian imperial army captured Munich. Friedrich II
1742.4.13 Handel’s Messiah premiered in Dublin. Ireland
1742.5.17 Austrian army fought Prussians at Chotusitz. Friedrich II
1742.6.11 British mediated a truce in Silesia. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1742 Handel composed “Joy to the World.” George II
1742 Denmark allied with France and got a subsidy.
1742 Horkraemmer Company got Iceland trade.
1742 Celsius invented the centigrade thermometer. Sweden
1742 Elizaveta expelled Jews from Russia.
1742.6-12 Austrian siege drove French allies from Prague.
1742.7.28 Austrian Empire signed a treaty at Berlin. Friedrich II
1742.9.17 Saxony withdrew from the Austrian War.
1742.11 Britain allied with Prussia against France.
1742.12.12 French forces retreated from Prague. France
1742-45 Karl VII was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1742.46 Lengnich wrote Public Law of the Polish RealmPoland-Lithuania
1743.2.18 Last Medici Anna Maria died in Florence. Tuscany
1743.2.20 Voltaire’s Mérope opened.
1743.3-6 Dalecarlian peasants rebelled. Sweden
1743.5.12 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1743.5 France declared war on Austria and Britain. Austrian Empire
1743.6.27 British & allies beat French at Dettingen. Louis XV Austrian Empire
1743 John Wesley published Methodist Rules.
1743 Fielding wrote Journey from this World.
1743 Henry Fielding published Jonathan Wild.
1743 Rousseau wrote the opera Les Muses Galantes.
1743 30,000 people died of typhus in Messina. Sicily
1743 Russia & Prussia made a defensive alliance.
1743.8 Russia & Sweden made peace at Åbo.
1743.10.25 Felipe V & Louis XV renewed the Compact.
1743.12 Austrian Empire allied with Saxony.
1743-44 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1744.3.15 France’s Louis XV declared war on Britain.
1744.4.26 France declared war on Austrian EmpireLouis XV
1744.5 France invaded southern Netherlands. Louis XV Germany
1744.6 France allied with Prussia & Frankfurt Union. Louis XV Friedrich II
1744 Vico finished his Principles of a New Science.
1744 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1744 Ukraine’s new laws went into effect.
1744 Orenburg became a Russian province.
1744 Russian population reached 18,250,000.
1744.8.15 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1744.12 Friedrich II retreated to Silesia.
1744-80 Charles Alexander ruled Austrian Netherlands.
1745.1.8 Britain, Austrian Empire, Saxony & Dutch allied. Netherlands
1745.1.20 Emperor Karl VII died. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1745.2.25 The ballet La Princesse de Navarre opened.
1745.3 Spain allied with Genoa against Savoy.
1745.4.1 Voltaire became France’s historiographer.
1745.4.15 Austrian Empire beat Bavarians at Pfaffenhofen. Friedrich II
1745.4.22 Bavaria & Austrian Empire agreed to end the war. Germany
1745.5.11 French beat four allies at Fontenoy. Austrian Empire BritainLouis XV Netherlands
1745.6 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1745.6.24 Louis XV made Jeanne Marquise of Pompadour.
1745.6.28 1,400 French surrendered at Louisbourg. Louis XV
1745 Pompadour got Voltaire into French Academy. Louis XV
1745 French army conquered Austrian Netherlands. Louis XV
1745 Prussian army defeated Austrian Empire 3 times.
1745 Sweden & Russia made a defensive treaty.
1745 Atlas of the Russian Empire was published.
1745.8 British allied with Prussia against France.
1745.8 Ekaterina married Petr of Holstein-Gottorp. Russia
1745.9.17 Jacobites took over Edinburgh for James VIII. Britain
1745.9.27 Spain defeated Savoy at Bassignano.
1745.9.30 Prussians defeated Austrians at Soor. Friedrich II
1745.11.18 Jacobites occupied Carlisle in England. Britain
1745.12 France’s Controller-General Orry resigned.Louis XV
1745.12.15 Prussians defeated Saxons at Kesselsdorf. Friedrich II
1745.12.19 Spanish troops entered Milan. Spain
1745.12.25 Austrian Empire made peace with Prussia. Friedrich II
1745.12.30 Jacobites surrendered Carlisle to the British.
1745-46 Chmielowski published an encyclopedia. Poland-Lithuania
1745-47 Genoese rebelled against Austrian rule. Lombardy
1745-65 Franz was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1746.1.17 4,000 were killed fighting at Falkirk, Scotland. Britain
1746.2.22 French army captured Brussels. Austrian Empire Louis XV Netherlands
1746.4.3 British defeated Jacobite rebellion at Culloden.
1746.4  Spaniards withdrew from Parma. Spain
1746.6.2 Austrian Empire allied with Russia.
1746.6.16 Austrians beat Spanish and French at Piacenza. Spain
1746 Diderot wrote Philosophic Thoughts.
1746 King Carlo kept the Inquisition out of Naples.
1746 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Buda.
1746 Swiss Natural Science Society began.
1746 Berliners acclaimed “Friedrich the Great.”
1746 Plauer canal joined the Elbe to the Havel. Friedrich II
1746 Denmark allied with Russia.
1746.7.9 After long mental decline Felipe V died.
1746.9 French forces took Madras from the English Company. Louis XV
1746.10.11 French defeated Austrians at Rocoux. Louis XV
1746-59 Fernando VI ruled Spain.
1746-66 Frederik V ruled Denmark and Norway.
1747.4 French army invaded Flanders. Netherlands
1747.4.28 Zeeland declared Willem IV stadholder.
1747.5 Dutch provinces accepted Willem IV.
1747.5 Sweden allied with France and Prussia.
1747 Tobias Smollett published Roderick Random.
1747 French defeated invading Sardinians in Provence. Louis XV
1747 Voltaire published his novel Zadig.
1747 Goldoni’s Servant of Two Masters opened.
1747 First public library was founded in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1747.7.2 French defeated British allies at Lauffeld. Louis XV
1747.9.18 French army sacked Bergen-op-Zoom. Netherlands
1747-48 Samuel Richardson published Clarissa.
1747-48 French army invaded Brabant and Flanders. Netherlands
1747, 1753 James Lind noted that citrus cures scurvy. Britain
1748.1-11 Dutch rioted and protested. Netherlands
1748.5.7 French army captured Maastricht fortress. Louis XV
1748 John Wesley wrote Plain Account of Methodists.
1748 Samuel Johnson wrote “The Vanity of Human Wishes.”
1748 La Mettrie published L’homme MachineLouis XV
1748 Montesquieu published The Spirit of Laws.
1748 Diderot published The Indiscreet Jewels.
1748 Russian army marched to Germany and back. Poland-Lithuania
1748 A decree ordered books printed in Russian.
1748.8.29 Voltaire’s Sémiramis was produced.
1748.10.18 Europeans made peace at Aachen. Britain Louis XV Spain Austria
1748.12 Willem IV agreed to new rules.
1748-49 Henry Fielding publishedTom Jones.
1749 Bolingbroke published Spirit of PatriotismBritain
1749 France imposed a 5% income tax. Louis XV
1749 French scientists published Natural HistoryDiderot
1749 Wolff published The Law of Nations.
1749 Codex Fredericianus simplified rules. Friedrich II
1749 Stanisław wrote A Free Voice Ensuring FreedomPoland-Lithuania
1749.7 Bern punished conspirators. Swiss
1749.7-11 Diderot was in prison at Vincennes.
1749.8 Denmark & Sweden agreed on Gottorp.
1449-50 Paris police arrested vagrants and veterans. Louis XV
1749-68 Skúli Magnusson worked for reform in Iceland.
1750.1 Spain and Portugal agreed on boundaries.
1750.1 Burgomasters lost control of Haarlem. Netherlands
1750.4.25 Adolf Friedrich gave up Schleswig. Denmark
1750 Voltaire estimated population of European states. Britain
1750 Voltaire wrote La Voix du sage et du peuple.
1750 J. S. Bach completed his Art of the FugueLessing
1750 Lessing began translating Voltaire’s work.
1750.7 Rousseau wrote Discourse on Science and Arts.
1750.9.13 Britain joined Austria & Russia against Prussia.
1750.11 Diderot published his Prospectus
1750-52 Johnson wrote 208 articles for The Rambler.
1750-52 Kaunitz was Austria’s ambassador to France.
1750-53 Voltaire lived in Prussia.
1750-64 Rozumovsky was Ukrainian Hetman. Ukraine
1750-70 J. Bernstorff was Denmark’s foreign minister.
1750-77 José I ruled Portugal as enlightened despot.
1751.6 Diderot & d’Alembert began the Encyclopédie.
1751 John Wesley married and lost his fellowship.
1751 Hume wrote Enquiry on Principles of Morals.
1751 Tobias Smollett published Peregrine Pickle.
1751 Louis XV financed a military school for nobles.
1751 Voltaire published his Age of Louis XIV.
1751 Portugal restricted the Inquisition.
1751 Naples built a house for the poor and ill.
1751 Hungarian Diet refused to pass a war tax. Austrian Empire
1751.12 Henry Fielding publishedAmelia.
1751.12 Louis XV granted clergy immunity from taxes.
1751, 1759 Peasants revolted in Transylvania. Austrian Empire
1751-59 Anne of Hanover was Dutch regent. Netherlands
1751-71 Adolf Fredrik was King of Sweden.
1752.3 Austria outlawed Protestant books.
1752.6 Spain, Austria & Sardinia made Aranjuez treaty.
1752.6 Upper Austria expelled 2,664 Protestants.
1752 Pringle published Diseases of the ArmyBritain
1752 William Law published The Spirit of Love.
1752 Persecuted Protestants emigrated from France. Louis XV
1752 Spain began its Academy of Fine Arts.
1752.9.14 Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1753.1 Pope Benedict XIV granted Spain a concordat.
1753.3.1 Sweden adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1753.3 Rousseau’s Le Devin du village made money.
1753.5 Paris Parlement was suspended and exiled. Louis XV
1753 Marriage Act required parental consent for minors. Britain
1753 Britain claimed Ireland’s surplus.
1753 Le Paige published a history of Parlement. Louis XV
1753 Portugal set up Company for Trade with Asia.
1753 Goldoni’s Mistress of the Inn played.
1753 Peasants revolted in southern Hungary. Maria Theresa
1753 Maria Theresa set up a Chastity Commission.
1753 Lessing wrote “Christianity of Reason.”
1753.11 Carlo banned gambling in Naples.
1753-54 Richardson published Sir Charles Grandison.
1753-92 Kaunitz was Chancellor of the Austrian Empire.
1754 Lessing wrote the comedy The Jews.
1754 Russia ended internal customs & tripled tariffs.
1754.9.17 Quesnay persuaded Louis XV to abolish tolls.
1754.11 Rousseau published On Political Economy.
1754.12 Parlement banished Archbishop Beaumont. Louis XV
1754, 1756 Spain suppressed the Guarani revolt.
1755.4 Samuel Johnson published his English Dictionary.
1755.5 Uri forces punished rebels in Levinental. Swiss
1755 Hutcheson’s System of Moral Philosophy published.
1755 Morelly published his Code of NatureLouis XV
1755 Rousseau wrote his Discourse on Inequality.
1755 Corsica declared a republic. Lombardy
1755 Algarotti published Essay on the OperaVenice
1755 Estates in Mecklenburg-Schwerin gained rights. Germany
1755 Lessing and Mendelssohn collaborated.
1755 Moscow University was founded. Russia
1755.7.8 Britain broke diplomatic relations with France.
1755.7.10 Lessing’s tragedy Miss Sara Sampson opened.
1755.9 Britain began subsidizing Russian troops.
1755.11.1 Lisbon was devastated by an earthquake. Portugal
1755-58 Poniatowski was Ekaterina’s lover. Poland-Lithuania
1755-93 Karl Eugen ruled Württemberg. Germans
1756.1 Britain made defensive alliance with Prussia. Friedrich II
1756.2 Dutch Republic declared neutrality. Netherlands
1756.5.1 France & Austrian Empire allied defensively. Louis XV
1756.5.17 Britain declared war against France.
1756.5.20 French squadron captured a Minorca fort. Louis XV
1756.6 Queen Louisa Ulrika’s coup in Sweden failed.
1756 Elder Mirabeau wrote The Friend of MankindLouis XV
1756 Voltaire published 7-volume Spirit of Nations.
1756 Swedenborg completed his Arcana Coelestia.
1756.8 Friedrich II detained August III at Pirna. Poland-Lithuania
1756.8.21 Parlement raised income tax to 10%. Louis XV
1756.8.29 Prussia began war by invading Saxony. Friedrich II
1756.9.9 Prussian army occupied Dresden. Friedrich II
1756.10.14 Prussians defeated Saxons at Pirna. Friedrich II
1756.10.16 Pope Benedict XIV issued Ex omnibus encyclical. Louis XV
1756.12.13 French Edict of Discipline caused controversy. Louis XV
1756-77 Carvalho (Pombal) governed Portugal.
1756-85 Duke Friedrich II ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1757.1.5 The servant Damiens stabbed Louis XV.
1757.3.14 Britain executed Admiral Byng for losing Minorca.
1757.5.1 France & Austrian Empiree allied offensively. Louis XV
1757.5.6 Prussians defeated Austrians near Prague. Friedrich II
1757.6.18 Austrians defeated Prussians in Bohemia. Friedrich II
1757 Denmark began an agriculture commission.
1757 Sweden’s Enclosure Act helped peasants.
1757.7.26 French defeated British at Hastenbeck.
1757.10.16 Hungarian cavalry raided Berlin. Austrian Empire
1757.11.5 Prussians defeated French & AustriansLouis XV Friedrich II
1757.11 Voltaire wrote “Geneva” for the Encyclopédie.
1757.12.5 Prussians defeated Austrians at Leuthen. Friedrich II
1757-62 Swedes fought Prussians. Russia
1757-63 Russian army occupied Poland-Lithuania.
1758.3 Nun Marguerite Delamarre sued. Diderot
1758.4.11 British & Prussians made a deal. Friedrich II
1758.5 Prussian army invaded Moravia. Austrian Empire
1758.6 British began seizing Dutch ships. Netherlands
1758.6.23 Britain & Germans defeated French. Louis XV
1758 Johnson wrote “Of the Duty of a Journalist.”
1758 France subsidized Russia, Sweden & Austria. Louis XV
1758 Parlement burned De l’esprit by Helvetius. Louis XV
1758 Quesnay published his Economic TableFrance
1758 Voltaire criticized Rousseau in d’Alembert letter.
1758 Rousseau wrote to d’Alembert on theatre.
1758 Carlo Gozzi wrote The Comic Theatre.  Goldoni
1758 Balthasar advocated national Swiss education.
1758 Vattel published his Law of Nations.
1758 Swedenborg published Heaven and Hell.
1758 Russia let only nobles own serfs.
1758.7 Helvétius published De ll’espritDiderot
1758.7.26 British took Louisbourg from the French. Louis XV
1758.8.25 Prussians defeated Russians at Zorndorf. Friedrich II
1758.8.27 Queen Barbara left riches to Portugal’s Pedro III. Spain
1758.9.3 Men shot and wounded King José I. Portugal
1758.9.11 French defeated British near Saint Cast. Louis XV
1758.10.14 Austrians defeated Prussians at Hochkirch. Friedrich II
1758.11 Diderot published Discourse on Dramatic Poetry.
1759.1 Voltaire published Candide or Optimism.
1759.4.13 French defeated British allies at Bergen. Louis XV
1759.4 Samuel Johnson publishedRasselas.
1759.6 Portugal got free grammar-schools.
1759 Adam Smith published Theory of Moral Sentiments.
1759 Voltaire’sSocrateswas produced.
1759 Inquisition banned the EncyclopédieSpain Clement XIII
1759 Tschiffeli began Swiss Economic Association.
1759 Russians invaded Great Poland.
1759 Sumarokov’s Busy Bee literary journal began. Russia
1759.7.19 Swedenborg perceived the Stockholm fire.
1759.7.21 Paris Parlement condemned theEncyclopédie.
1759.7.23 Russians defeated Prussians in Brandenburg. Friedrich II
1759.8.1 British & allies beat French at Minden. Louis XV Friedrich II
1759.8.12 Russians defeated Prussia at Kundersdorf.  Austria Friedrich II
1759.9.3 Portugal outlawed Jesuits.
1759.9.13 British captured Quebec. Louis XV
1759.9 France raised income tax to 15%. Louis XV
1759.9.17 Jakub Frank was baptized. Poland-Lithuania
1759.11.20 Austrians defeated Prussians at Maxen.
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spain with reforms.
1760.2 Goldoni’s comedy The Boors played.
1760.6.23 Austrian allies defeated Prussians at Landeshut.
1760 Le Paige’s book criticized Jesuits. France
1760 Elder Mirabeau published his Theory of TaxationFrance
1760 D’Alembert wrote on the republic of letters.
1760 Verri published his Elements of TradeTuscany
1760 Scientific Society of Trondheim was formed. Norway
1760  Zamoyski freed serfs on his estate. Poland-Lithuania
1760 Hasidism founder Baal Shem Tov died. Poland-Lithuania
1760.7.31 British allies defeated French at Warburg. Germany
1760.8.15 Prussians defeated Austrians at Liegnitz. Friedrich II
1760.9.3 Voltaire’s verse tragedy Tancrède opened.
1760.9.8 British captured Montreal. Louis XV
1760.10 Russians & Austrians attacked Berlin. Friedrich II
1760.10.25 George II died of a heart attack. Britain
1760.11.3 Prussians and Austrians fought at Torgau.Friedrich II
1760.11 Mauduit wrote on the cost of the German War. George III
1760.12 Goldoni’s comedy La Casa Nova played.
1760-73 Jakub Frank was imprisoned for heresy. Poland-Lithuania
1760-182 George III reigned in Britain.
1761.1 Rousseau published his novelJulie.
1761.2 Spain restored the Guarani missions.
1761.3.21 French captured Germans at Grünberg. Louis XV
1761.3.25 George III made Bute the Northern Secretary.
1761 Hume completed his History of England.
1761 Rousseau wrote “Perpetual Peace” in Geneva.
1761 Diderot began writing Rameau’s Nephew.
1761 Portugal banned slaves in its cities.
1761 St. Germain trained Denmark’s army.
1761.7.16 German allies defeated 90,000 French. Louis XV Friedrich II
1761.8.15 France & Spain made 3rd Family Compact. Louis XV Spain
1761.9.20 Inquisition executed Malagrida for heresy. Portugal
1761.10 Rousseau published Emile (on Education).
1761-62 Petr III ruled Russia for six months.
1761-63 Konarski published 4 volumes on debates. Poland-Lithuania
1761-72 Grigory Orlov was Ekaterina II’s lover.
1761-92 Wilno Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1762.1.4 Britain declared war on Spain & Naples.George III
1762.1 Carlos III controlled papal documents in Spain.
1762.2 Petr III secularized church properties. Russia
1762.3.10 Jean Calas was executed. Voltaire
1762.3.24 Voltaire’s Olympia opened at Ferney.
1762.4 Rousseau published The Social Contract.
1762.5 Portugal refused to close ports to Britain. Spain
1762.5.5 Russia and Prussia made a peace treaty. Friedrich II
1762.5.18 Portugal declared war on France & Spain.
1762.6.9 Parlement condemned Rousseau’sEmile.
1762.6 Petr III allied with Prussia’s Friedrich II. Russia
1762.6.28 Ekaterina II overthrew her husband Petr III.
1762 Voltaire published The Maid of Orléans.
1762 George III bought Canaletto paintings. Venice
1762 Austrian Empire began printing paper money.
1762 Mozart and his sister began touring. Joseph II
1762 Geneva burned books by Rousseau. Swiss
1762 Denmark’s new tax caused riots in Bergen. Norway
1762 Olof von Dalin completed his History of SwedenSweden
1762 Rosén published Diseases of ChildrenSweden
1762.7.6 Petr III was killed. Ekaterina II
1762.7 Ekaterina II ended Prussian alliance. Friedrich II
1762.8 Spain invaded Portugal and captured Almeida.
1762.8.8 Ekaterina II decreed serf-owners must buy land.
1762.8.13 British navy captured Havana. Spain
1762.9.22 British navy captured Manila. Spain
1762.9.22 Ekaterina II was crowned Empress of Russia.
1762.10.29 Prussians defeated Austrians at Freiberg. Friedrich II
1762.11.3 British, French & Spanish agreed on peace. Louis XV
1762.11 France ceded Louisiana to Spain.
1762-63 Friedrich II replaced Polish coins. Poland-Lithuania
1762-73 Russian Empire had forty peasant revolts. Ekaterina II
1762-87 French government controlled political news. France
1763.2.10 Paris Treaty ended Seven Years’ War. George III France Spain
1763.2.15 Prussia, Austria & Saxony made peace. Friedrich II Poland-Lithuania
1763.2 Portugal regained Sacramento colony in treaty.
1763.4 Voltaire published his Treatise on Tolerance.
1763.4.23 John Wilkes issued North Briton 45. George III
1763 Hundreds of Irish attacked landlords. Ireland
1763 Physiocrats began La Gazette du CommerceFrance
1763 Elder Mirabeau published his Rural PhilosophyFrance
1763 Famine killed 30,000 people in Sicily.
1763 Russia allied with Prussia.
1763 Mendelssohn won a Prussian essay contest.
1763 Swedenborg published Angelic Wisdom.
1763 Ekaterina II had burned town of Tver rebuilt.
1763.12.15 Ekaterina II reorganized the government.
1763, 1773 The Dutch economy crashed. Netherlands
1763-69 Bougainville sailed around the world. France D’Alembert
1764.1.19 Parliament expelled Wilkes. George III
1764.2 Ekaterina II put serfs under Economy College.
1764.3.27 Joseph was elected King of the Romans. Austrian Empire
1764.4.5 British Sugar Act taxed Americans.
1764.4.15 Madame de Pompadour died. France
1764 Rousseau wrote Letters from the Mountain.
1764 Austrian army massacred 400 Székelys.
1764 Ekaterina II and Betskoi wrote on education.
1764 Ekaterina II confirmed Russia’s Prussian alliance.
1764.7.5 Imprisoned Ivan VI was killed. Ekaterina II
1764.7 Voltaire’s Philosophical Dictionary first appeared.
1764.7 Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishments.
1764.9.7 Sejm elected Poniatowski King Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania Russia
1764.11 Louis XV suppressed the Jesuits. France Clement XIV
1764.11 Sejm abolished the veto. Poland-Lithuania
1764-66 Esquilache provoked resistance in Madrid & fled. Spain
1764-90 Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1765.1 Voltaire criticized Rousseau again.
1765.1 Pope Clement XIII defended Jesuits.
1765.3.11 Denmark allied with Russia.
1765.3 Parliament passed Stamp & Quartering acts. Britain
1765.3 Ekaterina II bought D’Alembert’s library.
1765 Goldsmith published The Vicar of Wakefield.
1765 De Belloy’s play The Siege of Calais opened. France
1765 Emperor Joseph II became co-regent of Austria.
1765 Brunswick started Europe’s first savings bank. German States
1765 Lichtenberg began writing aphorisms.
1765 Denmark made five trade treaties. Russia
1765 Chydenius published The Nation’s ProfitSweden
1765 Stanisław II founded the College of Chivalry. Poland-Lithuania
1765 Ekaterina II founded the Free Economic Society.
1765.7 George III replaced Grenville with Rockingham.
1765.9.5 Carlos III wedded Maria Luisa; 10 were killed.
1766.3.4 Pitt persuaded Commons to repeal the Stamp Act. George III
1765-68 Caps party governed Sweden.
1765-69 Blackstone published Commentaries on the LawsBritain
1765-85 Poland’s weekly Monitor was published. Poland-Lithuania
1765-90 Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldino ruled Tuscany.
1766.3 Parlement accepted Louis XV’s sovereignty. France
1766 Britain & Russia made a commercial treaty. Ekaterina II
1766 France annexed Lorraine.
1766 Campomanes made reforms, accused Jesuits. Carlos III
1766 Prussia adopted French taxes and tolls.
1766 Zamoyski freed peasants from labor-rents. Poland-Lithuania
1766 Russian Repnin blocked reforms in Poland. Poland-Lithuania
1766-67 Rousseau lived in England.
1766-82 Moser wrote New German Constitutional LawEducation
1766-95 Willem V governed the Dutch Republic. Netherlands
1766-1808 Kristian VII suffered from dementia. Denmark
1767.2-4 Spain’s Carlos III expelled the Jesuits. Clement XIII
1767.3 Lutherans formed a confederation at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1767.3 Russians invaded Poland-Lithuania. Poland-Lithuania
1767.5 Spain made a friendship treaty with Morocco. Carlos III
1767.6 Catholics formed the Radom Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1767 Joseph Priestley published his book on electricity. Britain
1767 La Rivière published Natural and Essential OrderFrance
1767 Genovesi published his Academic LettersNaples
1767 Maria Theresa ordered smallpox inoculations.
1767 Lessing published Laocoön.
1767 Sejm confirmed conservative principles. Poland-Lithuania
1767.7.2 Townshend’s Revenue Act became law. Britain
1767.7 Ekaterina II set up a commission to revise laws.
1767.9 Venice suppressed 127 monasteries.
1767.9.30 Lessing’s comedy Minna von Barnhelm opened.
1767.10.4 Willem V married Wilhelmina of Prussia. Netherlands
1767.11 Naples expelled the Jesuits. Carlos III
1767-68 Many British workers were on strike.
1767-72 Townshend governed Ireland.
1767-1816 Ferdinando ruled Naples and Sicily.
1768.2.29 Nobles formed the Bar Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1768.3.11 The Pacification Edict aided Swiss burghers.
1768.5.15 Genoa ceded Corsica to FranceLombardy
1768.5 Ferdinando married Austrian Maria Carolina. Naples
1768 Du Pont de Nemours published PhysiocratieFrance
1768 Portugal set up a censorship board.
1768 Basedow published his Appeal to FriendsGerman
1768.9 Pope Clement XIII accepted Jesuit refugees.
1768.10.12 Ekaterina II was inoculated for smallpox.
1768.10 Russia improved trade with China. Ekaterina II
1768.12 Ekaterina II ended the law commission.
1768-71 Hats party governed Sweden.
1768-76 Tanucci was First Secretary in Naples.
1769.6 Russian Navy destroyed Turks in Çeşme Bay. Ekaterina II
1769 Voltaire wrote History of Paris ParlementFrance
1769 Madame du Barry became Louis XV’s mistress. France
1769 Choiseul abolished the Company of the Indies. France
1769 Voltaire criticized religion in Dieu et les hommes.
1769 Emperor Joseph II visited Naples.
1769 Maria Theresa began dissolving monasteries.
1769 Brzostoski began a Peasant Commonwealth. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Austrians invaded Poland and annexed Spisz. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Ekaterina II began a satirical journal.
1769 Russia began printing paper money. Ekaterina II
1769.7 Emperor Joseph II visited Venice.
1769.7.21 Russians defeated Turks at Kagul. Ekaterina II
1769-70 Turgot published his Reflections on RichesLouis XVI
1769-74 Novikov edited the weekly DroneEkaterina II
1770.4.12 Britain repealed Townshend taxes except on tea.
1770.5.16 Louis-Auguste married Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI Maria Theresa
1770 Bawdy comedies were banned in Vienna. Maria Theresa
1770 Austrians took Nowy Targ and Nowy Sacz. Poland-Lithuania
1770.10.22 Bar Confederation renounced Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania
1770.12 Louis XV dismissed Foreign Minister Choiseul. France
1770-72 Central Europe suffered from a famine. Austrian Empire
1770-72 Queen Matilda and Struensee ruled Denmark.
1770-82 Frederick North was British prime minister. Britain
1771.1.20 Members of Parlement were exiled. France
1771.5 Mackenzie published The Man of Feeling.
1771.5.23 Stanisław II’s forces defeated confederates. Poland-Lithuania
1771 Encyclopedia Britannica was published. Britain
1771 Tobias Smollett published Humphry Clinker.
1771 Rousseau wrote his Confessions.
1771 Turks returned Little Wallachia to Austria.
1771 Royal Swedish Academy of Music began. Sweden
1771 Swedenborg published The Christian Religion.
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea.
1771 Bubonic plague killed 56,672 people in Moscow. Russia
1771 Sumarokov’s Dimitry the Pretender played. Russia
1771-88 Zedlitz promoted education in Prussia.
1772.1.16 Kristian VI arrested Struensee & Matilda. Denmark
1772.2.13 Denmark made Danish the official language.
1772.2 Prussia & Russia took Poland’s land. Poland-Lithuania
1772.3.8 Lessing’s tragedy Emilia Galotti opened.
1772.4 Rousseau wrote on Poland’s government.
1772.4.28 Denmark executed Struensee and Brandt.
1772.6.22 Chief Justice Murray outlawed slavery in England. Britain
1772 England’s financial crash spread in Europe. Britain
1772 Coimbra University expanded science. Portugal
1772 Herder published On the Origin of Language.
1772 Norwegian Society began in Copenhagen. Norway
1772 Novikov published a book on Russiana writers.
1772.8.5 Austrian Empire obtained Polish Galicia.
1772.8.5 Poland-Lithuania was partitioned. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.18 Confederates at Jasna Gora surrendered. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.19 Gustav III claimed absolute power in Sweden.
1772.78 Council & Stackelberg governed Poland-Lithuania.
1772-84 Juliane, Frederik & Guldberg ruled Denmark.
1772-92 Gustav III ruled Sweden.
1773.3.15 Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer opened.
1773.5.25 Portugal freed the children of slaves.
1773.6-11 Diderot visited Ekaterina II in St. Petersburg.
1773 John Wesley wrote on the Present Scarcity.
1773 A bad harvest led to a revolt in Palermo. Sicily
1773 Herder wrote On German Character and Art.
1773 Denmark allied with Russia against Sweden.
1773 Gustav III founded the Royal Academy of Art. Sweden
1773 Sejm allowed szlachta to engage in trade. Poland-Lithuania
1773 Stanisław II named an Education Commission. Poland-Lithuania
1773.7 Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits. Spain
1773.9 Sejm ratified first partition of Poland-Lithuania.
1773.11 Voltaire satirized weapons in La Tactique.
1773-74 Pugachev led rebellion in Russia.
1773-74 Diderot visited Ekaterina II.
1774.3.31 Britain imposed the Boston Port Act.
1774.4.12 Goethe’s drama Götz von Berlichingen opened.
1774.5.10 Louis XV died of smallpox. France
1774 John Wesley wrote Thoughts on Slavery.
1774 Pombal decreed free trade in Portugal.
1774 Basedow completed his Elementary BookGerman
1774 Mendelssohn translated the Psalms into German.
1774 Herder wrote Another Philosophy of History.
1774 Goethe published Sorrows of Young Werther.
1774 Goethe’s Clavigo played.
1774 Załuski left the Warsaw library to the state. Poland-Lithuania
1774.7 Russian and Ottoman empires made peace.
1774-76 Turgot was Controller-General. Louis XVI
1774-91 Louis XVI ruled France. Louis XVI
1774-91 Warsaw Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1775.1.10 Pugachev was executed in Moscow. Russia
1775.1 Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals opened.
1775.2.9 Parliament declared Massachusetts in rebellion. Britain
1775.2 BeaumarchaisBarber of Seville opened.
1775.3.22 Burke proposed reconciliation with America. Britain
1775.3.31 Parliament restrained New England’s trade. Britain
1775.4.19 British soldiers were attacked at Lexington.
1775.4.28 Necker wrote “Essay on Grain-Trade Legislation.”  Louis XVI
1775.5 Soldiers in Paris arrested 162 in Flour War. Louis XVI
1775 James Watt built large steam engines. Britain
1775 Sweden limited production of alcohol.
1775 Russian army destroyed the Zaporizhian Sich. Ukraine
1775.7.8 Spanish forces attacked Algiers. Spain
1775.8.23 George III promised to suppress American revolt. Britain
1775.11.4 Sejm voted to abolish the War Department. Poland-Lithuania
1775.11.7 Ekaterina II announced reorganization.
1775.12.22 Parliament blockaded American ports. Britain
1775 40,000 troops crushed Bohemian peasants. Austrian Empire
1775.9 Ferdinando outlawed Freemasons in Naples.
1775-77 Saint-Germain reformed France’s military. Louis XVI
1775-79 Krasicki published several books. Poland-Lithuania
1775-80 Kant lectured on ethics.
1775-99 Pope Pius VI was a moderate.
1776.1 Beaumarchais supplied weapons for Americans. Louis XVI
1776.2.5 Britain put American colonies under interdict.
1776.2 Richard Price’s pamphlet criticized war with America.
1776.3 Adam Smith published Wealth of Nations.
1776.5 Weishaupt began the secret Illuminati. German States
1776.6.30 France began a national lottery. Louis XVI
1776 Baron d’Holbach published La Morale UniverselleLouis XVI
1776 Reymond wrote The Rights of Parish PriestsFrance
1776 Rousseau wrote Reveries of the Solitary Walker.
1776 Beaumarchais raised funds for Americans.
1776 Austrian Empire abolished torture.
1776.7.4 American Congress declared independence. Britain
1776.12 Benjamin Franklin arrived in France. Louis XVI
1776-81 Necker directed the Royal Treasury. Louis XVI
1777.1.1 Journal de Paris was first daily newspaper. Louis XVI
1777.3 Burke recognized Americans’ right to revolution. Britain
1777.4 Lafayette left France for America. Louis XVI
1777.5.8 Sheridan’s The School for Scandal opened.
1777.5.28 France allied with Swiss Cantons. Louis XVI
1777 Hannah More published Essays to Young WomenBritain
1777 John Howard published The State of the PrisonsBritain
1777 Viceroy Stigliano allowed free trade in cereals. Sicily
1777 Swiss Confederation allied with France.
1777 Sweden’s grain trade was freed.
1777 Novikov published Freemason’s Morning LightRussia
1777.9 Voltaire published Le Prix de la justice.
1777.12.6 France recognized the United States of America. Louis XVI
1777.12.30 Austria claimed Bavarian territory. German States
1777-86 Maria and Pedro III ruled Portugal.
1777-87 Venetian radical Pisani was in prison. Venice
1778.1.16 Austrian forces invaded Bavaria. German States
1778.2.6 France allied with the United States. Louis XVI
1778.3.17 Britain declared war against France.
1778.5.30 Voltaire died in Paris.
1778 Frances Burney published her novel Evelina.
1778.7.2 Rousseau died.
1778.7 France declared war on Britain. Louis XVI
1778.7-10 Prussian army invaded Bohemia.
1778.8 La Scala opera house opened in Milan. Lombardy
1778, 1780 Lessing wrote “Conversations for Freemasons.”
1778-80 Diderot published Jacques the Fatalist.
1779.3.7 Austria & Prussia agreed to an armistice.
1779.4.3 Spain declared war against Britain.
1779.4.6 Goethe’s Iphigenia in Tauris opened.
1779.5.13 Teschen treaty ended war over Bavaria. Austrian Empire German States
1779.5 Lessing published Nathan the Wise.
1779 8,000 workers demolished machines in Lancashire. Britain
1779 William Alexander wrote History of WomenBritain
1779 Parliament passed the Penitentiary Act. Britain
1779 Johnson published Lives of the English Poets.
1779 Diderot wrote his essay on Seneca’s philosophy.
1779 Pestalozzi opened a school for poor children.
1779 Denmark regained Schleswig.
1779 Sweden repealed witchcraft laws.
1779.8.10 Necker got France to end serfdom. Louis XVI
1779-83 Spanish besieged British at Gibraltar. Louis XVI Spain
1780.1 British navy defeated Spaniards near Portugal.
1780.2 Ekaterina II declared armed neutrality.
1780.5 France sent 7,000 men under Rochambeau. Louis XVI
1780.5 Ekaterina II met secretly with Joseph II.
1780.5.27 Zürich executed pastor Waser for his ideas. Swiss
1780.6.2 50,000 protested Parliament’s Papists Act.Britain
1780  Naples began Academy of Science & Literature.
1780 Pestalozzi published Evening Hour of a Hermit.
1780 Mendelssohn published his Genesis translation.
1780 Lessing wrote “Education of the Human Race.”
1780 Lessing wrote “The Religion of the Christ.”
1780.8.9 Spaniards seized 60 British merchant ships. Spain
1780.8 Denmark joined the League of Armed Neutrality.
1780.8 Denmark allied with Britain.
1780.11.20 Britain declared war against Holland.
1780.12.10 Dutch joined the League of Armed Neutrality.Netherlands
1780.12.20 British declared war against the Dutch. Netherlands
1780-82 Diderot published his novel The Nun.
1780-90 Joseph II ruled the Austrian Empire.
1781.1 Joseph II appointed his sister to govern Belgians.
1781.1 British navy captured 200 Dutch ships. Netherlands
1781.1.19 Necker began Hospital Administration. Louis XVI
1781.3.13 Herschel discovered the planet Uranus. Britain
1781.4-5 Gruyère peasants revolted. Swiss
1781.5.10 Spanish navy captured Pensacola. Spain
1781 Condorcet urged abolition of slavery. France
1781 Beccaria suggested using decimal measures.
1781 Mendelssohn published a book to help Jews. German
1781 Kant published his Critique of Pure Reason.
1781 Joseph II visited the Austrian Netherlands.
1781 Sweden allowed freedom of religion.
1781.10-11 Joseph II decreed religious toleration.
1781.10.19 Cornwallis & 8,000 surrendered at Yorktown. France
1781-82 Joseph II abolished serfdom in regions.
1781-83 Ekaterina II wrote her elementary-school primer.
1781-86 Viceroy Villamaina governed Sicily with reforms.
1781-87 Pestalozzi published Leonard and Gertrude.
1782.1.13 Schiller’s The Robbers opened in Mannheim.
1782.2 Spain recovered Minorca.
1782.2-4 Irish convention demanded independence. Britain Ireland
1782.4 Dutch Republic recognized the United States. Netherlands
1782.4 Russia reformed its Police Code.
1782.4-7 Foreign troops suppressed Geneva conflict. Swiss
1782.5.7 France and Britain began negotiating. Louis XVI
1782 Laclos published his novel Dangerous Liaisons.
1782 Priestley published Corruptions of ChristianityBritain
1782 Finished Murazzi protected Venice from the sea.
1782 Patriot movement spread in the Dutch Republic.
1782 Opera house opened in Stockholm. Sweden
1782 Poland’s Black Sea Company was organized.
1782.6 Spain formed its first national bank.
1782.8 Diderot completed D’Alembert’s Dream.
1782.9.14 Spain made a treaty with the Ottoman Empire.
1783.1 Dordrecht formed the first Free Corps. Netherlands
1783.3 France began a School of Mines.
1783.4 Russia annexed Crimea, Taman & Kuban Side.
1783.5 Russian decree prohibited peasant movement.
1783 John Wesley wrote on Educating Children.
1783 Laclos wrote “On Women and Their Education.”
1783 Earthquakes killed 40,000 people in Naples.
1783 Joseph II visited Transylvania.
1783 Mendelssohn published Jerusalem.
1783 Skaptar Jokull volcano eruption ravaged Iceland.
1783 Sweden & United States made friendship treaty.
1783 Cossacks were replaced by dragoon regiments. Ukraine
1783 Ekaterina II founded a Teachers’ Training School.
1783.7.20 Schiller’s Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa opened.
1783.7.24 Russia agreed to protect Georgia.
1783.8.1 Russia defeated Nogay Tatars at Laba River.
1783.9.3 Britain, France & Spain made peace.
1783.12 Younger William Pitt became prime minister.
1784.4.3 Rotterdam Free Corps fired on Orangists. Netherlands
1784.4.13 Schiller’s tragedyIntrigue and Loveopened.
1784.4.27 Beaumarchais’ Marriage of Figaro opened. France
1784.6 Joseph II made German the official language.
1784 Britain enacted a national lottery.
1784 Haüy began a school for the blind in Paris. France
1784 French commission studied Mesmer’s theories. France
1784 Schiller wrote “Ode to Joy” and about theater.
1784 Fonvizin published his Life of Count PaninRussia
1784 Russia made some Muslims nobles.
1784.7.31 Diderot died.
1784.8.13 Britain’s India Act became law.
1784.10 30,000 Rumanian serfs rebelled. Joseph II
1784.12 Kant published “What is Enlightenment?” 
1784.12.18 Samuel Johnson died.
1784-85 Bavaria suppressed Illuminati & Freemasons. German
1784-86 Necklace fraud affected Cardinal Rohan & Queen. France
1784-88 Sheremetev funded 40 plays, operas & ballets. Russia
1784-91 Herder wrote Ideas for a Philosophy of History.
1784-1808 Prince Frederik VI governed Denmark as regent.
1785.3 Sweden claimed West Indies islands.
1785.4 Kant published his Metaphysics of Morals.
1785.4.21 Ekaterina II renewed privileges of nobles.
1785.6 Thousands of Free Corps militia met at Utrecht. Netherlands
1785 Richard Price wrote on the American Revolution. Britain
1785 Condorcet advised ranking voting. France
1785 Mendelssohn published Morning Hours.
1785 Stroynowski wrote The Science of Natural LawPoland-Lithuania
1785 Russia ennobled Ukrainian aristocrats. Ukraine
1785.7 League of German states formed. Joseph II
1785.8 Joseph II abolished serfdom in Hungary.
1785.11.8 France mediated a treaty for Joseph II & Dutch. France
1785-94 New Prussian Law Code was implemented.
1786.5.1 Marriage of Figaro opera opened in Vienna. Joseph II
1786.6 Spain made a treaty with Algiers.
1786 Condorcet wrote On the American RevolutionFrance
1786 Venice made a treaty with Tunis.
1786 Joseph II abolished Milan’s council & senate.
1786 Denmark ended compulsory labor.
1786 Russian State Loan Bank began.
1786.9 Britain made a trade treaty with France.
1786.12.5 Ekaterina II issued her Statute for Schools.
1786-87 Austrian Empire got new law codes. Joseph II
1786-97 Friedrich Wilhelm II ruled Prussia
1787.1 France and Russia made a commercial treaty.
1787.1.1 Joseph II decreed laws for Austrian Netherlands.
1787.1-5 Belgian protests stopped new laws. Austrian Netherlands
1787.2.22 French Assembly of Notables met. France
1787.4.21 People in Amsterdam demanded a city council. Netherlands
1787.5 British founded Sierra Leone for freed Africans.
1787.5 Dutch troops fought Patriot militia in Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.5.20 Brussels riot led to Belgian revolt & repression. Joseph II
1787.6 Willem V regained control over Gelderland. Netherlands
1787 Clarkson & Wilberforce began abolition committee. Britain
1787 David painted The Death of SocratesFrance
1787 Schiller’s historical tragedy Don Carlos played.
1787 Sweden tried to regain Finnish provinces.
1787 Ekaterina II and Potemkin toured Russia.
1787.7.6 Parlement demanded the States General meet. France
1787.8 Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. Joseph II
1787.9.7 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
1787.9.13 Prussian army invaded and took over Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.9 Kant published his Critique of Practical Reason.
1787.10 Mozart’s Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Joseph II
1787-88 Brienne was France’s Finance Minister.
1788.1.1 London Times began publishing. Britain
1788.1.6 Frederik removed Norway’s grain restrictions.
1788.1 British began sending criminals to Australia.
1788.1.29 Parlement granted Protestants only civil status. France
1788.2 Society of Friends of the Blacks began. France
1788.5 Parlements’ powers were reduced.France
1788.6 Uprisings began in French provinces. France
1788.6.27 Dutch States General guaranteed Willem V. Netherlands
1788 Britain allied with the Netherlands.
1788 Gibbon finished Decline & Fall of Roman EmpireBritain
1788 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre wrotePaul and Virginia.
1788 Pope Pius VI reformed higher education.
1788 Goethe wrote his historical tragedy Egmont.
1788.7.6 10,000 troops were called out in Paris. France
1788.7 Britain began restricting the slave trade.
1788.8.8 Brienne agreed to summon the Estates General. France
1788.8 Prussia allied with Britain.
1788.8.16 Brienne declared France’s government bankrupt.
1788.9.11 Necker summoned the Estates General. France
1788.9.21 Willem V offered amnesty to Dutch patriots. Netherlands
1788.9.23 Louis XVI recalled the parlements. France
1788.11 Assembly of Notables agreed all should pay tax. France
1788.12 Parlement enforced the ban on petitions. France
1788.12 Prussia & Britain agreed to protect the Dutch. Netherlands
1788.12 Russians defeated Turks at Ochakov in Ukraine.
1788.12.27 France doubled Third Estate representatives. France
1789 Lavoisier published Elements of ChemistryFrance
1791 Boswell published Life of Samuel Johnson.
1791.9.30 Mozart conducted his Magic Flute opera. Joseph II

Copyright © 2015-17 by Sanderson Beck

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World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
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