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1400 Gower wrote “In Praise of Peace” for Henry IV.
1400.10.25 Chaucer died.
1400 England’s Henry IV invaded Scotland.
1400.7.7 Charles VI ceded Dreux to Louis of Orléans. France
1400.8.1 Johannes von Saaz’s wife Margaretha died. Germany
1400.8.20 Germany deposed King Wenceslaus. Germany
1400-10 Ruprecht ruled Germany.
1400-13 Doge Michele Steno governed Venice.
1401.2.14 Love Court published its charter. Christine de Pizan
1401 Bruni translated Basil’s Letter to Young Men.
1401 King Sigismund was imprisoned. Hungary
1401.9 Ruprecht made his son Ludwig imperial vicar. Germany
1401.10.21 Milanese defeated Ruprecht III. Milan
1402.3 Louis of Orléans was guardian of Pope Benedict. France
1402.6.26 Visconti and Milanese defeated Bologna. Milan Rome
1402 Vergerio wrote on free-born youth.
1402 Guilds elected an assembly in Hungary.
1402 Teutonic Order purchased Newmark. Germany
1402 University of Würzburg was founded. German Empire
1402 Epidemic killed two-thirds of Icelanders. Iceland
1402 Castile colonized the Canary Islands.
1402.9.8 Bernardino became a Franciscan Observant.
1402.9.14 English led by Hotspur defeated Scots. Scotland
1402-04 Ladislaus of Naples tried to claim Hungary.
1402-12 Gian Maria Visconti ruled Milan.
1402-23 Duke Reinald IV ruled Guelders & Jülich. Low Countries
1402-27 Feodor ruled Ryazan. Russia
1402-39 Friedrich IV ruled Further Austria. Germany
1403.2 Henry IV married Joan of Navarre.
1403 Greeks, Serbs & Venice made peace with Turks. Greece
1403 Prague university condemned articles. Jan Hus
1403.7 Paul of Burgos became bishop of Cartagena. Castile
1403.7.21 Henry IV defeated rebels at Shrewsbury.
1403.10.1 Pope Boniface IX recognized King Ruprecht. Germany
1404 Siena became independent.
1404 Conversino wrote on the preferable way of life. Vergerio
1404 Prussia excluded English cloth. Germany
1404.7 France allied with Owain Glyndwr.
1404.10.1 Pope Boniface IX died.
1404.11.4 Venice conquered Padua.
1404-06 Cosimo Migliorati was Pope Innocent VII.
1404-17 Willem VI of Holland ruled Hainault & Zeeland. Low Countries
1404-19 Duke Jean ruled Burgundy. France
1405.3.31 Jean of Burgundy inherited Flanders. France
1405.6 Appenzell defeated Austrian troops. Swiss
1405 Bruni became secretary to Pope Innocent VII.
1405 Basel was destroyed by fire. Swiss
1405 Castile made Jews wear badges.
1405 Granada’s Muhammad VII attacked Castile.
1405 Christine de Pizan wrote "Christine’s Vision."
1405 Christine wrote City of Ladies & Three Virtues.
1405 Dublin citizens killed 500 O’Byrnes. Ireland
1405.8 French captured Pisa.
1405.9 Marbach league was formed. Germany
1405.11.7 Gerson spoke on less royal power. France
1405.12.1 Queen, Berry & Orléans allied against Burgundy. France
1405-08 Dutch were banned from Danzig. Germany
1406.3 Pirates gave James of Scotland to Henry IV.
1406 Enrique III made Paul of Burgos chancellor. Castile
1406.10.9 Florence captured Pisa.
1406.10.26 Erik married Henry IV’s daughter Philippa. Kalmar Union
1406-09 Venetian Angelo Correr was Pope Gregory XII.
1406-20 Robert Stewart was regent of Scotland.
1406-16 Fernando of Aragon ruled Castile as regent.
1406-18 Catalina ruled northern Castile as regent.
1406-24 Ernest ruled Styria, Carinthia & Carniola. Germany
1407.1.10 England and Flanders agreed on free trade. Low Countries
1407 Ruprecht made peace with the Marbach league. Germany
1407 Margrete bought Gotland from Teutonic Order. Kalmar Union
1407 Gerson finished books on mystical theology.
1407.11.23 Jean of Burgundy had Louis of Orléans killed. France
1408.2.19 Northern rebellion was defeated in England. Henry IV
1408 Guarino brought 50 Greek texts to Venice.
1408 Sigismund led crusaders against Croats. Hungary
1408 Lithuania made a treaty with Moscow. Russia
1408 English translations of the Bible were banned. Henry IV
1408, 1412 Queen Catalina decreed anti-Jewish laws. Castile
1408-17 Yusuf III ruled Granada.
1408-43 Donatello sculpted in Florence.
1409.6.5 Pisa Council deposed popes Gregory & Benedict. Popes
1409.6.26 Oxford banned 7 books on unorthodox theology. Henry IV
1409 Venice bought Dalmatia from Naples.
1409 Czech students elected Jan Hus rector.
1409 Prussia and England signed a commercial treaty. Germany
1409 Lithuania & Poland made war on the Teutonic Order. Germany
1409 University of Leipzig was founded. German Empire
1409-10 Peter of Candia was Pope Alexander V.
1410.4.15 Armagnac alliance opposed Burgundy. France
1410 Fernando of Aragon captured Antequera. Castile Granada
1410.7.15 Poles and Lithuanians defeated Knights. Poland Germany
1410.7.16 Wyclif’s writings were burned in Prague. Jan Hus
1410-15 Baldassare Cossa was Pope John XXIII.
1410-37 Sigismund ruled Germany.
1411.2.1 Poland returned Samogitia to Lithuania.
1411.5 Bologna revolted from the Church. Popes
1411 Guarino published Plutarch’s essay on education.
1411 Jean of Burgundy allied with the English. Henry IV
1411.7 Sigismund was elected emperor. Rome
1411.7.24 Highlanders fought Lowlanders in Scotland.
1411.11.13 7 Swiss cantons became combourgoisie.
1411-14 Cortona fought against Ladislas of Naples. Florence
1412.1.6 Jeanne d’Arc was born in Domremy.
1412.2.13 Charles VI imposed war tax of 600,000 francs. France
1412.5.18 Henry IV allied with Orléans, Berry & Bourbon. France
1412 Venetian army defeated Hungarians. Venice
1412.8.22 Armagnacs made peace with Burgundy. France
1412-13 Christine de Pizan wrote The Book of Peace.
1412-15 Hungarians lost war against Venice. Hungary
1412-16 Fernando I ruled Aragon. Castile
1412-39 Erik ruled Denmark, Sweden & Norway. Kalmar Union
1412-47 Filippo Maria Visconti ruled Milan.
1413.1 Church Council ordered Wyclif’s writing burned. Rome
1413.4.28 Cabochiens besieged the Bastille. France
1413.5.26 Paris Parlement accepted Cabochien reforms. France
1413.6.8 Ladislaus of Naples sacked Rome.
1413 Genoa re-established its republic.
1413 Thomas a Kempis was ordained a priest. Imitation of Christ
1413.8.4 Paris Parlement approved Pontoise peace. France
1413.9.5 Charles VI cancelled Cabochien reforms. France
1413.10.2 Szlachta & Lithuanian boyars signed a treaty. Lithuania
1413.12 Pope John XXIII called 16th general council. Constance
1413-14 Christians and Jews debated the Messiah. Castile
1413-22 Henry V ruled England.
1413-23 Doge Tommaso Mocenigo governed Venice.
1413-25 Bishop Olafsson governed Iceland.
1414.2.10 Jean of Burgundy’s army came to Paris. France
1414.7 Flemings refused to fight outside of Flanders. Low Countries
1414.12 Jan Hus was imprisoned at Constance.
1414-18 Church Council at Constance ended schism.
1414-20 John Talbot was lieutenant in Ireland.
1414-22 Prussian nobles made war on peasants. Germany
1414-35 Giovanna ruled Naples.
1415.3.11 Pope Benedict XIII banned the Talmud. Castile
1415.3.13 Charles VI & Burgundy ratified a peace treaty. France
1415.3.30 Swiss Confederation conquered some of Aargau.
1415.4.6 Council at Constance claimed authority.
1415.5.29 Constance Council deposed Pope John XXIII.
1415 Barbaro wrote On Marriage. Guarino
1415 Vladmiri advocated tolerant proselytizing. Poland
1415 Talbot pacified Irish chieftains in midlands. Ireland
1415.7.4 Pope Gregory XII abdicated.
1415.7.6 Sigismund had Jan Hus burned for heresy. Germany
1415.7.6 Henry V declared war on Charles VI.
1415.7 Portuguese captured Ceuta. Portugal
1415.8.14 Henry V and his English army invaded France.
1415.9.2 Czech nobles protested the execution of Jan Hus.
1415.9.22 French surrendered Harfleur to the English. Henry V
1415.10.25 English army defeated French at Agincourt. France Henry V
1415.11 Paolo Orsini plundered Rome.
1415.12.18 Dauphin Louis of Guyenne died. France
1415, 1417 Sigismund held Reichstags at Constance.
1415-27 Duke Jan IV ruled Brabant, Lothier & Limburg. Low Countries
1415-40 Charles of Orléans was imprisoned in England. French
1416.1 Fernando withdrew obedience from Benedict. Constance
1416.5.30 Jerome of Prague was burned for heresy. Bohemia
1416 Turkish ships attacked Venetian ships. Venice
1416 Fishermen began knotting larger nets. Low Countries
1416 Erik started a war to get Holstein. Kalmar Union
1416.10.15 Council named Spanish & Portuguese a nation. Constance
1416-59 Alfonso V was king of Aragon.
1417.3.29 Envoys from Castile arrived at Constance.
1417.6 Perugia’s Braccio da Montone occupied Rome.
1417 Prague University declared Hus a holy martyr. Bohemia
1417.7.23 12,000 Englishmen landed at Touques. Henry V
1417.7.26 Constance Council deposed Pope Benedict XIII.
1417.8 England’s Henry V invaded Normandy. France
1417.9.30 Sigismund claimed Friesland & imposed tax. Low Countries
1417.11 Council of Constance elected Pope Martin V.
1417.11.16 Henry V made truce with Brittany & Anjou.
1417-31 Oddo Colonna was Pope Martin V.
1417-44 Vergerio taught at Buda. Hungary
1418.1.10 Queen Ysabel empowered Jean of Burgundy. France
1418.2.22 Pope Martin & Council condemned Hussites. Constance
1418.3.10 Jan IV van Brabant wed Jacoba of Hainault. Low Countries
1418.3.21 Council of Constance approved seven reforms.
1418.5 Parisians defeated Armagnacs. France
1418 Sigismund sent army to invade Friuli. Venice
1418.7.29 Henry V’s English army besieged Rouen. France
1418.10 Scotland recognized Pope Martin V.
1418-44 Bernardino preached to many people.
1419.1.19 Rouen surrendered to the English. France Henry V
1419 University of Rostock was founded. German Empire
1419.7 Jean of Burgundy made a treaty with France.
1419.7.30 Zizka and others killed councilors at Prague. Bohemia
1419.9.10 Orleanists murdered Jean of Burgundy. France
1419.11.10 Taborites attacked Bohemian troops. Bohemia
1419.12.25 Philippe of Burgundy allied with Henry V. France
1419-20 Pope Martin V resided at Florence.
1419-37 Sigismund claimed he ruled Bohemia. German Empire
1419-43 Castile fought Hanseatic ports.
1419-54 Juan II ruled Castile.
1419-67 Philippe ruled Burgundy. Burgundy France French
1420.1.8 Charles VI made Henry V regent of France.
1420.3.1 Pope Martin V declared crusade against Bohemia.
1420.6.2 Henry V married Catherine of France.
1420 Prussian law set maximum wages. Constance
1420 Albrecht V destroyed a Jewish community. German Empire
1420 Burgundy allied with England’s Henry V.
1420.7 Sigismund’s 100,000 crusaders attacked Prague. Bohemia
1420.7 Enrique captured Juan II in coup. Castile
1420-24 Murdoch Stewart was regent of Scotland.
1420-45 James Butler was lieutenant in Ireland.
1421.1.3 Charles VI banished his son Charles. France
1421.3.12 Albrecht V had 212 Jews burned. German Empire
1421.6 Bohemian assembly chose 20 regents. Bohemia
1421 Florentine merchants purchased Livorno. Florence
1421 Giovanna of Naples made Alfonso V her heir. Aragon
1421.9 200,000 Germans invaded Bohemia. German Empire
1422.1.6 Zizka’s army attacked Nebovid and pillaged. Bohemia
1422.1 Germans invading Moravia fled. German Empire
1422.5.16 Korybutowicz began governing from Prague. Bohemia
1422.6.20 Milan defeated five Swiss cantons.
1422 Florence began fighting against expansive Milan.
1422 Cicero’s De Oratore was discovered at Lodi. Guarino
1422 Duke Humphrey of Gloucester married Jacoba. Low Countries
1422 Constable Alvaro de Luna arrested Enrique. Castile
1422 English elected Bedford regent in France.
1422 Alain Chartier wrote Quadrilogue Invectif. Christine
1422.8.31 Henry V died near Paris. Henry V
1422.9.27 Teutonic Order ceded Samogitia to Lithuania.
1422.10.22 Charles VI died in Berry. France
1422-35 John of Bedford governed Normandy. England
1422-37 Humphrey of Gloucester governed England. England
1422-61 Charles VII ruled France. France
1423.2 Jacqueline of Hainault wed Duke of Gloucester. France
1423.3.30 Jagiello and Sigismund allied against Hussites. Poland
1423.4 English, Burgundy & Brittany allied in France.
1423.4.27 Zizka’s army defeated Cenek’s men at Horic. Bohemia
1423 Turks plundered Morea. Greece
1423 English buccaneers plundered northern Iceland.
1423 Giovanna of Naples made Louis III her heir. Aragon
1423.12.4 England ransomed James I of Scotland.
1423-57 Doge Francesco Foscari governed Venice.
1424.2.2 Some nobles in Brabant were beheaded. Low Countries
1424.2.2 James I of Scotland married Joan Beaufort.
1424.6.28 Sigismund put Schleswig & Frisia in Denmark. Kalmar Union
1424 First witch was burned at Rome.
1424 Cologne expelled Jews. German Empire
1424 Alain Chartier wrote Belle dame sans merci. Christine
1424.8.17 English defeated French at Verneuil. England
1424.10 Humphrey of Gloucester invaded Hainault. England
1424-25 Bohemians fought civil war. Bohemia
1424-37 James I ruled Scotland.
1424-46 Vittorino taught in Gonzaga palace.
1425 Panormita published Hermaphroditus. Naples
1425 Jan van Eyck began painting. Low Countries
1425 James I confiscated Fife, Menteith & Lennox. Scotland
1425.12 Pope Martin V began university in Leuven. Low Countries Humanists
1425-34 Vasily fought Prince Yuri for the Moscow throne. Russia
1425-41 Queen Blanche ruled Navarre. Aragon
1425-48 John VIII ruled shrinking Byzantine empire. Greece
1425-62 Vasily II ruled Moscow. Russia
1425-79 Juan II of Aragon ruled Navarre. Castile
1426.1.13 Burgundy’s forces destroyed Humphrey’s fleet.
1426.5 Serbia made a treaty with Hungary.
1426 Florence gained Venice as an ally.
1426 70,000 Germans invaded Bohemia.
1426 Hanseatic merchants left Bergen. Kalmar Union
1426-47 Venice fought war against Milan. Venice
1427.3.12 Taborites drove Albrecht’s army from Moravia. Bohemia
1427 Florence imposed a tax on wealth.
1427-31 Peasants rebelled in Cassel. Low Countries
1428.8.27 160,000 crusaders fled from Bohemians. Bohemia German Empire
1428-54 Novgorod’s Archbishop Evfirmii opposed Moscow. Russia
1427 Barcelona suffered financial crash. Aragon
1427.10.11 Venetian army defeated Milanese army. Venice
1427.10 Sigismund captured Belgrade for Hungary.
1427-44 Bruni was chancellor of Florence.
1427-56 Ivan Fyodorovich ruled Ryazan. Russia
1428.4 Florence regained territory; Venice expanded.
1428.6 Turks drove Hungarians across the Danube. Hungary
1428 Bruni spoke for republican government.
1428.7.3 Jacoba & the Hooks reconciled with Philippe. Low Countries
1428.10.12 English led by Salisbury besieged Orléans. France
1429.3 Jeanne d’Arc offered to help Charles VII.
1429.5.14 Gerson wrote On the Maid of Orléans.
1429.5-6 Jeanne d’Arc led French army at Orléans.
1429 Palmieri wrote Della vita civile. Alberti
1429 Denmark’s navy defeated the Hanseatic League. Kalmar Union
1429 Queen Maria prevented Castile-Aragon war.
1429.7.17 Charles VII was crowned in Reims cathedral. Jeanne d’Arc
1429.7.31 Christine de Pizan wrote Tale of Jeanne d’Arc.
1430.1 Duke Philippe married Isabella of Portugal. Burgundy
1430.2.6 Friedrich paid Bohemians to leave Germany. Bohemia German Empire
1430.3 Turks conquered Thessalonica. Venice
1430.5.23 Jeanne d’Arc was captured at Compiegne. England
1430 Duke Philippe inherited Brabant & Limburg. Burgundy
1430.7 Castile & Aragon agreed to 5-year armistice.
1430.12.6 English purchased Jeanne d’Arc.
1430-32 Svitrigaila ruled Lithuania.
1431.1.9 Jeanne d’Arc’s trial at Rouen began.
1431.3.10 Essex priest Bagley was burned for heresy. England
1431.5 Six Lollard leaders were beheaded. England
1431.5.30 English burned Jeanne d’Arc.
1431 Milan defeated Venetian fleet.
1431 Cesarini led 5th crusade against Bohemia.
1431 Novgorod made a treaty with Lithuania. Russia
1431 James I imprisoned Archibald & John Kennedy.
1431.7.1 Castile defeated Muslims at La Higueruela. Granada
1431.8.14 Germany fled from Bohemia. German Empire
1431.12.16 English crowned Henry in Paris. French
1431-37 Church Council met at Basel. German Empire Swiss
1431-47 Gabriele Condulmer was Pope Eugenius IV.
1432.4 Yusuf was assassinated in Granada. Castile
1432.6 Ulu Mehmet recognized Vasily II in Vladimir. Russia
1432 Erik made a peace treaty with Henry VI. Kalmar Union
1432-40 Zygimantas Kestutaitis ruled Lithuania.
1432-45 Muhammad IX ruled Granada.
1432-58 Queen Maria ruled Aragon.
1433.4.12 Jacoba renounced Holland, Zeeland & Hainault. Low Countries
1433.4 Bedford married Jacquetta of Luxembourg. French
1433.4.28 Henry VI prohibited trade with Iceland.
1433.5.10 Treaty ended Florence’s war against Lucca.
1433.5.31 Pope Martin V crowned Sigismund emperor.
1433 Poland defeated Prussian Teutonic Knights.
1433 Nikolaus of Cusa wrote On Catholic Harmony.
1433 Philippe acquired Hainault, Holland, & Zeeland. Low Countries
1433 Charles VII made Coeur director of Paris mint. French
1433.7.23 Paul Crawar was burned for heresy in Scotland.
1433.9.9 Florence banished Cosimo de’ Medici.
1433-38 Duarte ruled Portugal.
1434.1.30 Pope Eugenius recognized Council’s authority.
1434.3 Pope Eugenius made treaty with Alessandro Sforza.
1434.5.25 Bohemian nobles defeated Taborites at Lipany. Bohemia
1434 Alfonso V founded university in Catania. Naples
1434.8.16 Swedish Council renounced loyalty to Erik. Kalmar Union
1434-35 Vasily Kosoi held Moscow. Russia
1434-40 Giovanni Vitelleschi ruled Rome.
1434-43 Pope Eugenius was in exile from Rome. German Empire
1434-64 Cosimo de’ Medici governed Florence.
1435 Alberti wrote On Painting.
1435 Teutonic Order lost war against Poland. German Empire
1435.8 Venice made treaty with Sigismund.
1435.9.14 English regent Bedford died in France. French
1435.9 Prague Diet elected Rokycana archbishop. Bohemia
1435.9.21 France made a treaty with Burgundy. England
1435.10 Swedish Council affirmed loyalty to Erik. Kalmar Union
1435.12.10 Burgundy & Charles VII ended French civil war.
1435-64 Roger van Weyden painted in Brussels. Low Countries
1436.3 Brunelleschi completed cathedral in Florence.
1436.4.17 French regained Paris.
1436.5.4 Magnus Bengtsson murdered Engelbrekt. Kalmar Union
1436.6.25 Dauphin Louis married Margaret of Scotland. French
1436 Bolt led Norwegian revolt against Erik. Kalmar Union
1436.7.5 Bohemians were reconciled with the Church. Basel
1437.7.29 Norwegian Council expelled all foreign lords. Kalmar Union
1436.8 English chased Flemings back to Burgundy. French
1436.8.23 Sigismund returned to Prague as King. Bohemia German Empire
1436.9.22 Aragon and Castile made a treaty.
1436-38 Inquisition burned 1,000s of heretics in Hungary.
1436-45 Fra Angelico painted in Florence.
1437.6.6 Peasant revolt defeated nobles at Babolna. Hungary
1437 Alberti wrote On Law.
1437 John VIII made Isidore Metropolitan of Kiev. Russia
1437 King Erik gave fiefs to Pomeranian relatives. Kalmar Union
1437 Portuguese were defeated and lost Ceuta. Portugal
1437.7 Charles VII pardoned conspirators. French
1437-53 Henry VI ruled England.
1438.1.5 Pope Eugenius began Council at Ferrara.
1438.1.8 Council at Basel suspended Pope Eugenius. Henry VI
1438.2 Patriarch Joseph II visited Venice.
1438.2 Bruges made peace and paid £480,000. Low Countries
1438 Augsburg banished Jews. German Empire
1438 Pedro Carrillo led nobles against Alvaro. Castile
1438.7.7 French Church asserted independence.
1438.10 Kart Knutsson became regent of Sweden. Kalmar Union
1438-39 Pope Eugenius held Church Council at Ferrara.
1438-39 Albrecht of Austria ruled Hungary. German Empire
1438-39 Albrecht of Austria ruled Bohemia. German Empire
1438-42 Bernardino was Vicar General of Observance.
1438-42 René of Anjou ruled Naples.
1438-45 Annibale Bentivoglio ruled Bologna. Rome
1439.1 Polish and Germans agreed to an armistice. German Empire
1438.3 Danish forces accused Karl Knutsson of treason. Kalmar Union
1439.6 Venice hired Francesco Sforza.
1439.6.25 Council of Basel deposed Pope Eugenius.
1439 Church Council at Florence gained unity. Rome
1439 Eastern patriarchs rejected Church unity. Greece
1439 Bruni wrote On the Florentine Polity.
1439 Turks conquered Serbia. Hungary
1439 Zürich began requiring licenses for baths. Swiss
1439 Enrique & Juan of Navarre challenged Alvaro. Castile
1439 Burgundy & England made trade agreements. French
1438.9.29 Treaty of Calais guaranteed free trade. Low Countries
1439.10 Juan II of Castile dismissed Alvaro.
1439.11.5 Basel Council elected Pope Felix V.
1439-40 Manetti wrote biographies.
1440.6.29 Florence defeated Milan at Anghiari. Rome
1440 Chelcicky wrote Net of Faith.
1440 Valla exposed “donation of Constantine.”
1440 Nikolaus of Cusa wrote On Learned Ignorance.
1440 Munich banished Jews. German Empire
1440 Karl Knutsson escaped from Sweden to Finland. Kalmar Union
1440 Enrique of Asturias married Blanche of Navarre. Castile
1440 English ransomed Charles of Orléans. French Henry VI
1440.7 Danes replaced Erik with his nephew Kristofer. Kalmar Union
1440-44 Ulaszlo I ruled Hungary.
1440-48 Pedro of Coimbra ruled Portugal as regent.
1440-49 Erik at Visburg planned raids against Swedes. Kalmar Union
1440-92 Casimir ruled Lithuania.
1440-93 Friedrich IV ruled Germany. German Empire
1441 Vasily II imprisoned Metropolitan Isidore of Kiev. Greece
1441 Vasily II led attack on Novgorod. Russia
1441 Dutch agreed to a 12-year truce. Low Countries
1441 Bordeaux University was founded. French
1441 Henry VI founded King’s College at Cambridge.
1441.10.24 Francesco Sforza married Bianca Visconti. Venice
1441-48 Kristofer III ruled Sweden, Norway & Denmark. Kalmar Union
1442 Emperor Friedrich recognized Ferrara University. Vittorino
1442 Valla wrote Profession of the Religious.
1442 Friedrich IV made Piccolomini poet laureate.
1442 Bruni wrote History of the Florentine People.
1442 Friedrich IV made Piccolomini his secretary. German Empire
1442-58 Alfonso V of Aragon ruled Naples.
1443.4.6 Alvaro defended Jewish rights in Castile.
1443.5.20 Schwyz and Glarus declared war on Austria. Swiss
1443.6.14 Friedrich IV allied with Zürich. German Empire
1443 Pope Eugenius recognized Alfonso V of Naples.
1443 Alberti published On the Family.
1443 Hunyadi’s Hungarians defeated Turks 5 times. Hungary
1443 Russian bishops deposed Metropolitan Isidore. Russia
1443 Burgundy purchased Luxemburg from Bohemia.
1443.10.28 Dauphin Louis made a treaty with the Swiss. French
1443-48 Hanseatic league embargoed Novgorod. Russia
1444.11.10 Turks defeated Hungarian-Polish army. Hungary
1443.11 Sforza & Venice defeated Pope & Milan.
1444.6.21 20,000 Confederates besieged Zürich. Swiss
1444 Cosimo de’ Medici founded a public library. Florence
1444 Ottoman Turks defeated crusaders. Greece
1444 40,000 Armagnacs plundered the Rhine valley. German Empire
1444 Norwegian Council reduced German privileges. Kalmar Union
1444.7.13 Juan II banned discriminating against conversos. Castile
1444.10.21 French made a treaty with Swiss cantons.
1444-50 William Douglas was lieutenant-general. Scotland
1445.2 French agreed to evacuate Alsace. German Empire
1445.4.23 Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou. French
1445.5.19 Castile’s royal army defeated noble rebels.
1445 Ulu Mehmet founded Kazan. Russia
1446.6 Swiss Confederation made peace with Zürich.
1446 Milan started a general war in Italy. Florence
1446 Facio wrote De humanae vitae felicitate. Humanists
1446 Murad’s Muslims plundered Greece.
1446 Shemyaka captured and blinded Vasily II. Russia
1446 Nuremberg led confederation of 31 towns. German Empire
1446 Charles VII sent Coeur to negotiate on Genoa. French
1446-50 Hunyadi ruled Hungary as regent.
1446-62 Prince Ivan aided blind Vasily II. Russia
1447.2 Humphrey of Gloucester was arrested and died. Henry VI
1447 Vasily II recaptured Moscow. Russia
1447 Ryazan made treaties with Moscow & Lithuania. Russia
1447 Granada regained territory.
1447 Coeur mediated between Felix V & Nicholas V. French
1447-55 Tommaso Parentucelli was Pope Nicholas V.
1447-92 Casimir IV ruled Poland.
1448.2 Friedrich IV and Nicholas agreed on Concordat. German Empire
1448.3.16 English surrendered Le Mans & Maine. French Henry VI
1448 Sforza and Milanese defeated Venice’s army. Milan
1448 Valla published Elegantiarum latinae linguae.
1448 Facio wrote On Dignity and Excellence of Man. Humanists
1448 Hunyadi surrendered at Kosovo. Hungary
1448 Livonian knights made peace with Russians. Germany
1448 René of Anjou began the Order of the Crescent. French Poetry
1448 Margaret of Anjou founded Queen’s College. Henry VI
1448.7.16 Freiburg and Savoy made a treaty. Swiss
1448-53 Constantine XI was last Byzantine emperor. Greece
1448-57 Karl VIII ruled Sweden. Kalmar Union
1448-77 Afonso V ruled Portugal.
1448-81 Kristian ruled Denmark.
1449.4.7 Pope Felix V resigned. German Empire
1449.5.14 Treaty at Breisach guaranteed Basel’s autonomy. Swiss
1449.5.20 Afonso V’s army defeated and killed Pedro. Portugal
1449.5.23 English privateers captured 110 merchant ships. Henry VI
1449 Dauphin Louis allied with Duke of Savoy. France
1449.7.3 James II married Mary of Guelders.
1449.10 French regained Rouen.
1449.10.28 Kristian married Queen Dorothea. Kalmar Union
1449-50 Karl ruled Norway. Kalmar Union
1449-53 German towns and princes fought a war.
1449-60 James II ruled Scotland.
1449-60 Richard of York governed Ireland.
1450.1 Thomas Cheyne led an uprising from Kent. Henry VI
1450.1.21 Robert & Alexander Livingston were beheaded. Scotland
1450.4.15 French defeated English at Formigny. Henry VI
1450.5.3 Banished Suffolk was captured and beheaded. Henry VI
1450.5.24 Bernardino was declared a saint.
1450.5-7 Jack Cade led uprising from Kent to London. Henry VI
1450 Rome celebrated Jubilee Year.
1450 Piccolomini wrote Education for Boys.
1450 Pope Nicholas sent Nikolaus of Cusa to Germany.
1450 Austria ended its alliance with Zürich. German Empire
1450 York returned to England with 4,000 men. Henry VI
1450.10.26 Kristian married Dorothea of Brandenburg. Norway
1450.11 Alfonso V founded University of Barcelona. Aragon
1450-55 Bessarion was papal legate in Bologna. Humanists
1450-66 Francesco Sforza ruled Milan.
1450-81 Kristian ruled Norway from Denmark.
1451.3.9 Dauphin Louis married Charlotte of Savoy. France
1451.5 Richard of York suppressed rebels in Kent. Henry VI
1451.6.30 French took over Bordeaux. Henry VI
1451 James II founded the University of Glasgow.
1451.7.31 Coeur was arrested for malversation. French
1451.8 Burgundy’s Philippe became duke of Luxemburg.
1451.11.8 Pope Nicholas V approved inquisitors in Castile.
1451-53 John of Capistrano persecuted Jews in Germany.
1452.2.22 James II murdered William Douglas.
1452.3.18 Pope Nicholas V crowned Friedrich III emperor.
1452.4.7 York accepted a pardon from Henry VI.
1452.6.10 Savoy became independent of Austria. Swiss
1452.6.18 Papal bull approved slavery of non-Christians. Popes
1452 Florence made a treaty with France.
1452 Alberti wrote Ten Books on Architecture.
1452 Vasily II gave Kasimov to Mongol Kasim. Russia
1452 Karl VIII’s Swedish army invaded Norway.
1452 Commission investigated Jeanne d’Arc’s trial.
1452.10.17 English expelled the French from Bordeaux. Henry VI
1452-53 Burgundy invaded Brabant & Flanders.
1452-57 George of Podebrady was regent of Bohemia.
1452-93 Friedrich III was Holy Roman Emperor. German Empire
1453.2 Constantinople asked Venice for help.
1453.2.27 Papal dispensation ended Scottish civil wars. James II
1453.4 Pope Nicholas sent 10 galleys to Constantinople.
1453.5.29 Turks conquered Constantinople. Greece
1453.5.29 Charles VII fined Coeur 300,000 crowns. French
1453.6.2 Castile executed Alvaro de Luna for sorcery.
1453 Florence and Anjou attacked Venetians.
1453 Alfonso V of Naples crowned Filelfo with laurel.
1453 Nikolaus of Cusa wrote On the Peace of Faith.
1453 Dauphin Louis created Parlement at Grenoble. France
1453.7 Vasily II had Dmitry Shemyaka poisoned. Russia
1453.7.17 French destroyed the English army at Castillon. Henry VI
1453.10.19 French regained Bordeaux, ending the long war.
1453-55 Sweden and Denmark observed an armistice.
1453-58 Poggio Bracciolini was chancellor of Florence. Vittorino
1453-64 Abi Nasr Sa’d ruled Granada.
1453-66 Teutonic knights and Poland were at war. German Empire
1454.2 Richard of York presided over Parliament. England
1454.4.9 Milan & Venice made peace at Lodi. Florence
1454 German mercenaries and knights defeated Poles.
1454-61 Henry VI was king of England.
1454-74 Enrique IV ruled Castile.
1455.1.8 Pope Nicholas V gave African coast to Portugal.
1455.5.22 York’s army defeated Henry VI’s army. England
1455.6 James II confiscated Douglas estates.
1455 Casimir ordered Bible translated into Polish. Poland
1455 Gutenberg printed 180 Bibles. German Empire Humanists
1455.9.1 Hanseatic merchants killed 60 Norwegians. Norway
1455.10.19 Florentines marched for a crusade. Florence
1455.11.17 Parliament made Richard of York protector. England
1455-58 Alfonso de Borja was Pope Calixtus III.
1455-71 John Argyropoulos taught Greek in Florence.
1456.4 John Percy led a revolt in the Weald. England
1456 Pope Calixtus confirmed Portuguese slavery.
1456 Panormita wrote Sayings and Deeds of Alfonso. Humanists
1456 Turks captured Athens. Greece
1456 University of Greifswald was founded. German Empire
1456 King Kristian made a treaty with France. Denmark
1456 Enrique IV began the Santa Hermandad. Castile
1456 Villon wrote The Legacy.
1456.7.7 Jeanne d’Arc’s trial was annulled.
1456.8 Henry VI moved to Kenilworth. England
1456.8.30 Louis left Dauphiné to go to Burgundy. France
1457.6.20 Scotland made a truce with England. James II
1457 Archbishop Bengtsson led a revolt in Sweden.
1457 Charles VII annexed Dauphiné. France
1457 Palencia wrote Pitched Battle poem. Humanism
1457.8.24 Scots plundered Sandwich. England
1457-63 Albrecht VI ruled Upper Austria. German Empire
1457-64 Kristian ruled Sweden. Denmark
1457-71 George of Podebrady ruled Bohemia.
1457-92 Rodrigo Borgia was vice chancellor in Rome.
1458.1.4 Afonso V granted a tax to the Order of Christ. Portugal
1458.5.28 English navy destroyed Spanish fleet. England
1458 Milan renewed alliance with Naples.
1458 Peasants in Austria rebelled against cattle tax. German Empire
1458-64 Enea Silvio Piccolomini was Pope Pius II. Venice
1458-79 Juan II ruled Aragon.
1458-88 Duke François II ruled Brittany. France
1458-90 Matthias Corvinus ruled Hungary.
1458-94 Ferrante ruled Naples.
1459 Flavio Biondo wrote Rome Triumphant. Humanists
1459 Turks took over Serbia. Greece
1459 Count Vlad III of Wallachia impaled Saxons. Hungary
1459.9 Pope Pius II called for a crusade in 1460. German Empire
1459.9.23 Warwick’s force defeated Lancastrians. England
1459.10.12 Lancastrians routed Yorkists at Ludford Bridge. England
1459.10 Parliament attainted York, Salisbury & Warwick. England
1459-65 Ferrante of Naples survived several rebellions.
1460.2 Irish parliament declared independence. Ireland
1460 Alum was discovered at Tolfa. Florence
1460 Alberti wrote a handbook on rhetoric in Latin.
1460 Plowman from Bohemia by Saaz was printed. Germany
1460 Swiss took Thurgau from Sigismund.
1460 University of Basel was founded. Swiss
1460 Bruges founded the first commercial exchange. Low Countries
1460.7 Yorkists took over government in London. England
1460.10.24 York was recognized as Henry VI’s heir. England
1460.12.30 Richard of York was killed in Wakefield battle. England
1460-81 Kristian ruled Schleswig and Holstein. Denmark
1461.2 Margaret’s army defeated Warwick’s army. England
1461 Villon wrote Le Testament.
1461.11 English Parliament attainted 209 nobles. Edward IV
1461-70 Edward IV ruled England.
1461-83 Louis XI ruled France.
1462 Turks conquered Sinope, Trebizond & Argos.
1462 Castilians captured Archidoma and Gibraltar. Castile Granada
1462.9 Pope Pius II called for a crusade. Venice
1462-66 Peasant rebellions in Balearic Islands failed. Aragon
1462-71 Doge Cristoforo Moro governed Venice.
1462-1505 Ivan III ruled Moscow. Russia
1463 Turks conquered Bosnia and Morea. Venice
1463 Ficino translated Corpus Hermeticum.
1463 Turks took Bosnia & killed King Stephen. Greece Hungary
1463 Louis XI forbade French to go to Geneva’s fairs. Swiss
1463 France made a treaty with Aragon. Louis XI
1463.7 Scotland’s James IV besieged Norham castle. Edward IV
1463.12 Louis XI confirmed his alliance with Milan.
1464.5.1 Edward IV married Elizabeth Woodville.
1464.5.15 Montague defeated Lancastrians at Hexham. Edward IV
1464 France gave Genoa and Savona to Milan.
1464 Pope Paul II authorized a printing press.
1464 Turks made Hercegovina an Ottoman province. Hungary
1464 Archbishop Bengtsson led a revolt in Sweden. Denmark
1464.6.11 Scotland & England made a 15-year truce. Edward IV
1464-71 Venetian Pietro Barbo was Pope Paul II. Venice
1465.1.16 Commission favored Pacheco’s reforms. Castile
1465.3.26 Louis XI took Saumur from René of Anjou.
1465.6.5 Pacheco crowned 11-year-old Enrique. Castile
1465 Venice sent squadron to Rhodes.
1465 Louis XI gave Normandy to Charles of Berry.
1465, 1472 Mongols punished Russians.
1465-67 Archbishop Bengtsson governed Sweden.
1465-73 Most Latin classics were printed. Humanists
1466.1.16 Rouen surrendered to Louis XI.
1466 Venice attacked Athens.
1466 Paul II excommunicated George of Podébrad. Bohemia
1466 Knights ceded Eastern Prussia to Poland. German Empire
1466 Louis XI made a 2-year truce with England.
1466 Bible was printed in German. Humanists
1466.8 Charles the Bold had Dinant destroyed. Burgundy
1466-76 Galeazzo Maria Sforza ruled Milan.
1466-82 Leonardo da Vinci studied art in Florence.
1467.5 Exiles with Venetian army invaded Tuscany. Florence
1467 Pope Paul II imprisoned Platina and Laeto.
1467 Chelcicky’s friends formed Unity of Brethren.
1467 British merchants killed Iceland’s chieftain Bjorn.
1467 Matthias founded University of Pozsony. Humanism
1467.11.24 Burgundy & England made a 30-year trade treaty. Edward IV
1467-70 Karl VIII ruled Sweden.
1467-77 Duke Charles the Bold ruled Burgundy.
1468.4 Louis XI convened three estates at Tours.
1468 Pope Paul II helped end Colleonic war. Florence
1468 Pope Paul II closed the Roman Academy.
1468 Alberti wrote moral dialog De iciarchia.
1468.7.1 Charles of Burgundy married Margaret. Louis XI
1468.7.5 Prince Alfonso died. Castile
1468.7.16 3 French armies invaded Brittany. Louis XI
1468.9.10 François II of Brittany made peace with France. Louis XI
1468.10.14 Charles the Bold made a treaty with Louis XI. Burgundy
1468.10.20 England & Aragon’s Juan II made a treaty. Edward IV
1469.1.8 Charles the Bold cancelled Ghent’s constitution. Burgundy
1469.2.7 Lorenzo de’ Medici sponsored a tournament. Florence
1469.5.28 James III married Margarete of Denmark.
1469 Venice approved first printing license.
1469 Kristian lost islands to Scotland. Norway
1469 Louis XI & Charles of Burgundy made a treaty.
1469 Louis XI & Warwick plotted against Edward IV.
1469.7.26 Warwick defeated Edward IV’s army at Edgecote.
1469.10.19 Fernando of Aragon married Isabel of Castile.
1469-88 James III ruled Scotland.
1469-90 Matthias ruled part of Bohemia.
1470.4.20 Warwick captured 60 Burgundian ships. Edward IV
1470 Paris got its first printing press. France
1470.7 Turks conquered Euripos. Venice
1470.7 Warwick allied with Margaret of Anjou. Edward IV
1470.8.13 Bern made a neutrality treaty with France. Swiss
1470.10.2 Edward IV fled to Burgundy.
1470-71 Henry VI ruled England. Edward IV
1470-92 Lorenzo de’ Medici governed Florence.
1470-97 Sten Sture ruled Sweden as regent.
1471.1 Portuguese began trading gold at Shama Bay. Portugal
1471.2.12 England declared war on Burgundy. Edward IV
1471.3 Edward IV returned to England.
1471.4 Edward IV arrested Henry VI.
1471.5.4 Edward IV defeated Margaret of Anjou.
1471.5.21 Henry VI was murdered in the Tower. Edward IV
1471 Ivan III attacked and defeated Novgorod. Russia
1471 Schweinsheim printed first geographical maps. German Empire
1471 Duke Charles of Burgundy invaded France.
1471 Portuguese took over Asila from Morocco. Portugal
1471 Bible was printed in Italian at Venice. Humanists
1471 Fichet published his Rhetorica in Paris. Humanism
1471.7.25 Thomas a Kempis died. Imitation of Christ
1471.10 Swedes defeated invading Danish army. Denmark
1471.10 Edward IV pardoned several hundred people.
1471.11.1 Aragon allied with Naples and Burgundy.
1471-73 Moscow annexed Iaroslavl, Perm and Rostov. Russia
1471-77 George of Clarence was lieutenant in Ireland.
1471-79 Poland and Hungary were at war.
1471-83 Edward IV ruled England.
1471-84 F. della Rovere was Pope Sixtus IV. Venice Florence
1471-1516 Vladislav Jagellonsky ruled Bohemia.
1472.4 Roussillon rebelled against France.
1472.6.11 Charles the Bold massacred garrison at Nesle. France
1472.6 Mercenaries besieged Volterra for Florence.
1472 Venetian navy ravaged ports in Asia Minor. Venice
1472 Lorenzo de’ Medici revived Pisa University.
1472 Siena founded Monte dei Paschi bank.
1472 Leonardo da Vinci was recognized as a master.
1472 Ivan III married Sofia Palaeologa. Russia
1472 Edward IV sent archers to Brittany.
1472.7.12 Richard of Gloucester married Anne Neville. Edward IV
1472.11.3 Louis XI & Charles of Burgundy made a truce.
1473.3.22 Edward IV made a truce with Louis XI.
1473 Venice took over Cyprus.
1473 Krakow printed first book in Polish. Poland
1473 Duke Charles of Burgundy took over Guelders.
1473 Louis XI divided Armagnac among 20 vassals.
1473 Welzer brothers founded a banking house. Humanists
1473-82 Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome was enlarged. Sixtus IV
1474.2.28 English & Hanseatic merchants made a treaty. Edward IV
1474.5.9 Alsatians executed Governor Hagenbach. Swiss
1474 Ficino wrote On Christian Religion.
1474 Barbaro translated Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics. Humanists
1474 Pierre de Hagenbach was beheaded for crimes. Low Countries
1474 Basel University established a chair of poetry. Humanists
1474.8.15 René II of Lorraine made a treaty with France.
1474.9.1 Papal forces drove Vitelli from Citta da Castello. Florence
1474.11.13 Swiss defeated Burgundy’s army at Héricourt. France
1474.12 Denmark’s Christian visited Milan.
1474-1504 Isabel ruled Castile.
1475.1.25 Duke of Milan made a treaty with Burgundy. France
1475.4.10 Portuguese invaded Extremadura. Castile
1475.5 Austria’s Sigismund made peace with Burgundy. Swiss
1475.5 Afonso invaded Castile to claim throne. Portugal
1475.5 Louis XI invaded Picardy.
1475.5.25 Castile declared war on Portugal.
1475.5.29 Juana la Beltraneja married Afonso V. Castile
1475 Turks took Caffa away from Genoa.
1475 Swiss army invaded Rhone valley.
1475.8.29 Louis XI made a treaty with Edward IV.
1475.9.13 Louis XI made a 9-year truce with Burgundy.
1475.9 Louis XI renounced his alliance with the Swiss.
1475.11.17 Castile and Granada made a truce.
1476.1 Charles of Burgundy seized town of Grandson. Swiss
1476.1 Castile punished Villena rebellion.
1476.3.1 Castile defeated Portuguese at Peleagonzalo.
1476.3 Swiss defeated Burgundians at Grandson. Burgundy
1476.6.22 Swiss drove Burgundians out of Murten. Burgundy
1476 Matthias married Ferrante’s daughter Beatrice. Hungary
1476 Bishop of Würzburg had Hans Boheim burned. German Empire
1476 Manrique wrote Stanzas on His Father’s Death. Castile
1476 Castile and Granada made a 5-year truce.
1476 Hermonymos began teaching Greek in Paris. Humanism
1477.1.5 Swiss killed Charles of Burgundy. German Empire France
1477.6 University of Uppsala was founded. Sweden
1477 Ficino completed translation of Plato’s works. Florence
1477 Ivan III made Novgorod dependent. Russia
1477 University of Siguenza was founded. Castile
1477 René of Anjou wrote Love-Smitten Heart. French Poetry
1477 William Caxton printed first books in English. Edward IV
1477 Bible was printed in French at Lyons. Humanists
1477.8.18 Maximilian married Marie of Burgundy. German Empire France
1477-95 Joao II ruled Portugal.
1477-1500 Ludovico Il Moro Sforza ruled Milan.
1477-1513 Gerald, the 8th earl of Kildare, was justiciar. Ireland
1478.1 Louis XI made a treaty with Venice.
1478.2 George of Clarence was killed in the Tower. Edward IV
1478.4.26 Pazzis murdered Giuliano de’ Medici. Florence
1478 Uri and Swiss besieged Bellinzona.
1478 Kristian’s son Hans married Kristina of Savoy. Denmark
1478.10.9 Castile & Aragon made peace with Louis XI.
1478.12 England allied with Maximilian secretly. Edward IV
1478.11.1 Pope Sixtus IV approved the Inquisition. Castile
1479.1.24 Turks and Venice made a treaty.
1479 Hungary and Poland made peace.
1479 Jan Vitéz left Matthias for Friedrich. German Empire
1479.8.7 Flanders & Hainault defeated a French army. Low Countries
1479.9.4 Castile & Portugal made a treaty at Alcaçovas.
1479.11 Sixtus IV called for a crusade against Granada. Castile
1479.11.24 Florence accepted a truce with papal forces.
1479-1516 Fernando II ruled Aragon.
1480.2 Lorenzo de’ Medici made peace with Naples.
1480.5.12 Edward IV made Gloucester lieutenant-general.
1480.5 Isabel & Fernando reorganized the royal council. Castile
1480 Poliziano’s Fabula de Orfeo was performed.
1480 Ivan III renounced allegiance to Golden Horde. Russia
1480 Moscow used arquebuses with gunpowder. Russia
1480 Castile suppressed rebels in Galicia.
1480.7 Louis XI inherited Anjou and claimed Bar.
1480.7.26 Castile and Portugal made a trade treaty.
1480.8.11 Turks captured city of Otranto. Florence Naples
1481 Freiburg & Solothurn joined Swiss Confederation.
1481.9.10 Alfonso of Calabria drove Turks out of Otranto. Naples
1481-1513 Hans ruled Denmark, Schleswig & Holstein.
1482.2.11 Pope Sixtus IV appointed 7 more inquisitors. Castile
1482.2 Isabel ordered knights to fight Muslims. Castile
1482.3.27 Marie of Burgundy died. German Empire
1482.5.13 Fernando rejected papal limits on Inquisition. Castile
1482.5 Fernando sent crusaders supplies from Cordoba. Castile
1482.6.10 Alexander of Albany claimed Scotland’s throne.
1482 Alfonso of Calabria’s army ravaged Papal States. Naples
1482 Portuguese established Sao Jorge da Mina. Portugal
1482 France annexed Maine and Provence.
1482.7.22 Nobles captured Scotland’s James III. Edward IV
1482.8.10 Sixtus asked Christians to pay for a crusade. Castile
1482.8.24 Berwick castle surrendered to the English. Edward IV Scotland
1482.12.23 Maximilian gave Burgundy to France. Edward IV
1482-84 Naples and Milan fought against Ferrara. Venice
1482-99 Leonardo da Vinci worked in Milan.
1483.1.1 Seville inquisitors expelled 10,000 Jews. Castile
1483.2 Pulci published Morgante Maggiore.
1483.4.20 Boabdil led attack on Lucena & was captured. Castile
1483.4-7 Richard of Gloucester was protector. Richard III
1483.5.25 Pope Sixtus put Venice under interdict.
1483 Biondo’s long Roman history was published. Humanists
1483 Sultan Bayezid II made peace with Hungary.
1483 Maximilian defeated rebelling Hoecks. German Empire
1483 Diebold Schilling completed Chronicle of Bern. Swiss
1483 Castilian invasion divided Granada in two.
1483.7.8 Alexander of Albany forfeited his property. Scotland
1483.8.2 Pope Sixtus IV expanded Inquisition in Spain. Castile
1483.12.25 Henry Tudor agreed to marry Elizabeth of York. Richard III
1483-85 Richard III ruled England.
1483-91 Anne of Beaujeu was regent of France.
1483-98 Torquemada led Inquisition in Spain. Castile
1483-1513 Hans was king of Norway from Denmark.
1484.1-2 French Estates General met at Tours. France
1484.5 Torquemada appointed inquisitors in Aragon.
1484.6.7 Agricola wrote a letter on education. Humanists
1484 France made a treaty with Flemish towns. Low Countries
1484 Palace at Guadalupe cost 2,732,333 maravedis. Castile
1484.8 Naples and Milan made peace. Venice
1484.9 Richard III made a truce with Scotland.
1484.11.23 Brittany’s François II made a treaty with France.
1484-92 Giovanni B. Cibo was Pope Innocent VIII. Venice
1485.5.8 36,000 Castilians besieged Ronda. Castile
1485.6 Hungarians captured Vienna. Hungary
1485 Innocent VIII aided Angevins against Naples.
1485 Dunois, Orléans et al criticized French finances. France
1485 Caxton published Le Morte d’Arthur by Malory. England
1485.7.22 Maximilian installed a German garrison at Ghent. Low Countries
1485.8.22 Henry Tudor’s army defeated & killed Richard III.
1485.9.15 Inquisitor Arbués was murdered in a cathedral. Aragon
1485, 1489 Moscow annexed Tver and Viatka. Russia
1485-1509 Henry VII ruled England.
1486.1.18 Henry VII married Elizabeth of York.
1486.2 Callimachus tried to stop war against Hungary. Humanism
1486.2.16 Maximilian was elected king of Germany.
1486.6 Maximilian invaded northern France briefly.
1486 Pico della Mirandola wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man.
1486 Leonardo da Vinci painted “Virgin of the Rocks.”
1486 Matthias sanctioned a long law code. Hungary
1486 Fernando II gave peasants more rights. Aragon
1486 Celtis wrote Art of Writing Verses and Poems. Humanists
1486.7 Henry VII made a truce with Scotland.
1486.8.11 Innocent VIII made peace with Ferrante. Naples
1486-87 Ferrante killed and imprisoned his enemies. Naples
1486-1501 Doge Agostino Barbarigo governed Venice.
1487.3 Charles VIII made treaty with 60 Breton nobles. France
1487.4.18 Emperor Friedrich crowned Celtis poet laureate. Humanists
1487 Savonarola preached in Lombardy.
1487 Archbishop of Novgorod began torturing heretics. Russia
1487 University of Salamanca had 7,000 students. Castile
1487 Kildare supported Simnel as “Edward VI.” Ireland
1487.8.18 Malaga capitulated to Castile.
1487.11.4 Radicals in Ghent revolted against Maximilian. Low Countries
1487.12.23 Bartolomeu Dias reached Hottentot Bay. Portugal
1487-1503 Pandolfo Petrucci ruled Siena.
1488.1.5 Ghent allied with France’s Charles VIII. Low Countries
1488.2.14 Emperor Friedrich III organized Swabian League. German Empire
1488.5.16 Bruges released captured Maximilian. German Empire Low Countries France
1488 7,000 Novgorod gentry were moved to Moscow. Russia
1488 Brederode and the Hoecks captured Rotterdam. Low Countries
1488 Erasmus wrote Oration on Peace and Discord.
1488.7.27 French defeated rebels & captured Orléans duke. France
1488.12.11 France declared war on Brittany.
1488-1513 James IV ruled Scotland. 482-7
1489 Pisa became wool port for England & Florence.
1489 Lorenzo de’ Medici began patronizing Michelangelo.
1489 Ficino published Three Books on Life.
1489 Leonardo da Vinci designed wedding festivities in Milan.
1489 Casimir & Bayezid II agreed to a 2-year truce. Poland
1489 Henry VII allied with Maximilian & Spain.
1489.7.22 Maximilian & French made a treaty. German Empire France
1490.1.20 Hans made a trade treaty with Henry VII. Iceland
1490 Diogo Cao led a mission to the Congo. Portugal
1490 Drummonds burned 120 Murrays in Scotland.
1490.11.29 Bruges capitulated to the French. Low Countries
1490-1515 Aldus Manutius printed 28 Greek classics. Venice
1490-1516 Vladislaus II ruled Hungary.
1491.1 Ludovico Sforza married Beatrice d’Este. Milan
1491.1.25 Poland & Lithuania defeated Tatars at Zaslaw.
1491 Ficino completed translation of Plotinus.
1491 Pico della Mirandola wrote De ente et uno.
1491 Maximilian granted Fugger and Cie silver mines. German Empire
1491.10.2 Henry VII invaded France. Charles VIII
1491.11.7 Maximilian made a treaty with Hungary. German Empire
1491.11.25 Boabdil surrendered Granada to Castile.
1491.12.6 Charles VIII married Anne of Brittany.
1491-93 Ivan III had Andrei the Elder imprisoned. Russia
1491-99 Warbeck claimed to be Richard of York. England
1491-98 Savonarola preached to many in Florence.
1491-98 Charles VIII ruled France.
1491-1518 Bishop Stephan Jonsson governed Iceland.
1492.1 Ludovico Sforza allied with France’s Charles VIII.
1492.2 Lorenzo de’ Medici reconciled Ferrante & Pope Innocent.
1492.3.4 Scotland made a treaty with France.
1492.4 Spain ordered all Jews to convert or leave. Castile
1492.4.17 Castile authorized voyage of Columbus.
1492 Fugger brothers married into Thurzos family. German Empire
1492 Diego de San Pedro published Prison of Love. Castile
1492 60,000 Jews migrated to Portugal.
1492 Celtis spoke at University of Ingolstadt. Humanists
1492 Nebrija wrote Art of Castilian Grammar. Spain Humanism
1492.10.12 Columbus landed in the Bahamas. Castile
1492.10 Callimachus wrote Counsels. Humanism
1492.11.3 France & Aragon made treaty at Barcelona. Charles VIII
1492, 1498 Hungary’s Vladislaus allied with Poland.
1492-1501 Jan Olbracht ruled Poland.
1492-1503 Rodrigo Borgia was Pope Alexander VI.
1492-1506 Casimir’s son Alexander ruled Lithuania.
1493.1 Bohemian army was dissolved. Bohemia
1493.1.19 France gave 2 provinces back to Aragon.
1493.2.27 Poland accepted constitution of Piotrkow.
1493.4 Milan allied with Pope Alexander VI & Venice. Borgias
1493.5.4 Alexander VI divided western world. Borgias Castile
1493.5 Maximilian made a treaty with France. Charles VIII
1493.5.29 Castile supplied Columbus with 17 ships.
1493.6.25 Scotland & England extended truce to 1501.
1493 Alexander VI pardoned Pico della Mirandola.
1493 Livonian Order, Pskov & Novgorod made treaty. Russia
1493 Swiss signed a treaty with Charles VIII.
1493 Denmark allied with Russia. Sweden
1493 Moravus wrote Dialog in Defense of Poetry. Humanism
1493.9.19 Alexander VI made his son Cesare a cardinal. Borgias
1493-1519 Maximilian ruled Germany.
1494.1 Alfonso of Naples allied with Alexander VI. Milan
1494.2.5 Lithuania made peace with Moscow.
1494.3.16 Maximilian married Bianca Maria Sforza. Milan German Empire
1494.4.18 Pope Alexander VI gave Naples to Ferrante. Charles VIII
1494.6.7 Portugal & Spain made Tordesillas treaty. Borgias Castile
1494 France’s Charles VIII invaded Italy. Borgias
1494 Boiardo left Orlando Innamorato unfinished.
1494 Ivan III closed Hanseatic trade to Novgorod. Russia
1494 Ulrich Fugger began managing papal funds. German Empire
1494 Reuchlin wrote On the Wonderful Word. Humanists
1494 Sebastian Brant wrote Ship of Fools. Humanists
1494.8 Charles VIII invaded Italy.
1494.9 Giuliano della Rovere fled to Avignon. Borgias
1494.10 Florence’s Piero gave Pisa to France.
1494.11 Charles VIII & French army visited Florence.
1494.11.17 Pico della Mirandola died of poison.
1494.12.2 Florence’s parliament overthrew Medici.
1494.12 Poyning’s law gave King power over Ireland.
1494.12.31 French army entered Rome. Borgias Charles VIII
1494-95 Alfonso II ruled Naples for 8 months.
1494-1506 Maximilian let his son Philip govern Flanders. Low Countries
1495.1.15 Pope Alexander VI & Charles VIII agreed.
1495.2 France’s Charles VIII invaded Naples. Venice
1495.2 Florence adopted Savonarola’s tax system.
1495.2 King’s College in Aberdeen was founded. Scotland
1495.2.27 Gerald of Kildare was arrested for treason. Ireland
1495.3.31 Holy League included Venice, Germany & Spain. Borgias
1495.5.24 Charles VIII left Naples.
1495 Pope proclaimed Fernando & Isabel “Catholic.” Borgias
1495 Russia allied with Denmark & invaded Finland.
1495 Diet of Worms banned private wars. German Empire
1495 Erasmus wrote the Book Against the Barbarians.
1495.7.6 League defeated the French at Fornovo. Milan Venice Borgias Charles VIII
1495.11 Perkin Warbeck found refuge in Scotland.
1495.11.30 Swedes and Finns turned back Russians. Sweden
1495-98 Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Last Supper.”
1495-1509 Pisa struggled for independence.
1495-1521 Manuel ruled Portugal.
1496.3 Gerald of Kildare submitted to Henry VII. Ireland
1496.6 Scotland’s Parliament passed Education Act.
1496 André de La Vigne wrote Vie de saint Martin. French Poetry
1496 Giovanni Nesi wrote Oracle of the New Century. Ficino
1496.7.21 French capitulated at Atella. Naples
1496.9 Scots and Warbeck invaded England. Scotland
1496.10.20 Philip of Flanders married Juana of Spain. Low Countries
1496-1501 Federico ruled Naples.
1497.1.3 Beatrice d’Este died in childbirth. Milan
1497.3 Sweden made a 6-year truce with Ivan III.
1497.5.13 Pope Alexander VI excommunicated Savonarola.
1497.5.30 Manuel granted amnesty to converted Jews.
1497.6.16 Henry VII suppressed a tax rebellion.
1497.6.24 John Cabot sighted land in America. England
1497 Poland mobilized 80,000 men against Turks.
1497 Moscow promulgated laws wider. Russia
1497 Celtis founded Literary Society of the Danube. German Empire
1497.8 Frateschi party controlled Florence.
1497.9.28 Danish army invaded & defeated Swedish army. Denmark
1497-1501 Hans ruled Sweden. Denmark
1498.3.1 Frateschi party lost elections in Florence.
1498.4.8 Savonarola was arrested in Florence.
1498.5.18 Vasco da Gama reached Malabar in India. Portugal
1498.5.23 Savonarola and 2 others were hanged.
1498 Castile disbanded Santa Hermandad.
1498 Our Lady of Mercy was founded in Portugal.
1498.7.31 Fernando II made a treaty with Louis XII. Aragon
1498.8.17 Cesare Borgia was no longer a cardinal.
1498-1507 Archbishop Deza led Inquisition in Spain. Castile
1498-1512 Machiavelli was a chancellor of Florence.
1498-1514 Louis XII ruled France.
1499.1 Louis XII married Queen Anne.
1499.2 France’s Louis XII allied with Venice.
1499.3 Louis XII made a treaty with the Swiss.
1499.3 Ordinance of Blois shortened trials. France
1499.5 Cesare Borgia married Charlotte d’Albret.
1499.5 Isabel ordered Indian slaves sent back.
1499.5.22 Swiss defeated the Austrians.
1499 French took over Genoa.
1499 Florence executed Vitelli for treason.
1499 Angelo Colocci wrote Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. Humanists
1499 Pontano wrote Naples’ history & De prudentia. Humanists
1499 La Celestina was published. Castile
1499.7.12 England & Scotland made a peace treaty. Henry VII
1499.7.18 Louis XII’s French army invaded Milan.
1499.7.22 Swiss defeated Austrian army at Dornach. German Empire
1499.8 Turks took Lepanto. Venice
1499.9.22 Maximilian signed a treaty with Swiss at Basel.
1499.10.6 Cesare Borgia escorted Louis XII into Milan.
1500.1 Spain ordered Granadans to convert. Castile
1500.1 Lodovico Sforza liberated Milan from the French. Louis XII
1500.3 Papal bull offered indulgences for money. Borgias
1500.3 French army reconquered Milan. Louis XII
1500.4.8 French captured Ludovico Sforza. Milan
1500.4.22 Cabral discovered South America. Portugal
1500 Machiavelli negotiated with Louis XII. Florence
1500 Pilgrims came to Rome for Jubilee Year.
1500 Germany was organized into six circles.
1500 Swiss mercenaries fought on both sides at Milan.
1500 Columbus was sent back to Spain in chains. Castile
1500 Louis XII brought 1,000 manuscripts to Paris. Humanism
1500 Erasmus published Adages in Paris. Humanism
1500.7.14 Vladislaus married Anne of Foix. Hungary Poland
1500.8 France joined Hungarian-Polish alliance. Hungary
1500.9.28 Pope Alexander VI appointed 12 cardinals. Borgias
1500.11.11 Louis XII & Fernando made a secret treaty.
1500-03 Cesare Borgia led the papal army.
1500-03 Moscow and Lithuania were at war. Russia
1500-12 French ruled Milan.
1501.5.25 Louis XII invaded Italy again.
1501.6.9 Basel joined the Swiss Confederation.
1501 Cesare Borgia invaded Florence.
1501 French army invaded Naples.
1501 Pontano wrote De immanitate. Humanists
1501 Leonardo da Vinci painted “Virgin and Child.”
1501 Vienna University began Academy of Poetry. Humanists
1501.8.4 French army occupied Naples. Louis XII
1501.8.10 Schaffhausen joined the Swiss Confederation.
1501.11.14 Prince Arthur married Catherine of Aragon. Henry VII
1501-03 Sten Sture ruled Sweden as regent.
1501-06 Casimir’s son Alexander ruled Poland.
1501-21 Doge Leonardo Loredan governed Venice.
1502.1.24 England & Scotland made a peace treaty.
1502.2.12 Spain ordered unbaptized Moors to leave. Castile Granada
1502.5.6 Queen Kristina surrendered Stockholm. Denmark
1502.6 Vitelli helped Arezzo revolt against Florence.
1502 Ivan III attacked Smolensk. Poland
1502 Austrian general Diet was created. German Empire
1502 Plot in Speyer against priests was crushed. German Empire
1502 Danish army invaded Norway and Sweden. Denmark
1502 Spain required licenses to print books. Castile
1502 Portuguese built forts in North Africa. Portugal
1502.7 Spain’s Gonzalo entered Naples. Louis XII
1502.9.20 Florentines elected Piero Soderini. Florence
1503.1.18 Pope Alexander VI had 2 Orsini executed. Borgias
1503.2 Handbook of the Militant Christian by Erasmus.
1503.3.28 Ivan made a 6-year truce with Poland.
1503.3.31 Louis XII & Fernando made a 3-year truce.
1503.5.14 Spaniards took Naples from the French. Aragon
1503 Reuchlin wrote On the Art of Preaching. Humanists
1503 Paris began using Roman type. Humanism
1503.7.20 Swiss Diet restricted mercenaries.
1503.8.8 James IV of Scotland married Mary Tudor.
1503.10.18 Pius III died after 26 days as pope. Julius II
1503-12 Hungary and Ottomans were at peace.
1503-13 Giuliano della Rovere was Pope Julius II. Venice
1504.2.11 France and Spain signed a 3-year truce. Florence
1504.4 Michelangelo finished “David” in Florence.
1504 Gonsalvo began ruling Naples for Spain.
1504 Jacopo Sannazzaro published his Arcadia. Humanists
1504 Moscow stopped tolerating heretics. Russia
1504 Henry VII appointed Colet dean at St. Paul’s.
1504.8.19 Gerald of Kildare won a battle in Connacht. Ireland
1504.9.22 Louis XII allied with Maximilian & Philip.
1504-06 Cesare Borgia was imprisoned in Spain. Julius II
1504-12 Svante Nilsson ruled Sweden as regent.
1504-16 Fernando ruled Castile as regent. Spain
1505.3 Pietro Bembo published Gli Asolani. Humanists
1505.4.7 Maximilian recognized Louis XII in Milan.
1505.4 Henry VII sent £108,000 to Archduke Philip.
1505 Kazan provoked a war with Moscow. Russia
1505 Ovando began encomienda system in America. Castile
1505 Maximilian crowned Murner poet laureate. Humanists
1505 Wimpheling wrote Epitome of German History. Humanists
1505.10 Fernando II & Louis XII made a treaty at Blois.
1505-09 Almeida governed Portugal’s colonies in India. Portugal
1505-33 Vasily III ruled Moscow. Russia
1506.3 Genoa revolted against the French. Louis XII
1506 Pope Julius II initiated new St. Peter’s church.
1506 Scotland’s James IV had a large fleet built.
1506.8 Pope Julius II led a military campaign.
1506.11.11 Pope Julius II entered Bologna.
1506.12.6 Florence authorized a national militia.
1506-13 Prince Kristian governed Norway. Sweden
1506-15 Maximilian governed the Netherlands. Low Countries
1506-48 Zygmunt I (Sigismund Jagiellon) ruled Poland & Lithuania.
1507.2 Michelangelo finished a statue of Pope Julius II.
1507.3.12 Cesare Borgia was killed fighting for Navarre. Julius II
1507.5.31 Poland allied with Hungary.
1507 Chigi became notary of Apostolic Chamber. Julius II
1507 Manuel outlawed discrimination against Jews. Portugal
1507 Printing began in Scotland.
1507.9.30 9 Swiss cantons refused to fight in foreign wars.
1507-08 Moscow and Lithuania were at war. Russia
1507-12 Pandolfo Petrucci ruled Siena. Florence
1507-17 Cardinal Cisneros led Inquisition in Spain. Castile
1507-30 Margaret of Austria governed the Netherlands. German Empire
1508.4 Maximilian & Venice agreed to a 3-year truce.
1508 Machiavelli negotiated with Maximilian. Florence
1508 Cardinal Cisneros founded University of Alcala. Spain
1508 Everyman was printed in English. Morality Plays
1508 Trithemius wrote Seven Secondary Intelligences. Humanists
1508 Budé published Annotations on the Pandects. Humanism
1508.7.28 Julius II gave Fernando patronage in America. Spain
1508.12.10 Pope Julius II formed the Cambrai league. Venice
1508-09 Sebastian Cabot sailed to New Found Lands. England
1508-12 Michelangelo painted Sistine Chapel ceiling.
1508-20 Raphael painted in Rome.
1509.1 France declared war on Venice. Julius II
1509.2 Portuguese won a victory in the Indian Ocean. Portugal
1509.3.14 Arsenal exploded in Doges’ Palace. Venice
1509.4.13 Louis XII declared war on Venice.
1509.4.27 Pope Julius II condemned Venice for war.
1509.5.14 French defeated Venetians at Agnadello. Venice Julius II Louis XII
1509.5.28 Papal legate recovered Rimini, Faenza & Ravenna. Venice
1509.6.9 Pisa surrendered to Florence.
1509.6.11 Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
1509 Sigismund extended Ottoman treaty 5 years. Poland
1509 Danes raided Turku in Finland. Sweden
1509 Ojeda founded Darien colony in Panama. Spain
1509 Maximilian ordered Jewish books confiscated. Humanists
1509 Erasmus wrote Against War.
1509.10.24 Florence agreed to pay Maximilian 40,000 ducats.
1509.12.29 Venice made peace with Pope Julius II.
1509-15 Albuquerque governed colonies in India. Portugal
1509-47 Henry VIII ruled England.
1510.1.23 Hungary mediated Poland-Moldavia peace.
1510.2 Venetian envoys submitted to Pope Julius II.
1510.3.14 Swiss made 5-year alliance with Pope Julius II.
1510 Pope Julius II withdrew from League of Cambrai. Venice
1510 Brescia burned 140 people for witchcraft. Julius II
1510 French bishops condemned Pope Julius II.
1510 Moscow annexed Pskov. Russia
1510 Swedes captured Kalmar and Borgholm. Sweden
1510 Reuchlin opposed banning Jewish books. Humanists
1511.1 Pope Julius II led siege of Mirandola.
1511.5.14 French forced Julius II to flee from Bologna.
1511 Pope Julius II put Florence & Pisa under interdict.
1511 Pfefferkorn published Hand Mirror. Humanists
1511 Erasmus published The Praise of Folly.
1511.9 French & Spanish held Church Council at Pisa.
1511.10.4 Pope Julius II allied with Venice & Spain. Louis XII
1511.11.3 Louis XII reconciled James IV & Henry VIII. Scotland
1511.11.5 Small Church Council at Pisa began. Florence Julius II
1511.11.13 Henry VIII joined the Holy League.
1512.1 Pope Julius II sent legate Schiner to Swiss.
1512.2.6 Colet criticized Church abuses in London.
1512.4.11 French defeated the Holy League. Louis XII
1512.4.19 Pope Julius II summoned the Lateran Council.
1512.6 Holy League drove French out of Italy. Florence Julius II
1512 Swiss army captured Pavia and Milan.
1512 Portugal published modern law code.
1512 Empire banned Reuchlin’s Eye Mirror. Humanists
1512 Lefevre wrote Commentary on Pauline Epistles. Humanism
1512.8.27 Soderini imprisoned 40 Mediceans. Florence
1512.8.29 Spaniards killed 5,000 at Prato. Florence
1512.8.31 Piero Soderini fled Florence; Medici returned. Florence
1512.9.14 Cardinal Giovanni returned to Florence.
1512.12.27 Laws of Burgos recognized Indian rights. Spain
1512-15 Massimiliano ruled Milan.
1512-17 5th Lateran Council affirmed papal authority. Julius II
1512-20 Younger Sten Sture ruled Sweden as regent.
1512-22 Moscow and Lithuania were at war. Russia
1513.3.11 Giovanni de’ Medici was elected Pope Leo X. Florence
1513.3.23 Venice made treaty with France. Louis XII
1513.3.27 Colet preached against war to Henry VIII.
1513.4.2 Ponce de Leon discovered Florida. Spain
1513.4.5 Leo X allied with Maximilian, Henry & Fernando.
1513.6.6 Swiss helped the Milanese defeat the French. Milan
1513 Machiavelli wrote The Prince.
1513 Maximilian allied with Henry VIII against France. German Empire
1513 Appenzell joined the Swiss Confederation.
1513 Swiss army invaded Burgundy.
1513 Peasants revolted against Bern and other cities. Swiss
1513.8 English defeated the French near Thérouanne. Henry VIII
1513.8 Scots raided Northumberland. James IV
1513.9.7 English army defeated & killed James IV. Henry VIII
1513.9 Vasily III of Moscow invaded Lithuania.
1513.9 Balboa crossed Panama to the Pacific Ocean. Spain
1513-17 Machiavelli wrote The Discourses.
1513-21 Giovanni de’ Medici was Pope Leo X.
1513-23 Kristian II ruled Denmark and Norway. Denmark Norway
1513-88 Denmark ruled Iceland.
1514 Hungarian peasants rebelled against crusade. Hungary
1514 Werboczy compiled Hungarian law in Tripartitum. Hungary
1514 Moscow regained Smolensk. Russia
1514 Maximilian ordered codification of customary law. German Empire
1514 Glareanus went to Basel to teach Latin & Greek. Swiss
1514 Albrecht Dürer painted “Melancholia I.” Humanists
1514 Letters of Obscure Men was published. Humanists
1514.7 Queen Margaret reconciled parties in Scotland.
1514.8.10 England & France proclaimed peace.
1514.8 Louis XII made a treaty with England.
1514.9.8 Polish-Lithuanian army defeated Muscovites.
1514.10 Hungarian Diet passed laws to control peasants. Hungary
1515 Leo X expanded papal officials from 141 to 612.
1515 Portugal’s spice trade made one million cruzados.
1515 Erasmus published expanded Adages.
1515.7.7 Fernando II annexed Navarre.
1515.7.12 Kristian II married Elizabeth of Austria. Denmark
1515.7.22 Sigismund made a treaty with Hapsburgs. Lithuania German Empire
1515.9 French defeated the Milanese at Marignano. Milan
1515.9 French offered the Swiss one million crowns.
1515.9.16 Milan capitulated to the French. France
1516.10.29 Charles V allied with Henry VIII and Pope Leo X. Charles V
1516.11.29 François made a deal with Swiss cantons.
1515.11 Wolsey became a cardinal. England
1515.12 Pope Leo X made concessions to François.
1515.12.23 Las Casas asked Fernando for colonial reform. Spain
1515-16 Bishop of Geneva burned 500 for witchcraft. Swiss
1515-29 Cardinal Wolsey was Chancellor of England.
1515-47 François I ruled France. France
1516.2 Erasmus published the dual New Testament.
1516.6 Education of a Christian Prince by Erasmus.
1516 Pope Leo X offered indulgences for St. Peter’s.
1516 Pomponazzi wrote On Immortality of the Soul. Humanists
1516 Ariosto published Orlando Furioso.
1516 Castiglione wrote The Book of the Courtier.
1516 Budé wrote De l’Institution du Prince. Humanism
1516 Erasmus published a book to guide Charles V.
1516.8.13 François and Charles of Hapsburg made a treaty. France
1516.8 François and Pope Leo X formed Concordat.
1516.10.29 Charles V allied with Henry VIII and Pope Leo X.
1516.11 Swiss and French agreed on peace at Geneva.
1516.11.29 François made a deal with Swiss cantons.
1516.12 Thomas More published Utopia.
1516-19 Leonardo da Vinci painted for King François.
1516-26 Lajos II ruled Hungary and Bohemia.
1517.3.5 Pope Leo X called for a 5-year European truce.
1517.3.11 François allied with Maximilian & Charles.
1517.3 Erasmus wrote The Complaint of Peace.
1517.5.1 Londoners rioted against foreigners. England More
1517 Maximilian gave Verona back to Venice.
1517 Maximilian’s novel Theuerdank was published. German Empire
1517 Kristian II with Russians invaded Sweden.
1517 Julius Excluded from Heaven was published. Erasmus
1517.7.3 Pope Leo X appointed 31 cardinals.
1517.8.26 Scotland allied with France.
1517-25 Ariosto wrote his seven Satires.
1517.1 Riksdag supported Sten Sture against Danes. Gustav Vasa
1517.2 Rovere with 7,600 men regained Urbino. Italian Wars
1517.3.10 Russia & Teutonic knights defeated Polish army. Zygmunt I
1517.3.11 François, Charles V & Maximilian made a treaty.
1517 Bible was first published in Ruthenian. Zygmunt I
1517 Sten Sture imprisoned Archbishop Trolle. Denmark
1517 French Chancellor Duprat sold offices.François
1517 Skelton’s Magnificence was performed at court. English Theater
1517.7 Erasmus published his Complaint of Peace. Henry VIII
1517.10.8 François renewed alliance with Venice.
1517.10.31 Martin Luther posted “95 Theses” in Wittenberg.
1517-21 Scotland’s Regent Albany was in France.
1517-33 Vasily III ruled Moscow. Russia.
1518.1.29 Denmark’s army besieged Stockholm. Gustav Vasa
1518.3.5 Erasmus wrote to More about Luther. Henry VIII
1518.4 Martin Luther sent Resolutiones to Pope Leo X.
1518.4.18 Zygmunt I married Bona Sforza from Milan.
1518.5 Pope Leo X made Cardinal Wolsey legate.
1518 Machiavelli wrote the play Mandragola.
1518 Rome made Zwingli a papal chaplain.
1518 Monk James Knade preached reform in Danzig. Zygmunt I
1518 Sture’s army defeated Danes in Stockholm. Denmark
1518.7 Karlstadt published 379 theses against Eck. Luther
1518.7 Polish army defeated Muscovites at Polock. Zygmunt I
1518.7.27 Sten Sture’s army defeated Danes in Stockholm. Gustav Vasa
1518.8.23 Pope Leo X ordered Luther arrested.
1518.10.2 Europe’s powers signed universal peace treaty. Henry VIII
1518.10 Martin Luther met Cajetan in Fugger mansion.
1518.10 Wolsey consulted with 20 states. François
1518.10.16 Martin Luther wrote appeal to Pope Leo X.
1518.11.9 Pope Leo X clarified indulgences. Luther
1518.11.18 Martin Luther asked Friedrich III for a council.
1518.12.11 Zwingli was appointed a preacher in Zurich.
1518.12.18 Friedrich III asked Cajetan for a debate. Luther
1518 Luther wrote his Treatise on the Marriage Estate.
1519.1 Luther told papal nuncio he would be silent.
1519.1 Zwingli taught the Gospel of Matthew.
1519.1 Aragon voted 200,000 ducats for Charles V.
1519.1.12 Emperor Maximilian I died. Luther Charles V Austria Zygmunt I
1519.6.15 Henry VIII’s bastard son Fitzroy was born.
1519.6.28 Germans chose Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.
1519 Melanchthon criticized Aristotelian scholasticism.Luther
1519 Krzycki & Lubranski began a humanistic college. Zygmunt I
1519 Armenian law was codified. Zygmunt I
1519 François spent 400,000 écus on bribes.
1519.10.1 Turks renewed alliance with Poland. Zygmunt I
1519.12 Polish army invaded Pomerania in Prussia. Zygmunt I
1519-30 Marguerite governed the Netherlands.Charles V
1519-56 Emperor Charles V ruled. Netherlands
1520.1.19 Danish army defeated Swedes led by Sture. Denmark Gustav Vasa
1520.2.6 Charles V and Swabian League made a treaty.
1520.4.15 Comuneros revolt began at Toledo.
1520.4 Hamiltons drove Douglases from Edinburgh. Scotland
1520.5 Charles V allied with Henry VIII in England.
1520.5 Spanish guilds armed against pirates. Charles V
1520.5.23 1,320 English soldiers arrived in Ireland.
1520.5.26 Charles V gave Wolsey a pension. Henry VIII
1520.6.15 Pope Leo X accused Luther of heresy.
1520.6 François and Henry VIII met in France.
1520.6.19 Comuneros formed Holy Junta at Avila.
1520.6.19 Pope Leo X protected Scotland.
1520.6.28 Money helped elect Emperor Charles V. Luther
1520.6.30 Woolworkers hanged Segovia’s delegate.Comuneros
1520 Zwingli declined his papal pension.
1520 Zygmunt banned Luther’s writings in Poland. Zygmunt I
1520.7.8 Pope Leo X asked Friedrich III to arrest Luther.
1520.7.17 Pope Leo X ordered Luther’s writings burned.
1520.8 Luther wrote Address to the Christian Nobility. Luther’s Defense
1520.8.29 Militia led by Padilla met with Queen Juana. Charles V
1520.9.14 Council of Castile was suspended and detained. Charles V
1520.9 Stockholm surrendered to the Danes. Gustav Vasa
1520.10.6 Luther wrote Babylonian Captivity of the Church. Luther’s Defense
1520.10 Luther wrote Against the Execrable Bull. Luther’s Defense
1520.10 Prussians invaded Poland. Zygmunt I
1520.10 Portugal loaned 50,000 ducats to Castile. Charles V
1520.10.20 Junta stopped pay to judges and corregidores. Comuneros
1520.10.25 Melanchthon married. Luther’s Defense
1520.10.26 Emperor Charles V was crowned. Austria Italian Wars
1520.11.4 Archbishop anointed Kristian II King of Sweden. Gustav Vasa
1520.11.9 Danes beheaded 892 Swedish leaders. Gustav Vasa
1520.11 Luther wrote On Liberty of the Christian Man. Luther’s Defense
1520.12.5 Royal forces captured Junta headquarters. Comuneros
1520.12.10 Melanchthon and students burned books by Eck. Luther’s Defense
1520.12.11 Luther began lecturing in German. Luther’s Defense
1521.1 Gustav Vasa led Sweden’s liberation army.
1521.1 Scotland and England extended their truce. Henry VIII
1521.1.21 Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. Luther’s Defense
1521.2 Comuneros captured Torrelobaton fortress.
1521.3.11 Charles V invited Luther to the Diet at Worms.Luther’s Defense
1521.3 Ulrich von Hutten wrote in favor of Luther. Charles V
1521.3 Charles V banned Lutheran books in Flanders. Netherlands
1521.4.15 Paris theologians condemned Luther’s ideas. Luther’s Defense François
1521.4.18 Luther at Diet of Worms refused to recant. Comuneros Luther’s Defense
1521.4.22 France declared war and invaded Navarre. Charles V
1521.4.23 Padilla’s rebels were defeated at Villalar. Comuneros
1521.4.25 Luther was given 25 days safe conduct. Luther’s Defense
1521.4.29 Zwingli was elected to Zurich’s canonry.
1521.4.29 Gustav Vasa and 15,000 Swedes fought Danes.
1521.5.4 Friedrich gave Luther refuge at Wartburg castle. Luther’s Defense
1521.5.8 Charles V & Pope Leo X hired Swiss mercenaries. Zwingli
1521.5 Suleiman’s Turks invaded Hungary.
1521.5 Charles V promised Leo X Parma, Naples, etc. Italian Wars
1521.5.17 Edward Stafford was beheaded for treason. Henry VIII
1521.5.20 Danes burned the city of Vasteras. Gustav Vasa
1521.5.20 Ignatius of Loyola’s leg was badly wounded.
1521.5.25 Edict of Worms condemned Luther. Charles V Luther’s Defense
1521.5-6 Swedes captured Uppsala and Kalmar. Gustav Vasa
1521.6.4 Parliament at Dublin banned wool exports. Ireland
1521 Melanchthon wrote Common Places in Theology. Lutheran Reforms
1521 Cortés led conquest of Mexico. Charles V
1521 Charles V took back Tournai from France. Netherlands
1521 Machiavelli published his Art of War. Italian Wars
1521 Pope Leo X took over Perugia. Italian Wars
1521 Venice let imperial army cross its territory.
1521.7.13 François ended Church revenues going to Rome.
1521.7 Antwerp and Ghent burned Luther’s books. Netherlands
1521.7.18 Royalists defeated Germanias at Almenara. Comuneros
1521.7.23 Rebels defeated royalists at Gandia. Comuneros
1521.7-8 Suleiman’s Turks besieged Belgrade.Austria Hungary
1521.8.20 Imperial army invaded northern France. François
1521.8.23 Swedes elected Gustav Vasa regent.
1521.8.25 Charles V and Henry VIII made a treaty. Austria
1521.8.30 Royalists defeated rebels at Oriola. Charles V
1521.9 Jiajing ordered Portuguese out of China. Portugal
1521.10.13 Sermons replaced the mass in Wittenberg.Lutheran Reforms
1521.10.19 French took Fuenterrabia from Spain. François
1521.11 Luther wrote On Monastic Vows. Lutheran Reforms
1521.11 Thomas Müntzer wrote a manifesto in Prague. Peasants’ Rebellion
1521.11 Erasmus moved to Basel & wrote Expostulation. Zwingli
1521.11.19 Imperial forces restored Sforza in Milan. Charles V Italian Wars
1521.11.19 Imperial army drove the French out of Milan. François
1521.11.19 Regent Albany returned to Scotland from France.
1521.11.28 Leo X, Charles V & Henry VIII allied vs. France. Italian Wars
1521.12.1 Pope Leo X died. Charles V Italian Wars
1521.12.28 Scotland ratified its treaty with France.
1521-25 War cost France 30 million livres. François
1521-57 Joao III ruled Portugal.
1522.1.6 Augustinians said monks could leave monasteries. Lutheran Reforms
1522.1.11 Karlstadt led a mob that destroyed altars. Lutheran Reforms
1522.1.11 Zurich stopped providing foreign mercenaries. Zwingli
1522.1.19 Karlstadt married a 16-year-old girl. Lutheran Reforms
1522.1.20 Empire ordered rulers to punish innovations. Lutheran Reforms
1522.1.24 Wittenberg Council regulated morals. Lutheran Reforms
1522.2.7 Convention of Brussels gave Ferdinand Austria.
1522.2.13 Friedrich III ordered Karlstadt not to preach. Lutheran Reforms
1522.2.22 Henry VIII demanded Scotland remove Albany.
1522.3 16,000 Swiss helped the French besiege Milan. François
1522.3.22 Diet at Nuremberg began. Lutheran Reforms
1522.3.26 Piers Butler became Lord Deputy of Ireland.
1522.4.16 Zwingli advocated right to choose food.
1522.4.27 Swiss defeated at La Bicocca went home. François
1522.4.29 Colonna’s army defeated 16,000 unpaid Swiss. Italian Wars
1522.5.24 Ignatius changed during night vigil.
1522.5.30 Spaniards pillaged Genoa. Italian Wars
1522.6.13 France ratified alliance with Scotland.
1522.6 Lübeck merchants allied with Gustav Vasa.
1522 Murner published On the Great Lutheran Fool. Lutheran Reforms
1522 Zwingli married secretly.
1522 Lajos II took over Bohemia.
1522 Lithuania ceded Smolensk to Russia. Zygmunt I
1522 6-volume Polyglot Bible was published. Charles V
1522 Knights of St. John were expelled from Rhodes. Felipe II
1522 Venice conscripted a peasant militia.
1522.7.5 Zwingli led petition for clerical marriage.
1522.7.29 Charles V, Pope and others allied against France.
1522.8.13 Sickingen recruited knights for defense. Lutheran Reforms
1522.8.23 Zwingli published Apologeticus Archeteles.
1522.8.30 English forces led by Surrey raided France. Henry VIII
1522.9.6 Spaniards completed voyage around the world. Charles V
1522.9.14 Lithuania made peace with Moscow. Zygmunt I
1522.9 Luther published the New Testament in German. Lutheran Reforms
1522.9 Zwingli wrote introduction to Bible study.
1522.10 Charles V pardoned all but 392 rebels.
1522.11.5 Luther’s books were banned in Nuremberg. Lutheran Reforms
1522.12.21 Knights on Rhodes surrendered to Turks. Venice
1522-23 Pope Adrian VI supported Charles V.
1523.1 Luther wrote On Secular Authority. Lutheran Reforms
1523.1 Zwingli debated before 900 men at Zurich.
1523.1.20 Jutland rebelled, and Kristian II abdicated. Denmark
1523.4.7 Luther gave refuge to 9 nuns. Lutheran Reforms
1523.4 Kristian II fled to the Netherlands. Gustav Vasa
1523.4 Parliament elected Thomas More speaker. Henry VIII
1523.5.7 Sickingen was killed defending his castle. Lutheran Reforms
1523.5 Doctor Wolfgang Capito came to Strasbourg. Zwingli
1523.6.6 Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden. Denmark
1523.6.17 Danes gave up Stockholm. Denmark
1523.6.20 Earl of Desmond made a treaty with France. Ireland
1523 Müntzer began “league of the elect” in Thuringia. Peasants’ Rebellion
1523 Zwingli criticized Roman Church in 67 Articles.
1523 Lefevre published New Testament in French. Geneva François
1523 Poland’s new law code penalized Lutherans. Zygmunt I
1523 Inquisition went after Lutherans and dissenters. Charles V
1523 Vives wrote On Education of Christian Women.
1523 English forces raided Scotland. Henry VIII
1523.7.1 Brussels burned 2 Augustinian monks. Lutheran Reforms Netherlands
1523.7 Zwingli wrote to Diet at Bern defending dogma.
1523.8.1 Parlement imprisoned Berquin for heresy. François
1523.8.6 Parlement sequestered Bourbon’s lands. François
1523.8 Zwingli wrote a treatise on education.
1523.8 Adrian VI, Charles V & Henry VIII allied.Italian Wars, Popes
1523.9 Guelder forces raided Friesland. Netherlands
1523.9.19 English army marched on Paris. François
1523.9.24 Albany came to Scotland with 4,000 men.
1523.9.29 Zurich ordered schools reformed. Zwingli
1523.12 Thomas More published his Answer to Luther. Henry VIII
1523-24 Luther wrote hymns for Germans. Lutheran Reforms
1523, 1527 Observants helped the sick at Camerino. Popes
1523-33 Frederik ruled Denmark and Norway. Denmark
1523-34 Clement VII ruled the Papal States. Italian Wars
1523-60 Gustav Vasa ruled Sweden.
1524.1 Queen of Aragon ordered arrests and executions. Charles V
1524.2.24 Spaniards captured François at Pavia. Charles V
1524.3 Jan Laski allied Danzig with Denmark. Zygmunt I
1524.3.24 Spain regained Fuenterrabia from France. Charles V
1524.4.2 Zwingli was married in public.
1524.4.8 Five Swiss states formed a Catholic League. Zwingli
1524.5.15 Swiss began destroying images in churches. Zwingli
1524.5 Norby gave Götland to Denmark. Gustav Vasa
1524.6.15 Zurich Council ordered images removed. Zwingli
1524 Lutherans governed Danzig City Council. Zygmunt I
1524 Suleiman’s Turks invaded Little Poland. Zygmunt I
1524 Frederick freed Swedish women. Denmark
1524 Spain formed Council of the Indies. Charles V
1524 Vives wrote Introduction to Wisdom.
1524 Charles Bourbon joined Charles V at Milan. Italian Wars
1524 Carafa and Gaetano founded ascetic Theatines. Paul IV
1524 Aretino’s “Lewd Sonnets” scandalized Rome.
1524.7.1 Bourbon led imperial invasion of Provence. François
1524.7 Luther warned Saxony princes about rebels. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.7.19 Peasants’ Rebellion began in the Black Forest.
1524.8.7 Müntzer fled to the imperial city of Mühlhausen. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.8.12 François made his mother Louise regent.
1524.8.24 Hans Müller organized Stühlingen peasants. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.8-9 Imperial forces invaded Provence. Charles V
1524.9.5 Anabaptists urged Müntzer to be nonviolent.
1524.9 Müntzer produced “Eleven Mühlhausen Articles.” Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.9 Erasmus wrote A Discourse on Free Will. Luther
1524.9.18 Friedrich of Saxony banished Karlstadt. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.9.29 Imperial army retreated from Marseilles. François
1524.10 Melanchthon organized a new high school. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.10 Zwingli banned indulgences, pilgrimages, etc.
1524.10 French forces took over Milan. Popes François
1524.10.24 Müller led peasants to Waldshut. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.11.6 French army led by François besieged Pavia. Italian Wars
1524.11-12 Zurich closed convents & regulated monasteries. Zwingli
1525.1.15 Zurich helped poor and banned begging. Zwingli
1525.1 Pope Clement VII allied with France and Venice.
1525.1.17 Zwingli favored infant baptism in Zurich debate. Anabaptists
1525.1.21 Conrad Grebel baptized the priest Blaurock. Anabaptists
1525.2.8 Mantz and Blaurock stayed in Zurich prison. Anabaptists
1525.2.9 Ulrich Schmid led 10,000 peasants in Ried. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.2.24 5,000 Swiss soldiers died in battle at Pavia. Zwingli
1525.2.24 Imperial army captured François at Pavia. Italian Wars
1525.3.6 Swabian peasants agreed to “12 Articles.” Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.3.7 Zurich made drowning the penalty for rebaptizing. Zwingli
1525.3 35,000 peasants were armed in Upper Swabia. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.3 Zwingli published On the True and False Religion. Zwingli
1525.3.17 Mühlhausen elected Eternal League of God. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.3.27 Peasants attacked Rothenburg cathedral. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4.4 Swabian League defeated peasants near Ulm. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4.10 Grand Master took Prussia into Poland. Zygmunt I
1525.4.11 People of Bamberg rebelled against their bishop. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4.15 Black Host stormed castle in Weinsberg. Peasants’ Rebellion
1524.4 Luther wrote his “Admonition to Peace.” Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4.25 6,000 peasants took over Stuttgart. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4.28 20,000 peasants attacked Zabern. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.4-5 Frederik’s army defeated Götland resistance. Denmark
1525.5.3 Philip of Hesse’s army defeated Fulda peasants. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.3 Peasants in Zurich began fishing and hunting. Zwingli
1525.5.5 Friedrich III of Saxony died. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.5.15 Müntzer led 8,000 peasants who were defeated. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.5 Luther advised nobles to fight peasants. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.5 Zurich expelled prostitutes, ended concubinage. Zwingli
1525.5.25 Mühlhausen surrendered. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.5-6 Swiss debated religion and politics at Baden. Zwingli
1525.6.7 Truchsess defeated peasants at Sulzdorf. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.6.13 Luther married Katherina von Bora.
1525.6.20 Rothenberg fell and was captured. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.6.28 Swiss Diet excluded Zurich and others. Zwingli
1525 Castelberger organized Swiss Brethren. Anabaptists
1525 Lutheran Hohenzollern secularized Ducal Prussia. Zygmunt I
1525 Utrecht guilds revolted. Netherlands
1525 Machiavelli’s Clizia was performed. Italian Comedies
1525 Nostradamus began practicing medicine.
1525 English Parliament taxed incomes & property. Henry VIII
1525.8.30 France and England made a treaty. François Henry VIII
1525.9.15 Priest Pistorius was burned at The Hague. Netherlands
1525.9 Luther wrote to Henry VIII, offered to recant. English Reformation
1525.9.23 Toledo Inquisition condemned Illuminism. Charles V
1525.11.6 Zwingli debated Anabaptists in Zurich.
1525.11.13 Black Forest peasants surrendered. Peasants’ Rebellion
1525.12 Luther published The Bondage of the Will.
1525.12.24 Barnes criticized celebration of holy days. English Reformation
1526.1.14 François gave up claims to Milan, etc. Charles V Italian Wars
1526.2 Wolsey had Barnes and other reformers arrested. English Reformation
1526.3.17 Charles V released François. Italian Wars
1526.3.10 Charles V married his cousin Isabella of Portugal.
1526.3.10 Isabella’s dowry gave Charles V 900,000 ducats. Portugal
1526.3.12 Geneva allied with Bern and Fribourg.
1526.3 Tyndale published the New Testament in English. English Reformation
1526.3.21 18 Anabaptists given life in prison escaped.
1526.4 Diet gave Queen Mary power in Hungary.
1526.4 80,000 Turks invaded Hungary again.
1526.4.17 Two sons replaced François as hostages. Charles V
1526.5.4 Nobles formed the Gotha Alliance at Torgau.Luther
1526.5 Gaismaier led peasants’ siege of Radstadt. Peasants’ Rebellion
1526.5.16 France renounced imposed treaty with Spain. Charles V
1526.5.23 France, Pope, and Italy allied. Charles V Italian Wars François
1526.6.14 King James V began ruling Scotland.
1526 Fugger had 2,000,000 florins. Luther
1526 Poland annexed Mazovia. Zygmunt I
1526 Poland introduced Zloty coins. Zygmunt I
1526 Copernicus wrote a treatise on money reform. Zygmunt I
1526 Denmark’s Frederik favored Lutherans.
1526 Olaus Petri published Useful Instruction. Gustav Vasa
1526 Riksdag gave bishops’ property to the King. Gustav Vasa
1526 Miguel de Eguia published humanist books. Charles V
1526 Vives wrote On the Relief of the Poor.
1526 Lower classes in Tournai revolted. Netherlands
1526 English New Testament came to Scotland.
1526.8.27 Imperial Diet of Speyer formed a general council. Luther
1526.8.29 Ottoman Turks defeated Hungarians. Austria Hungary
1526.9.4 Lennox was killed trying to free James V. Scotland
1526.9.10 Turks occupied Buda. Hungary
1526.9.20 Colonnas raided the Vatican.Italian Wars
1526.10 Turks took 100,000 captives from Hungary.
1526.10.24 Diet elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia. Austria Hungary Bohemia
1526.11.19 Zurich enacted death penalty for rebaptism. Anabaptists
1526.12.17 Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary. Austria Hungary
1527.1.5 Anabaptist Mantz was executed in Zurich. Zwingli
1527.1 Ferdinand was elected King of Croatia. Austria
1527.1.30 Marguerite married Henri of Navarre. François
1527.2 Sattler wrote the Schleitheim Confession. Anabaptists
1527.3.16 Basel appointed Paracelsus city physician. Geneva
1527.4.30 France and England allied against Charles V. Henry VIII
1527.5.6 Bourbon was killed attacking Rome. Charles V Italian Wars
1527.5 Duke of Lorraine killed 20,000 peasants in Elsass. Peasants’ Rebellion
1527.5 Austria, Brandenburg, and Bavaria allied. Luther
1527.5 Sattler was burned to death for heresy. Anabaptists
1527.5 Imperial forces plundered Rome. Charles V Italian Wars Clement VII
1527.5 François confiscated Bourbon’s property.
1527.5 Henry VIII asked Pope Clement VII for a divorce.
1527.6-12 Pope Clement VII was imprisoned in Rome. Charles V Italian Wars
1527 Burkard Waldis wrote a defense of Lutherans. Luther
1527 Zwingli wrote Tricks of the Catabaptists.
1527 Balthasar Hubmaier wrote On the Sword. Anabaptists
1527 Thirty-two theologians examined Erasmian ideas. Charles V
1527 French army attacked Genoa and Milan. Charles V
1527.7 Luther’s health began to decline.
1527.7.24 François began acting as supreme judge.
1527.8.12 Baron de Semblançay was hanged for corruption. François
1527.8.18 François & Wolsey signed a treaty at Amiens.
1527.8.20 Frederik proclaimed religious tolerance. Denmark
1527.9.27 Austrians defeated Hungarians at Tarcal. Hungary
1527-28 30,000 Florentines died of plague. Italian Wars
1527-29 Aemiliani led plague workers at Verona, etc. Clement VII
1528.1 Zwingli and Bullinger debated religion at Bern.
1528.1 Zurich and Bern formed Christian Civic Union. Zwingli
1528.1.22 France and England declared war on Charles V. François
1528.1.28 Reformers seized St. Gall Abbey.Zwingli
1528.2.7 Bern passed reforms, ended mass & images. Zwingli Geneva
1528.2.8 800 men demanded Basel end masses. Zwingli
1528.2.9 Basel Council ended mass and removed images. Zwingli
1528.2.9 French army invaded Naples. François
1528.2.15 Paracelsus left Basel to avoid arrest. Geneva
1528.2.17 Imperial soldiers withdrew from Rome. Italian Wars
1528.3.9 Philip of Hesse and Saxony raised 26,000 men. Luther
1528.3.10 Hubmaier was burned to death for heresy. Anabaptists
1528.4.16 Imperial Council ordered peace maintained. Luther
1528 Saxony banned Zwinglian and Anabaptist books. Luther
1528 Luther wrote on tricks of beggars.
1528 Luther’s books were burned in Lübeck.
1528 Anabaptist refugees were arrested in Swabia.
1528 Olaus Petri translated Luther’s Book of Sermons. Gustav Vasa
1528 Frederik and Gustav allied against Kristian II. Norway
1528 Valdes brothers promoted ideas of Erasmus. Charles V
1528 21,000 French died during siege of Naples. Italian Wars
1528 Tyndale wrote Parable of the Wicked Mammon. English Reformation
1528.7.3 Pope Clement VII approved Capuchin reforms.
1528.7.4 Genoese Andrea Doria defected to Charles V.
1528.9.12 Andrea Doria liberated Genoa. François
1528.10 Pope Clement VII returned to Rome.
1528.10 Tyndale published Obedience of a Christian Man. English Reformation
1528.10.21 Utrecht Estates accepted Charles V. Netherlands
1529.1 Florence elected Michelangelo militia magistrate. Italian Wars
1529.3-4 Diet of Speyer condemned Lutherans. Charles V
1529.4 Luther wrote in favor of resisting the Turks.
1529.4 Diet of Speyer ordered all Anabaptists executed. Anabaptists
1529.4.18 Parlement had Lutheran Berquin burned. François
1529.4.22 Five cantons formed defensive Christian Alliance. Zwingli
1529.4.22 Portugal and Spain signed a treaty.
1529.5 Diet of Speyer authorized army of 20,000. Hungary
1529.5 Angus fled from Scotland to England.
1529.6.2 Blaurock was burned at the stake in Innsbruck. Anabaptists
1529.6 Swiss civil war began and ended by mediation. Zwingli
1529.6 Clement VII supported Charles V against Turks.
1529.6.21 Imperial army beat French at Landriano. Italian Wars François
1529.6.29 Charles V made a treaty with Pope Clement VII.
1529 Erasmus published “Charon” satire. Zwingli
1529 Second Speyer Diet rescinded the first. Luther
1529 Zurich Bible was published in German. Zwingli
1529 Four Swiss cities joined the Christian Civic Union. Zwingli
1529 Sweden’s army put down peasant rebellion. Gustav Vasa
1529 Ten Castile ports began trading with America. Charles V
1529 Clement VII appointed 24 new bishops in Naples.
1529 Tyndale compared Pope to Christ in Antithesis. English Reformation
1529 Supplication of the Beggars came to England. English Reformation
1529 More published his Dialog Concerning Heresies. English Reformation
1529.8.3 Treaty at Cambrai was signed. Austria Charles V Italian Wars François
1529.9-10 120,000 Turks besieged Vienna. Austria Hungary
1529.9.25 François imposed a tax on wine.
1529.9.29 First Lithuanian Statute was published. Zygmunt I
1529.10.9 Wolsey was charged with praemunire.
1529.10 Luther demonized Zwingli and Oecolampadius.
1529.10 Henry VIII replaced Wolsey with More.
1529.10.24 Imperial and Papal armies besieged Florence. Italian Wars
1529.12.23 Clement made peace with Venice & Sforza. Italian Wars
1529-31 Swiss Brethren and Anabaptists refused to fight.
1529-36 English Parliament legislated major reforms. English Reformation
1530.1 Luther wrote On Marriage Matters.
1530.2 Warham and Fisher burned Hitton for heresy. Henry VIII
1530.2.24 Clement VII crowned Emperor Charles V. Luther
1530.4.8 Charles V began Diet at Augsburg.Luther
1530.6 Melanchthon wrote Augsburg Confession. Luther
1530.6.29 Pope and Emperor agreed to an eternal alliance. Luther
1530 Lübeck banned Catholic services. Luther
1530 Lefevre d’Etaples published the Bible in French. Geneva
1530 Jewish Tribunal began in Lublin, Poland. Zygmunt I
1530 Gustav Vasa taxed church bells.
1530 Joao III established captaincies in Brazil. Portugal
1530 Tyndale translated the Torah into English. English Reformation
1530 English Church condemned Anabaptists’ book.English Reformation
1530.7.1 Hostages François and Henri were exchanged. François
1530.7.3 Diet of Augsburg receivedZwingli’s Fideo Ratio.
1530.7 Bucer wrote alternative confession. Luther
1530.8.7 François married Charles V’s sister Eleanor.
1530.8.10 Florence surrendered to imperial forces. Italian Wars
1530.8 Charles V approved Catholic Confutation. Luther
1530.9.22 Melanchthon revised the Augsburg Confession.Luther
1530.12.1 Latimer asked Henry VIII to allow the Bible. English Reformation
1530.12.26 Charles V gave Malta to Knights of St. John. Felipe II
1530.10.29 Nine cantons mediated peace for Geneva and Savoy.
1530.11.18 Zurich, Basel, Strasbourg & Hesse formed a pact. Zwingli
1530-35 Melchiorite Anabaptism spread in Low Countries.
1531.1.1 Aristophanes’ Plutus played in Zurich with music.Zwingli
1531.1.5 Ferdinand was elected King of the Romans. Luther Austria
1531.1 Thomas Cromwell joined the Privy Council. English Reformation
1531.1.24 Canterbury convocation gave Henry £100,000. English Reformation
1531.2.27 Protestants formed the Schmalkaldic League. Luther Austria
1531.5.15 Reformed cities asked Catholics to allow freedom. Zwingli
1531.5.16 Chancellor Thomas More resigned. English Reformation
1531.5.25 Ferdinand married Anna of Bohemia & Hungary. Austria
1531 Sebastian Franck published a universal history. Luther
1531 Kristian II and Dutch ships invaded Norway. Denmark Norway
1531 Inquisition condemned Erasmian writings. Charles V
1531 Vives published On Education.
1531 Charles V imposed laws in the Low Countries. Netherlands
1531 Aumon Générale helped the poor in Lyon. François
1531 Marguerite wrote The Mirror of the Sinful Soul.
1531 Tyndale published his Answer to More’s Dialog. English Reformation
1531 More wrote Confutation of Tyndale’s Answer. English Reformation
1531 Frith published his Disputation of Purgatory. English Reformation
1531 St. Germain published Doctor and Student. English Reformation
1531 Thomas Elyot wrote his Book of the Governor.
1531 Deputy Skeffington pacified Ulster. Ireland
1531.7 Servetus published On the Errors of the Trinity.
1531.7 Scotland & the Netherlands made a trade treaty.
1531.8.22 Polish army defeated Moldavians at Obertyn. Zygmunt I
1531.9.13 Clement VII had Scotland’s church fund James V.
1531.9.26 Five Swiss states went to war against Zurich. Zwingli
1531.10.11 500 and Zwingli were killed in battle.
1531.10.24 About 600 Protestants were killed near Zug. Zwingli
1531.11 Zurich and Bern capitulated on terms. Zwingli
1531.11 Barnes published his Supplication in Antwerp. English Reformation
1531.12.4 Rhys ap Gruffydd was executed in Wales.
1531.12.9 Heinrich Bullinger succeeded Zwingli. Calvinism
1531-55 Mary of Hungary ruled the Netherlands. Charles V Netherlands
1532.4 Florence accepted an aristocratic constitution. Italian Wars
1532.5 Charles V accepted the Peace of Nuremberg.
1532 Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas in Peru. Charles V
1532 Ariosto called Aretino “the Scourge of Princes.”
1532 St. Germain favored division of Church & State. English Reformation
1532.7.1 Frederik broke promise, imprisoned Kristian II. Denmark
1532.8.2 Peace of Nuremberg went into effect. Luther
1532.8.5 Bread riots broke out in Brussels. Netherlands
1532.11 3,000 Scots invaded Northumberland. Northern England
1532.12.12 2,000 English soldiers burned Douglas. Northern England
1532-59 Kristian II was imprisoned. Denmark
1533.1 Henry VIII married pregnant Anne Boleyn. English Reformation
1533.5.13 Theologians accused Roussel of heresy. François
1533.5 England and Scotland agreed on a truce. Northern England
1533.5 Irish Parliament passed a 3-year subsidy. Northern England
1533 Erasmus wrote On Mending the Peace. Luther
1533 Poland made “eternal” peace with Turks. Zygmunt I
1533 Copernicus presented heliocentric theory to Pope. Zygmunt I
1533 Norwegian Council elected Kristian III king. Norway
1533 Handbook of a Christian Knight was printed. English Reformation
1533 John Heywood published several comedies. English Theater
1533.7.4 Frith was burned for heresy. English Reformation
1533.7 Barbarossa released French prisoners. François
1533.8.5 Aragon Cortes complained about the Inquisition. Charles V
1533.9.7 Queen Anne gave birth to Elizabeth. English Reformation
1533.10 U. of Paris banned “Mirror of the Sinful Soul.” François
1533.10.28 Duke Henri married Caterina de’ Medici. François
1533.11.7 Pope Clement VII created 4 French cardinals. François
1533.11.10 Pope Clement VII proscribed French Lutherans. François
1533.11 Parlement began arresting Protestants. François
1533-53 Cranmer was Archbishop of Canterbury. English Reformation
1534.2 Gustav Vasa made a pact with Danish Council.
1534.3.1 Farel held first Protestant service in Geneva. Geneva
1534.3 Wilno (Vilnius) declared war on Moscow. Zygmunt I
1534.4 Ignatius earned his M.A. at Paris.
1534.4.20 Elizabeth Barton + 4 were hanged at Tyburn. English Reformation
1534.5.12 Philip of Hesse defeated the Austrian army. Luther
1534.5.26 Jean Calvin was arrested in Paris. Geneva
1534.6.4 Kristian III was elected King of Denmark.
1534.6.11 Thomas led Irish rebellion against Henry VIII. Ireland
1534 Luther published the Bible in German.
1534 Ferdinand granted Bohemians right to mine lands. Bohemia
1534 Falimierz published a medical dictionary in Polish. Zygmunt I
1534 Shah Bahadur made peace with Portugal.
1534 More wrote Dialogue of Comfort in the Tower. English Reformation
1534 Defender of Peace was printed in English. Henry VIII
1534 Elyot wrote The Defense of Good Women.
1534.7.1 France decided to raise 42,000 soldiers. François
1534.7.24 Cartier claimed the St. Lawrence for France. François
1534.8 Turkish fleet took over Tunis. Charles V
1534.10 Skeffington & 2,300 soldiers arrived in Ireland.
1534.10.18 Protestant placards appeared in Paris. François
1534.11 Several people were burned in Paris. François
1534.12 Denmark’s army crushed peasant resistance.
1534.12.18 Parliament made King head of England’s Church. English Reformation
1534-49 Pope Paul III supported Charles V.
1534-53 Rabelais wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel.
1534-59 Kristian III ruled Lutheran Denmark.
1535.1.30 Charles V received treasure from Peru.
1535.1-2 François banned printing.
1535.5 Farel won 4-week debate in Geneva.
1535.6 Danes and Swedes defeated Hanseatic forces. Gustav Vasa
1535.6 Bible from Hebrew was published in French. François
1535.6-7 John Fisher and Thomas More were beheaded. Henry VIII
1535 Hanseatic League confirmed Lutheran Catechism. Luther
1535 Hutterites were persecuted in Moravia. Austria
1535 Vives wrote Spiritual Exercises for the Mind.
1535 Charles V decreed death to all heretics. Netherlands
1535 29 women founded the Ursulines in Brescia. Paul III
1535 Henry VIII made Barnes royal chaplain. English Reformation
1535 Gardiner wrote De Vera Obedientia. Henry VIII
1535.7 Anabaptists were besieged in Münster. Luther
1535.7 Imperial forces recaptured Tunis. Charles V
1535.7 Joachim II made Brandenburg Lutheran. Luther
1535.7.16 François released most religious prisoners.
1535.10 Protestants defeated Savoyards. Geneva
1535.10.24 Milan’s Duke Francesco Sforza died. Italian Wars François
1535.11.2 Charles V took over Milan. Italian Wars François
1535.12 Batenburgers attacked Hazerswoude. Italian Wars
1535.12.27 Geneva declared war on Savoy.
1536.1.7 Catherine of Aragon died in England. Charles V
1536.1.24 Henry VIII suffered a concussion jousting.
1536.1.29 Queen Anne had a miscarriage. Henry VIII
1536.2 Kristian III made a treaty with Lübeck. Gustav Vasa
1536.2 Henry VIII reorganized Wales’ government.
1536.2.25 Hutter was burned at the stake. Austria
1536.2.28 Geneva enacted ordinances on dress & behavior.
1536.2-3 French forces invaded and conquered Savoy. François
1536.4.15 John Knox was ordained a priest. Scotland
1536.5 Henry VIII became head of the Irish Church. Ireland
1536.5.19 Queen Anne was beheaded for treason. Henry VIII
1536.5.30 Henry VIII married Jane Seymour.
1536.6.2 Pope Paul III declared Lutherans heretics. Charles V
1536 Luther proposed Schmalkaldic Articles.
1536 Paracelsus wrote Books of the Greater Surgery. Geneva
1536 First Helvetic Confession used Zwingli’s ideas. Calvinism
1536 Gustav Vasa approved Swedish mass & reforms.
1536 Inquisition began in Portugal.
1536 Imperial war against France resumed. Netherlands
1536 Tyndale was burned to death near Brussels.English Reformation
1536 Parliament transferred Church property to King. Henry VIII
1536.7.11 Henry VIII approved Ten Articles that Fox wrote. Henry VIII
1536.7.12 Erasmus died; Jan Laski got his library. Luther Zygmunt II
1536.7 Kristian III promised a general amnesty. Denmark
1536.7.23 Henry Fitzroy died of illness. Henry VIII
1536.7.25 Charles V led the invasion of Provence. François
1536.8.6 Johann Friedrich of Saxony banned Jews. Luther
1536.8.12 Kristian III took over bishops’ property. Denmark
1536.10.1 Tax revolt began in Lincolnshire. Northern England
1536.10.12 Suffolk’s army put down a tax revolt. Northern England
1536.10.24 30,000 rebels gathered at Doncaster. Northern England
1536.11.2 Teresa of Avila became a Carmelite nun.
1536.12.8 Rebel “pilgrims” agreed to disperse. Northern England
1536-37 Fuggers loaned Charles V 200,000 ducats. Austria
1536-37 Turks invaded eastern Slavonia. Hungary
1536-38 Calvin wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. Geneva
1536-39 French forces occupied Piedmont. François
1537.1.1 James V married Princess Madeleine. Scotland
1537.1.15 François reclaimed Flanders, Artois & Charolais.
1537.1.16 Geneva Council ordered morals reformed.
1537.1.18 Augsburg Council banned Catholic worship. Luther
1537.2.3 Thomas, Earl of Kildare, was hanged at Tyburn. Ireland
1537.2.10 Schmalkalden conference rejected Luther’s ideas.
1537.2.17 Five-year armistice ended Lithuanian-Moscow war. Zygmunt I
1537.6.24 Ignatius, Xavier & 4 others were ordained.
1537 Sweden made a treaty with Russia. Gustav Vasa
1537 Pope Paul III prohibited enslaving natives. Charles V
1537 Aretino’s La Cortigiana was performed in Venice.
1537 216 rebels were executed in northern England. Northern England
1537 Irish Parliament began closing monasteries. Ireland
1537.7 Henry VIII approved “Bishop’s Book.”
1537.8.1 Latin & English Bibles were put in churches. Henry VIII
1537.8 Turks’ invasion of Corfu failed. Venice
1537.10.12 Queen Jane gave birth to Edward. Henry VIII
1537.10.15 Council met in York. Northern England
1537-59 Kristian III ruled Norway. Denmark
1537-74 Cosimo de’ Medici governed Florence. Italian Wars
1538.2.8 Charles V & Paul III allied against Turks.
1538.2.24 Ferdinand and Janos Zapolya divided Hungary.
1538.3 Luther wrote Against the Sabbatarians.
1538.5.18 Marie of Guise married James V by proxy. François
1538.6.10 Catholic princes formed the Holy League. Luther Austria Popes
1538.6.12 Scotland’s James V married Mary of Guise.
1538.6.18 Charles V & François agreed to a truce. Italian Wars
1538 Kristian III imposed Lutheran laws on Iceland.
1538 Vives wrote On the Soul and Life.
1538 Unpaid Spanish soldiers mutinied in Sicily.
1538 Elyot published a good Latin-English Dictionary.
1538.7 Cambridgeshire shoemakers formed a union. Henry VIII
1538.9 Bale’s King John was performed at Canterbury. English Theater
1538.10.23 François & Regent Mary made a treaty.
1538.11.22 Henry VIII banished Anabaptists.
1538.12.17 Pope Paul III ordered Henry VIII punished.
1538-39 Polish Parliament gained more rights. Zygmunt I
1538-41 Jean Calvin preached in Strasbourg. Geneva
1539.1 Vitoria lectured on the rights of natives.
1539.3 Luther wrote On the Councils and the Churches.
1539.4 Lyon strike provoked ban on confraternities. François
1539.4.19 Catholics and Protestants agreed to a truce. Luther
1539.4.19 Unitarian Weiglowa was burned in Krakow. Zygmunt I
1539.6.19 Vitoria lectured “On the Law of War.”
1539.6.24 Ignatius issued Formula for the Society of Jesus.
1539 First Hungarian-Latin dictionary was published. Hungary
1539 Mikael Agricola wrote A Biblical Prayer Book. Gustav Vasa
1539 Servetus became a doctor of medicine.
1539 27 Davidites were executed in Delft. Anabaptists
1539 Menno wrote Foundation of Christian Doctrine. Anabaptists
1539 Perugia refused to pay papal salt tax. Paul III
1539.8.10 Ordinance reformed the French judiciary. François
1539-47 Henry VIII raised £750,000 selling land.
1540.2 Charles V punished rebels in Ghent. Netherlands
1540.2-7 Perugians rebelled against Pope Paul III.
1540.3.4 Philip of Hesse took a second wife. Luther
1540.5.4 Charles V changed Ghent’s constitution.
1540.6.1 French parlements got jurisdiction over heresy. François
1540 New Testament was printed in Danish. Denmark
1540 Spanish law made vagrants work without pay. Charles V
1540 Jesuits came to Portugal.
1540 All but one of English monasteries were closed. Henry VIII
1540 Lyndsay’s Pleasant Satire played at James’ court. Scotland
1540.7.12 Henry VIII’s marriage to Anna was annulled.
1540.7.28 Thomas Cromwell was beheaded for treason.
1540.7.28 Henry VIII married Katherine Howard.
1540.7.30 Barnes was burned for opposing Six Articles. English Reformation
1540.8 Jean Calvin married a widow. Geneva
1540.8.16 James Hamilton was executed for corruption. Scotland
1540.9.27 Pope Paul III confirmed the Society of Jesus. Ignatius
1540.10.11 Charles V made his son Felipe Duke of Milan. François
1540.10 Venice made a treaty with Turks.
1540-41 Peter Ridemann wrote Account of Our Religion. Austria
1540-56 St. Leger tried to govern Ireland peacefully.
1541.4.7 Xavier left Lisbon as the first Jesuit missionary. Ignatius
1541.6.1 François imposed a new tax on salt.
1541.6.19 Irish Parliament made Henry VIII King of Ireland.
1541 Calvin translated his Institutes into French. Geneva
1541 Denmark and Sweden made a treaty.
1541 First Bible in Swedish was published. Gustav Vasa
1541 Florian de Ocampo published Cronica de España. Charles V
1541 Colonna family went into exile in Naples. Paul III
1541.7 Diet extended Nuremberg peace for 18 months. Luther
1541.8 Ottoman army captured Buda & eastern Hungary.
1541.9.13 People welcomed Calvin back to Geneva.
1541.9.15 Gustav Vasa and Kristian III signed a treaty.
1541.10.18 Scotland’s Queen mother Margaret died. Scotland
1541.11.20 Geneva Council adopted Ecclesiastical Ordinances.
1541-47 Michelangelo painted “Last Judgment.” Paul III
1541-50 Bishop Arason opposed Lutherans in Iceland.
1541-61 Bishop Hans Tausen encouraged Bible study. Denmark
1542.2.1 Katherine Howard was beheaded for adultery. Henry VIII
1542.2 Diet of Regensburg prepared for war on Turks. Luther
1542.3 Zygmunt I renewed Moscow peace for 7 years.
1542 Moritz of Saxony went over to Charles V. Austria
1542 German army of 55,000 failed to regain Buda. Hungary
1542 Bohemia began collecting income tax.
1542 Spanish law protected natives. Vitoria
1542 Lippomini began first Jesuit college at Padua. Ignatius
1542 Pope Paul III revived the Inquisition.
1542 26 men from Wales entered Parliament.
1542.7.4 Imperial forces murdered 2 French envoys. François
1542.7.12 François declared war on Charles V.
1542.8.24 2,000 Scots defeated 3,000 English. Scotland
1542.10.22 English invaded Scotland and burned villages. Henry VIII
1542.11.24 3,000 English defeated 15,000 Scots. Scotland
1542.12.8 Mary Stuart was born in Scotland.
1542.12.14 Scotland’s James V died of fever.
1542-45 Chancellor Poyet was imprisoned for corruption. François
1542-46 War with England cost France 3 million livres. François
1542-46 War with France cost England £2,200,000. Henry VIII
1543.1.3 Earl of Arran began governing Scotland.
1543.1 Geneva adopted a new code of morals.
1543.1.27 Chancellor Cardinal Beaton was arrested. Scotland
1543.2.11 Henry VIII and Charles V allied against France.
1543.3 Scotland distributed English Bibles.
1543.3.20 Swedish army defeated Dacke’s rebellion. Gustav Vasa
1543.5 Charles V wrote “Secret Instruction” for Felipe.
1543.5.24 Copernicus saw his printed book and died. Zygmunt I
1543.5.29 Henry VIII’s “King’s Book” was published.
1543.6.22 Charles V & Henry VIII declared war on France. François
1543 Luther wrote On the Jews and Their Lies.
1543 Ferdinand made a treaty with Poland. Austria
1543 Mikolaj Rej published a satire of the clergy. Zygmunt II
1543 Florence banned new constitutions. Guicciardini
1543.7.12 Henry VIII married Protestant Katherine Parr.
1543.7 Paris faculty banned 65 books. François
1543.9.9 Infant Mary was crowned Queen of Scotland.
1543.9 Charles V annexed Guelderland to empire. Netherlands
1543.9.22 Barbarossa’s fleet captured Nice & held Toulon. François
1543.11.12 Felipe married his cousin Maria Manuela.
1543.12.11 Scotland allied with France against England.
1543-44 English raided Scotland & burned 124 villages. Henry VIII
1543-45 2,000 people died from a plague in Geneva.
1543-56 Felipe ruled Spain as Regent.
1544.1 Cardinal Beaton became a papal legate. Scotland
1544.4 Charles V raised troops at the Diet of Speyer.
1544.4 Scotland’s forces besieged Glasgow.
1544.5.4 16,000 English burned Edinburgh. Henry VIII
1544.5 Henry VIII devalued the currency.
1544.6.10 Charles V made concessions at Diet of Speyer. Luther
1544.6 Mary of Guise began governing Scotland.
1544 University of Konigsberg began. Luther
1544 Kristian III divided Holstein for his 3 brothers. Denmark
1544 Riksdag declared Sweden evangelical. Gustav Vasa
1544 Treaty opened Norway’s trade with Amsterdam.
1544.8 Lennox led attacks on Scotland for Henry VIII.
1544.9.14 England’s army captured Boulogne. François Henry VIII
1544.9.18 Charles V made Peace of Crépy with France. François
1544.9.18 François gave up Savoy & Piedmont to Charles V.
1544.11 Two separate parliaments met in Scotland.
1544-73 Otto Truchsess was Bishop of Augsburg. Luther
1544-56 Elector Friedrich II allowed Protestants liberty. Luther
1545.2.7 Scots led by Angus beat the English at Ancrum. Scotland
1545.2.27 Scots defeated the English near Jedburgh. Henry VIII
1545.5 36,000 English landed at the Firth of Clyde. Scotland
1545.6 French troops aided Scots but were resented. Scotland
1545 Luther wrote Against the Papacy of Rome.
1545 Ferdinand paid for an armistice with the Turks. Austria
1545 Pope Paul III summoned a Council at Trent. Austria
1545 Inquisition devised Spanish Index to ban books. Felipe II
1545 Aix executed 255 Vaudois for heresy. François
1545.7.16 Anne Askew + 2 were burned at Smithfield. Henry VIII
1545.9.9 Duke Charles of Orléans died in a plague. François
1545.12.13 Council of Trent began meeting. Charles V Paul III
1545-84 Ivan IV ruled Russia.
1546.1.7 4,000 French defeated 2,000 English. Henry VIII
1546.2.18 Martin Luther died of a stroke.
1546.3.1 Zwinglian Wishart was burned in Scotland.
1546.5 Charles V organized his imperial army. Germany
1546.5.29 English agents murdered Cardinal Beaton. Scotland
1545.6.7 Charles V made a treaty with Pope Paul III. Germany
1545.6.7 France and England signed a peace treaty. Henry VIII
1546.6.13 Protestants rejected Council of Trent. Germany
1546 Fugger had 5,000,000 florins. Luther
1546 Fuggers supported Charles V’s army. Germany
1546 Imperial & papal forces subdued Germany. Charles V Paul III
1546 Pope Paul III recognized the Ursulines.
1546 France gave pensions to Scottish earls. Scotland
1546.8.3 Dolet was burned as a relapsed heretic. François
1546.8 Protestants raised an army of 47,000 men. Germany
1547.1 England’s Council began debasing the currency. Edward VI
1547.1.19 Duke of Surrey was beheaded for treason. Henry VIII
1547.1-3 François I and Henry VIII died.Edward VI
1547.2 Duke of Somerset became Lord Protector. Edward VI
1547.3 Polanco became first Secretary of the Jesuits. Ignatius
1547.3 Council of Trent reformed multiple benefits. Paul III
1547.3.18 Prague Diet tried to limit monarchy in Bohemia.
1547.3.21 Council ratified Seymour as Protector. Edward VI
1547.4.24 Moritz defeated Lutherans at Mühlberg. Germany Austria Bohemia
1547.5.19 Wittenberg capitulated to the empire. Germany
1547.5.23 Protestants defeated imperialists at Drakenburg. Germany
1547.6.17 Suleiman and Charles V agreed to 5-year truce. Hungary
1547.6.20 Philip of Hesse submitted to the empire. Germany
1547 France’s Henri II opposed Charles V. Germany
1547 Hungarian peasants gained right to migrate. Hungary
1547 Mazvydas published first book in Lithuanian. Zygmunt I
1547 Church in Muscovy canonized 22 Russians. Ivan IV
1547 Naples revolted against Viceroy Toledo. Italian Wars
1547 Venice began its own Inquisition.
1547 Naples rejected the Inquisition.
1547.7.8 Prague capitulated to Ferdinand. Bohemia
1547.7.31 French captured St. Andrews Castle and Knox. Scotland
1547.9.10 Pope’s son Pier Luigi was murdered in Piacenza. Paul III
1547.9.10 English army defeated Scots, killing 10,000. Edward VI Scotland
1547.10.8 Ferdinand banned the Bohemian Brethren. Bohemia
1547.10.8 Parlement established a heresy tribunal. Henri II
1547.12 Parliament repealed heresy and treason laws. Edward VI
1547, 1563 Milanese rejected Spanish Inquisition. Italian Wars
1547-59 Henri II ruled France.
1548.3 Parliament passed Subsidy Act to help the poor. Edward VI
1548.4. Henri II appointed his wife Catherine regent.
1548.5.15 Charles V made Interim decree on religion. Germany Austria
1548.5 Angoumais peasants rejected new salt taxes. Henri II
1548.5-10 Peasant rebellion spread to Bordeaux. Henri II
1548.6.1 Protector Somerset declared enclosures illegal. Edward VI
1548.6 6,000 French soldiers invaded Scotland. Henri II
1548 Royal College began in Portugal.
1548 Spiritual Exercises by Ignatius were printed.
1548 Roger Ascham began tutoring Elizabeth.
1548.9 Cranmer published Book of Common Prayer. Edward VI
1548.11.6 France punished Bordeaux for rebelling. Henri II
1548.11.17 Parlement banned religious mystery plays. French Poetry
1548-49 Parliament allowed marriage of clergy. Edward VI
1548-72 Zygmunt II ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1549.2 English freed Knox from French galleys. Scotland
1549.3.20 Thomas Seymour was beheaded for corruption. Edward VI
1549.4 Charles V willed Low Countries to Felipe.
1549.5.5 200 artisans destroyed enclosures in Frome. Edward VI
1549.6-7 Rebels in Cornwall and southwest were quelled. Edward VI
1549.6-8 Rebels in Exeter were forced to disperse. Edward VI
1549 Calvin and Bullinger agreed to unite churches. Calvinism
1549 Archduke Ferdinand began governing Bohemia.
1549 Imperial Diet recognized Hapsburg Netherlands.
1549.7.2 Poland allied with Ferdinand and Charles V. Zygmunt II
1549.7.7 Play about Thomas Becket was performed. Edward VI
1549.8.8 Henri II declared war on England. Edward VI
1549.8.28 3,000 rebels were killed in Dussingdale. Edward VI
1549.9 Henri II replaced the salt tax with the quart tax.
1549.9 English evacuated Haddington in Scotland. Edward VI
1549.10 Protector Somerset was deposed. Edward VI
1549, 1574 Catholic universities began in Germany.
1549-51 Francisco Xavier proselytized Japan. Portugal
1549-56 Hapsburgs fought Turks in Hungary. Austria
1550.2 French diplomats made treaties with Irish lords. Ireland
1550.4.10 Duke of Somerset rejoined the Council. Edward VI
1550.4 Warwick licensed 2,340 retainers. Edward VI
1550.4.25 England sold Boulogne back to France. Henri II
1550.4.29 Felipe’s “Edict of Blood” punished Protestants. Charles V
1550.4.29 Pope Julius III ended protection of Lutherans.
1550.6.3 Burning of books in Rome began. Popes
1550 Sudebnik law code began in Russia. Ivan IV
1550 First Bible in Danish was published. Denmark
1550 Vasari published Lives of the Artists. Italian Literature
1550 Knox wrote his Vindication of the Doctrine. Scotland
1550.11.7 Bishop Jon Arason & his 2 sons were beheaded. Iceland
1550-53 William Cecil was Edward VI’s private secretary.
1551.2.12 Henri II declared war on Charles V.
1551.6.10 England and Scotland made a treaty.
1551 Socinus brought the Unitarian faith to Poland. Zygmunt II
1551 Hosius wrote Confessions of the Catholic Faith. Zygmunt II
1551 Turks raided the coasts of Sicily.
1551 Gresham helped English merchants in Antwerp. Edward VI
1551.7.19 Ferdinand gained Transylvania by a treaty. Hungary
1551.8 Charles V withdrew troops from Württemburg.
1551.9.3 Henri II banned sending church money to Rome.
1551.10.11 Warwick became Duke of Northumberland. Edward VI
1551.10 Henri II supported Protestant princes.
1551.10.16 Duke of Somerset was arrested for conspiracy. Edward VI
1551.11 Book of Common Prayer was printed in Ireland.
1551.11-12 Imperial army besieged Metz. Henri II
1552.1.15 German princes allied with Henri II. Austria Charles V
1552.1.22 Duke of Somerset was beheaded. Edward VI
1552.4.15 Pope Julius III and Henri II agreed on a truce. Italian Wars
1552.4.19 Charles V retreated from Innsbruck.
1552.5 Henri II reconciled with Pope Julius III.
1552 Poland ended executions for religious crimes. Zygmunt II
1552 Pope Julius III tried to protect Sienese rebels.
1552.7.27 Temesvar surrendered to the Turks. Hungary
1552.7.27 French expelled Spaniards from Siena. Italian Wars Henri II
1552.8.1 Charles V granted Lutherans toleration at Passau.
1552.8.2 Moritz of Saxony turned against Charles V. Germany
1552-59 Spain and France were at war. Netherlands
1552-62 Council of Trent did not meet. Popes
1553.1 Charles V lifted siege of Metz and went home. Germany
1553.1 Servetus published Restoration of Christianity.
1553.3 Heidelberg Union formed. Germany
1553.6 Turks and French attacked the Tuscan coast. Henri II
1553.6 Imperial forces captured Thérouanne. Henri II
1553 Jesuits ministered to the sick in Perugia. Ignatius
1553.7.6 Edward VI died of illness. Mary Tudor
1553.7 Jane Grey was Queen of England for 9 days. Mary Tudor
1553.7 Mary Tudor gained support and an army.
1553.7.19 Privy Council proclaimed Mary Tudor Queen of England.
1553.7.28 Poland made peace with the Turks. Zygmunt II
1553.8.18 Queen Mary I said she is Catholic but tolerant.
1553.8.22 Duke of Northumberland was executed. Mary Tudor
1553.9.12 Pope Julius III ordered Talmudic books burned.
1553.9.13 Protestant Latimer was arrested for preaching. Mary Tudor
1553.9 Parliament declared Mary Tudor rightful queen.
1553.10 Parliament repealed laws of Henry & Edward. Mary Tudor
1553.10.27 Servetus was burned for heresy in Geneva. Calvinism
1553.10.29 Mary I agreed to marry Felipe II.
1553.11.13 Jane, her relatives & Cranmer were convicted. Mary Tudor
1553.12.29 Ferdinand confirmed Treaty of Passau. Charles V
1553-55 Richard Chancellor opened trade with Russia. Mary Tudor
1554.1-2 Thomas Wyatt led rebellion against Mary Tudor.
1554.2 Wyatt and 100 others were executed. Mary Tudor
1554.4 English Parliament refused to revive heresy laws. Mary Tudor
1554.6-8 3 French armies invaded the Netherlands. Henri II
1554 Polish Calvinists formed a Synod. Zygmunt II
1554 Livonia made a 15-year treaty with Moscow. Zygmunt II
1554 Russians invaded Astrakhan. Ivan IV
1554Lazarillo de Tormes was published.
1554.7.10 Felipe II with much gold arrived in England. Mary Tudor
1554.7.25 Charles V made Felipe King of Naples.
1554.7.25 Felipe II married Queen Mary of England.
1554.8 Imperial army fought French over Siena. Italian Wars
1554.11 Parliament let Cardinal Pole enter England. Mary Tudor
1554, 1557 Crimeans invaded Muscovy. Ivan IV
1555.1 Parliament revived heresy laws and papal power. Mary Tudor
1555.4.17 Starving French troops left Siena. Henri II
1555.6 Pope Paul IV declared Ireland a kingdom.
1555 Charles V gave German lands to Ferdinand. Austria
1555 Moscow granted English trading privileges. Ivan IV
1555 Russians invaded Finland. Gustav Vasa
1555 Teresa read Augustine’s Confessions and awoke.
1555 French forces won victories in Italy. Henri II
1555 Nostradamus first published his Prophecies.
1555.7.14 Pope Julius III confiscated Jews’ property.
1555.9 Felipe II left England to go to the Netherlands. Mary Tudor
1555.9.25 Peace of Augsburg favored princes. Germany Austria Charles V
1555.10.16 Ridley and Latimer were burned at the stake. Mary Tudor
1555.10.25 Charles V abdicated in the Netherlands.
1555.12.15 France allied with Pope Paul IV. Henri II
1555-56 Russians attacked Swedes at Vyborg. Ivan IV
1555-57 Pope Paul IV opposed Spain. Italian Wars
1555-58 French tried to start a colony in Brazil. Henri II
1555-98 Felipe II ruled the Netherlands.
1556.1.15 Charles V abdicated in favor of Felipe II.
1556.1 Henri II ratified secret alliance with Pope Paul IV. Italian Wars
1556.2.5 Felipe II made 5-year truce with France. Henri II
1556.3.21 Cranmer was burned to death. Mary Tudor
1556.3.22 Cardinal Pole became Archbishop of Canterbury. Mary Tudor
1556.4 Ten traitors were executed, but Dudley escaped. Mary Tudor
1556 Nobles elected Janos II in Eastern Hungary. Austria
1556 Bona Sforza went to Italy with 430,000 ducats. Zygmunt II
1556 Russia annexed Astrakhan. Ivan IV
1556 War in Naples began. Paul IV
1556.7.31 Ignatius of Loyola died of a fever.
1556.8 Pope Paul IV excommunicated Colonna family. Italian Wars
1556.8.27 Ferdinand succeeded Charles V as Emperor. Austria
1556-58 Knox was in Geneva and knew Calvin. Scotland
1556-59 Isabella Jagellon ruled Transylvania. Zygmunt II
1556, 1564 Nostradamus advised Catherine de’ Medici.
1556-69 Canisius directed Jesuits in Trier. Germany
1556-98 Felipe II ruled Spain.
1557.1.1 Spain and the Netherlands declared bankruptcy. Felipe II
1557.2 Henri II asked Pope Paul IV for the Inquisition.
1557.4 Henri II exhausted French credit.
1557.6.7 England’s Mary Tudor declared war on France. Henri II
1557.6 Irish Parliament recognized Mary I as ruler. Ireland
1557 Colloquy of Worms debated religion. Germany
1557 Jorg Wickram wrote satire, The Golden Thread. Germany
1557 Gustav Vasa signed a peace treaty in Moscow.
1557 Spanish army took over Papal States. Paul IV
1557.8.10 Spain defeated French at Saint-Quentin. Austria Felipe II Henri II
1557.9.27 Spanish army defeated papal troops at Rome. Felipe II
1557.11.1 Inquisition arrested 800 people in Seville. Felipe II
1557.12 Protestants organized first Scottish Covenant. Scotland
1557-58 Influenza epidemics killed 100,000 English. Mary Tudor
1558.1.7 French led by Duke of Guise captured Calais. Henri II
1558.1 Ivan IV’s Russians invaded Livonia. Zygmunt II Ivan IV
1558.1.21 English surrendered Calais to the French. Mary Tudor
1558.4 Archbishop Hamilton had reformer Myln burned. Scotland
1558.4.24 Mary Stuart married Dauphin François. Henri II Scotland
1558.5.3 Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor. Germany Felipe II
1558.5 4,000 people demonstrated illegally in Paris. Henri II
1558.6 Ferdinand formed Catholic Landsberg League. Germany
1558 Johann Friedrich began University of Jena. Germany
1558 Modrzewski finished book on republican reform. Zygmunt II
1558 Tarnowski published a book on military science. Zygmunt II
1558 Russians occupied the Crimean peninsula. Ivan IV
1558 Della Casa’s Galatea was published in Venice. Italian Philosophy
1558 Calvin claimed France had 300,000 Calvinists. Henri II
1558 Marguerite’s Heptameron was printed.
1558 Knox published a book criticizing women rulers. Scotland
1558.9.10 First Congregation approved Jesuit Constitutions. Ignatius
1558.11.17 Queen Mary Tudor died of illness. Elizabeth
1558.12.28 Elizabeth forbade preaching.
1559.1.1 Kristian III died. Denmark
1559.1.1 Beggars Summons was posted in Scotland.
1559.1.15 Queen Elizabeth I was crowned.
1559.1 Knox wrote Brief Exhortation to England. Scotland
1559.2 Pope Julius III dismissed three nephews.
1559.2.28 London convocation confirmed Catholic dogma. Elizabeth
1559.3.31 Elizabeth approved religious debate.
1559.4.2 France and England agreed on peace for 8 years. Elizabeth
1559.4.3 Spain and France ended the war. Netherlands Popes Henri II
1559.4 Spain made treaties with England and France. Felipe II
1559.4 French withdrew from Italy except Piedmont. Italian Wars
1559.5.4 Knox’s sermon at Perth aroused zealots. Scotland
1559.5.8 Elizabeth approved Uniformity Act.
1559.5 Calvinists held first National Synod in France. Henri II
1559.5 Elizabeth gave Robert Dudley offices.
1559.6.5 Calvin founded an academy in Geneva. Calvinism
1559.6 Protestants took over Edinburgh. Scotland
1559 Matthias Flacius wrote Magdeburg Centuries. Germany
1559 Papal Index banned all books by Erasmus. Ignatius Popes
1559 Calvinist Haemsted wrote Book of Martyrs. Netherlands
1559 Felipe II made Willem of Orange stadholder. Netherlands
1559 Beze began the Genevan Academy. Henri II
1559.7.7 Knox became a minister at Edinburgh. Scotland
1559.7.8 France & England agreed on peace in Scotland. Elizabeth
1559.7.10 Henri II died from jousting wounds.
1559.7.13 Imperial army defeated French at Gravelines. Felipe II
1559.8.17 Spanish Index banned 670 books. Felipe II
1559.8.31 Livonia allied with Lithuania against Moscow. Zygmunt II
1559.8-10 English commissioners found papists resigning. Elizabeth
1559.9.13 Spain made importing books a capital crime. Felipe II
1559.9 Romans burned the palace of the Inquisition. Popes
1559.9 1,800 French troops arrived in Scotland.
1559.10.21 Regency of Mary of Guise was suspended. Scotland
1559.11.22 Spaniards were banned from foreign universities. Felipe II
1559-65 Pope Pius IV favored Spain.
1559-67 Margaret of Parma governed the Netherlands.
1559-75 Matthew Parker was Archbishop of Canterbury. Elizabeth
1559-76 Palatine Elector Friedrich III was a Calvinist. Germany
1559-88 Frederik II ruled Denmark and Norway.
1560.1 Pope Pius IV restricted the Inquisition.
1560.1 Irish Parliament recognized Elizabeth as ruler. Ireland
1560.2.22 England and Scotland made a treaty at Berwick.
1560.2.27 8,000 English soldiers joined 3,000 Scots. Elizabeth
1560.3 Lord Grey led 10,000 English to Scotland.
1560.3.30 56 French nobles were beheaded. France
1560 Frederik II’s army defeated Ditmarschen. Denmark
1560 Spain and Italian states formed the Holy League. Felipe II
1560 Ronsard published his Exhortation for Peace.
1560.5.11 Turks defeated the Holy League. Felipe II
1560.5.18 French heresy cases moved to Church tribunals. France
1560.5.20 Scottish Book of Reformation was finished. Scotland
1560.6.10 Mary of Guise died. Elizabeth
1560.7 English & French troops withdrew from Scotland.
1560.8.2 Russians defeated Livonian army at Ermes. Ivan IV
1560.8.7 Ivan IV’s wife Anastasia died suddenly. Ivan IV
1560.8.17 Scotland’s Parliament approved Knox’s faith.
1560.8.20 Assembly of Notables met at Fontainebleau. France
1560.9.8 Robert Dudley’s wife was found dead. Elizabeth
1560.9.29 Gustav Vasa died, and Erik IV became King.
1560.12.5 François II died of illness. France
1560.12.21 Conseil privé made Catherine de’ Medici regent. France
1560-68 Erik XIV ruled Sweden.
1561.1 Lutherans at Naumburg opposed Calvinists. Germany
1561.1 Spanish soldiers left the Netherlands.
1561.1 Knox et al wrote the Book of Discipline. Scotland
1561.3.6 Carlo Carafa + 3 were executed for treason. Popes
1561.3.10 2nd Calvinist national synod met at Poitier. France
1561.4.19 France banned terms “Huguenot” and “papist.”
1561 Calvin published Ecclesiastical Ordinances. Calvinism
1561 Denmark’s Frederik II established Marine Law.
1561 Erik XIV helped the burghers. Sweden
1561 Felipe II made Madrid the capital of Spain.
1561 Guicciardini’s History of Italy was published.
1561 England banished Anabaptists. Elizabeth
1561.7.31 French colloquy on religious issues began. France
1561.8.19 Mary Stuart returned to Scotland. Elizabeth
1561.8.25 Willem married Lutheran Anna of Saxony. Netherlands
1561.9.15 French prelates approved the Jesuits. France
1561.12 Tragedy of Gorboduc was performed. Theater
1562.1 Moscow began a war against Poland. Zygmunt II Ivan IV
1562.1.17 Catherine let Huguenots meet outside towns. France
1562.3.1 About 30 Calvinists were shot to death at Vassy. France
1562.3.16 Duke of Guise came to Paris with 2,500 troops. France
1562.3.20 A riot broke out in Paris. France
1562.4.2 Louis de Condé’s Protestants seized Orléans. France
1562.4 Protestants captured Tours, Blois, and Lyon. France
1562.4 Elizabeth sent diplomats to Catherine in Paris.
1562.5.16 3,500 Protestants were killed outside Toulouse. France
1562.5-10 30,000 royalists besieged Rouen. France
1562 Hesse sent 6,000 men to Huguenots in France. Germany
1562 Maximilian became King of Bohemia.
1562 Sweden allied with Russia, Denmark with Poland. Zygmunt II
1562 English Parliament revised witchcraft laws. Elizabeth
1562 Hawkins sold African slaves in the West Indies. Elizabeth
1562.7.13 Parlement of Paris outlawed Protestants. France
1562.8.31 Catholic army captured Bourges. France
1562.9.2 Elizabeth I bought Le Havre from Condé. France
1562.9.20 England made a treaty with Protestant Condé. Elizabeth
1562.10 Robert Dudley joined the Privy Council. Elizabeth
1562.10.26 French royalists captured Rouen. Elizabeth
1562.11 34 French prelates attended Council of Trent. France
1562.11.17 Antoine died, and Navarre became a Calvinist. France
1562.11.28 Maximilian became King of the Romans. Germany Austria
1562.12.19 Battle of Dreux killed 6,000 French Huguenots. France
1562-67 Erik XIV had more than 300 men executed. Sweden
1563.1 Friedrich III issued the Heidelberg Catechism. Germany
1563.1 English Parliament fixed prices & limited wages. Elizabeth
1563.1.31 280,000 Russians besieged Polotsk. Ivan IV
1563.2 Guise was killed during the siege of Orléans. France
1563.3 John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs was published. Elizabeth
1563.3.19 Peace of Amboise protected religious freedom. France
1563.6.7 Erik’s brother Johan was convicted of conspiracy. Sweden
1563.6 Disease killed English soldiers at Le Havre. Elizabeth
1563 Jan Seklucyan published the Bible in Polish. Zygmunt II
1563 Spain ordered Moriscos disarmed. Felipe II
1563 Juan de Yepes joined a Carmelite monastery.
1563 Ronsard wrote Remonstrance to the People.
1563 20,000 died of plague in London. Elizabeth
1563 Spanish Inquisition burned 26 English sailors. Elizabeth
1563.5-7 French royalists besieged Le Havre. France
1563.8.13 Denmark declared war on Sweden.
1563.8.17 13-year-old Charles IX was proclaimed of age. France
1563.12 428 clerics attended last session at Trent. Germany Popes
1563-70 Denmark and Sweden were at war.
1564.1.26 Pius IV ratified Council of Trent decrees. Felipe II
1564.2 O’Connors and O’Mores rebelled in Ireland.
1564.3.14 Granvelle left the Netherlands.
1564.4 Elizabeth ransomed French hostages.
1564.5.27 Jean Calvin died in Geneva. Calvinism
1564 Zygmunt II endorsed Council of Trent reforms.
1564 Kochanowski wrote Harmony to advise peace. Zygmunt II
1564 Zygmunt II ordered Jews released from prison.
1564 Andrey Kurbsky defected from Russia. Ivan IV
1564.7.1 Lithuanian Sejm became equal to Poland’s. Zygmunt II
1564.7.25 Emperor Ferdinand died of a fever. Austria Bohemia
1565.7.29 Mary Stuart married Lord Darnley.
1564.9.20 Spain destroyed Huguenot colony in Florida. France
1564.10.11 Robert Dudley became the Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth
1564.12 Damon and Pithias was performed at court. Theater
1564-65 Swedish army invaded Norway. Sweden
1564-66 French court toured France with 10,000 people.
1564-71 Viceroy Mendoza kept heretics out of Catalonia. Felipe II
1564-76 Maximilian II was Holy Roman Emperor. Germany Bohemia
1565.2 Ivan IV created oprichnina district.
1565.4.4 Felipe II confirmed Egmont’s titles in Brabant.
1565.5.13 Felipe II ordered 6 repentant Anabaptists burned.
1565.5-9 35,000 Turks besieged Knights on Malta. Felipe II Venice
1565 Socinians founded the Polish Brethren. Zygmunt II
1565.7.29 Mary Stuart married Lord Darnley. Elizabeth
1565.8.18 Denmark’s army defeated Sweden’s at Axtona.
1565.10.6 Moray fled from Scotland to England. Mary Stuart
1565.12 Nobles petitioned to abolish the Inquisition. Felipe II
1565-66 Lithuanian nobles’ rights increased. Zygmunt II
1565-71 Henry Sidney governed Ireland.
1566.3.9 Mary Stuart’s secretary Riccio was murdered.
1566.3.12 Mary Stuart gave birth to James Darnley. Elizabeth
1566.4.3 Brussels nobles demanded end of Spanish rule. Felipe II
1566.5.19 Metropolitan Afanasy resigned in protest. Ivan IV
1566.6.19 Mary Stuart gave birth to James VI.
1566 Georgius Agricola published De Re Metallica. Bohemia
1566 Felipe II ordered geographic survey of Spain.
1566 Teresa of Avila completed her life story.
1566 Teresa began writing The Way of Perfection.
1566 Breughel painted Sermon by John the Baptist. Netherlands
1566 Knox finished his History of the Reformation. Mary Stuart
1566.7 6,000 Danish soldiers died of plague. Denmark
1566.7 Swedish navy destroyed Danish ships. Denmark Sweden Norway
1566.7.28 12 Brussels deputies appealed to Margherita. Felipe II
1566.8.14 Walloons began Iconoclastic Riots in St. Omer. Felipe II
1566.8 Dutch Protestants attacked Catholic images. Netherlands
1566.8.20-2 A mob desecrated 30 churches in Antwerp. Felipe II
1566.8.23 Margherita authorized Reformed meetings. Felipe II Netherlands
1566.8.25 Prince Willem began suppressing rebels. Felipe II
1566.9 Felipe II mobilized 72,000 soldiers and Alba.
1566.9.30 Protestants killed about 80 people at Nimes. France
1566.12.1 Calvinist synod approved armed resistance. Netherlands
1566.12.20 Mary Stuart gave £10,000 to Reformed Church.
1566.12.24 Mary Stuart pardoned Riccio’s murderers.
1566-72 Pope Pius V strengthened the Inquisition.
1567.1.1 Moriscos had one year to abandon customs. Felipe II
1567.2.10 Darnley was found dead after explosion. Elizabeth Mary Stuart
1567.2 Teresa began reforming the Carmelite Order.
1567.3.13 Calvinists revolted in Antwerp. Felipe II Netherlands
1567.4.10 Willem resigned and left Antwerp. Netherlands
1567.4.24 Earl of Bothwell abducted Mary Stuart. Elizabeth
1567.5.7 Archbishop Hamilton granted Bothwell a divorce. Mary Stuart
1567.5.8 O’Donnell’s forces beat O’Neill’s, killing 1,900. Ireland
1567.5.15 Bothwell married Mary Stuart. Elizabeth
1567.5.24 Margherita decreed severe penalties for rebels. Felipe II
1567.6-8 Alba led Spanish army back to Brussels. Netherlands
1567 Talmudic Academy began in Lublin. Zygmunt II
1567 20,000 people left Holland. Felipe II
1567 Juan de Yepes was ordained & met Teresa.
1567 Excusado tax began paying for war in Flanders. Popes
1567 Buchanan wrote The True Law of Kingship. Mary Stuart
1567.7.24 Mary Stuart abdicated for her son James. Elizabeth
1567.8.22 Earl of Moray became Regent of Scotland. Mary Stuart
1567.9.5 Alba set up Council of Troubles in Brussels.
1567.9.8 Margherita resigned the regency. Felipe II Alba
1567.9.9 Count Egmont and others were arrested. Felipe II
1567.12 Johann Casimir led 8,000 soldiers to France. Germany
1567.12 30,000 Moriscos revolted in Granada. Felipe II
1567-68 Geneva suffered a plague blamed on witches. Calvinism
1568.1.4 Alba hanged 84 notables at Valenciennes. Felipe II
1568.1.16 6,000 Germans helped Condé besiege Chartres. France
1568.2.17 Peace of Edirne ended Turkish war. Hungary
1568.3.3 500 people were arrested in the Netherlands. Alba
1568.3.28 Huguenots disbanded most of their forces. France
1568.4 Willem of Orange raised 4 armies in Germany. Felipe II
1568.4 Willem of Orange published his Justification. Alba
1568.4.24 Louis of Nassau led invasion of Groningen. Alba
1568.5.2 Mary Stuart escaped from Lochleven prison. Elizabeth Scotland
1568.5.13 Mary Stuart fled from Scotland to England. Elizabeth Scotland
1568.5 Catholic league formed for Henri of Guise. France
1568.5.23 Dutch patriots defeated a Spanish army. Felipe II Alba
1568.5.28 Council of Troubles condemned Willem et al. Felipe II
1568.6.5 Egmont and Hoorne were beheaded. Felipe II Alba
1568 Erastus wrote “75 Theses on Excommunication.” Germany
1568 Maximilian II made a truce with the Turks. Austria
1568 Felipe II mobilized 70,000 in the Netherlands.
1568 Tribunal of Troubles executed 1,100 rebels. Felipe II
1568.7.12 Mary Stuart appointed Chatellerault to govern. Scotland
1568.7.21 Alba’s army defeated rebels at Jemmingen.
1568.9.25 Charles IX banned the Reformed religion. France
1568.9.30 Johan III replaced Erik XIV as ruler of Sweden.
1568.10.26 25,000 Protestants fought royalists at Poitiers. France
1568.11.28 Juan de Yepes took the name Juan de la Cruz.
1568.12 Elizabeth borrowed money from a Spanish ship.
1568.12 Alba embargoed English property in Netherlands. Elizabeth
1568-78 King Sebastiao ruled Portugal.
1568-87 Mary Stuart was imprisoned in England. Elizabeth
1568-1648 Spain fought wars in the Netherlands. Divided
1569.1 England ordered Spanish property confiscated. Elizabeth
1569.1.15 English goods were confiscated at Rouen. Elizabeth
1569.3 600 Pskov & Novgorod families were moved. Ivan IV
1569.3.16 Protestant Prince Condé was captured and killed. France
1569.3.20 Alba asked States General for taxes.
1569.5.24 Erik XIV attacked Sture clan and went insane. Sweden
1569.6 3,500 Moriscos were expelled from Granada. Felipe II
1569.6.16 500 books were burned at Tournai. Alba
1569 Sint-Aldegonde’s Roman Beehive satirized popes. Alba
1569.7.1 Poland-Lithuania formed a Union at Lublin. Zygmunt II
1569.7-9 Coligny’s Protestants besieged Poitiers. France
1569.8.15 Pope Pius V expelled Jews from Papal States.
1569.10.3 Royalists beat Huguenots who lost 10,000 men. France
1569.11 Suffolk offered pardons to northern rebels. Elizabeth
1570.1 Ivan IV had 9,000 people of Novgorod killed.
1570.1 English killed 300 rebels led by Dacre. Henri III
1570.1.23 Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh murdered Moray. Scotland
1570.2.4 England executed 500 rebels. Elizabeth
1570.2.25 Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth.
1570.4.14 Protestants agreed to Consensus of Sandomierz. Zygmunt II
1570.4 English forces raided the Scottish border. Elizabeth Scotland
1570.6.18 Coligny’s Protestants sacked the abbey of Cluny. France
1570 Poland and Russia agreed to an armistice. Zygmunt II
1570 Sweden began a long war against Russia.
1570 Palladio published Four Books of Architecture. Venice
1570 Baif founded the first French academy. France
1570 Ascham’s The Scholemaster was published. Elizabeth
1570.7.1 Turks invaded Cyprus. Venice
1570.7 Alba offered a general pardon to Low Countries.
1570.7 Earl of Lennox became Regent of Scotland.
1570.8.8 Third French Civil War ended. France
1570.10 Spain secretly executed Montigny. Netherlands
1570.12.13 Treaty ended Northern Seven Years War. Denmark
1570-92 Montaigne wrote his Essays.
1571.2.24 Felipe II ordered all Moriscos out of Granada.
1571.2.25 Elizabeth made Cecil the Baron of Burghley.
1571.3 Stefan Batory began ruling Transylvania. Hungary
1571.3 Index began censoring banned books. Popes
1571.4 English Parliament restored the Treason Act. Elizabeth
1571.4 James VI’s forces captured Dumbarton Castle. Scotland
1571.5 Pius V organized the Holy League. Felipe II Pius V Venice
1571.5.24 120,000 Tatars burned Moscow. Ivan IV
1571.6 Antwerp citadel cost 801,900 guilders. Alba
1571 Maximilian allowed Protestants in Lower Austria.
1571 Sweden established the Lutheran faith.
1571 80,000 Moriscos left Granada. Felipe II
1571 Japan had 30,000 Christians. Portugal
1571 39 Articles became law in England. Elizabeth
1571.8.1 Venetians surrendered to Turks on Cyprus. Venice
1571.9.3 Kirkcaldy’s coup failed, but Lennox was killed. Scotland
1571.10.7 Holy League defeated Turks at Lepanto. Austria Felipe II Venice
1571.10.7 Cervantes was badly wounded at Lepanto.
1571.10 Dutch Reformed Church held first synod. Alba
1571.10.28 Earl of Morton became Regent of Scotland.
1571-73 Wars cost Spain 2,750,000 ducats a year. Felipe II
1571-73 Perrot governed Munster & hanged 800 people. Ireland
1571-77 Castile spent 18,755,000 ducats on military. Felipe II
1572.3.1 Elizabeth expelled Dutch rebel ships.
1572.4.1 Willem of Orange’s navy attacked Alba’s forces. Felipe II
1572.4.8 Rotterdam rebelled. Alba
1572.4.19 France and England allied against Spain. Elizabeth
1572.5.24 Protestants led by Louis captured Mons. Felipe II Alba
1572.6.2 Duke of Norfolk was executed for treason. Elizabeth
1572.6 Field & Wilcox wrote Admonition to Parliament. Elizabeth
1572.6.26 Alba abolished penny taxes.
1572 Rudolf II became King of Hungary. Austria
1572 Ivan IV abolished the oprichnina district.
1572 8-volume Polyglot Bible was published. Felipe II
1572 Luis Vas de Camoens published The Lusiads. Portugal
1572.7 Holland elected Willem of Orange stadholder. Felipe II
1572.7 Drake plundered Nombre de Dio in Panama. Elizabeth
1572.7.20 Holland States promised freedom of religion. Alba
1572.7-8 60,000 Russians defeated 120,000 Turks. Ivan IV
1572.8.18 Marguerite of Valois married Henri of Navarre. France
1572.8.24 St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre began. France
1572.9 Alba’s army defeated Willem’s forces. Felipe II
1572.11.14 Imperial forces killed hundreds at Zutphen. Alba
1572.11.22 Northumberland was beheaded for treason. Elizabeth
1572.12.2 Fadrique ordered 3,000 killed in a church. Alba
1572.12.23 Johan Sylvan was beheaded for opposing trinity. Germany
1572-73 500 people starved during the siege of Sancerre. France
1572-77 Povel Huitfeldt governed Norway as statholder.
1572-85 Pope Gregory XIII implemented reforms.
1573.1.6 50,000 nobles near Warsaw voted for Henri. Batory
1573.1.28 Diet at Warsaw granted religious freedom to all. Batory
1573.2.23 Pacification of Perth recognized James VI. Scotland
1573.2-7 Royalists lost 12,000 men in La Rochelle siege. France
1573.3.3 Venice made a treaty with Sultan Selim III.
1573.4 England and the Netherlands restored trade. Elizabeth
1573 Balthasar von Dernbach brought Jesuits to Fulda. Germany
1573 Portugal began paying rent to China for Macao.
1573.7.12 Starving Haarlem surrendered to Spaniards. Felipe II Charles V
1573.7.31 Tasso’s Aminta was performed in Ferrara.
1573.9.10 Henri Valois swore to respect Polish liberty. Batory
1573.9.11 Johann of Austria led recapture of Tunis. Felipe II
1573.9.24 Gregory XIII ended abused immunities in Rome.
1573.11 Requesens replaced Alba at Brussels. Dutch Revolt
1573-75 Earl of Essex used military force in Ireland.
1573-1617 Bishop Julius of Würzburg expelled Protestants. Germany
1574.2-6 Henri Valois was king in Poland. Batory France
1574.5.14 Spaniards defeated and killed Louis of Nassau. Dutch Revolt
1574.6.5 Spaniards granted pardon in the Netherlands. Felipe II
1574 Cartwright translated Ecclesiastical Discipline. Elizabeth
1574.8.28 England and Spain settled property disputes. Elizabeth
1574.8-9 40,000 Turks regained Tunis, killing 6,700. Felipe II
1574.9.6 Henri III returned from Poland to rule France.
1574.10 Essex treacherously killed 200 Irish. Ireland
1575.2.5 University of Leiden was founded. Dutch Revolt
1575.2.13 Henri III married Louise of Lorraine. France
1575.4 England banned support of Dutch rebels. Elizabeth
1575.6.20 Russia and Sweden made a 2-year truce.
1575 Bohemian Confession was adopted. Bohemia
1575 Czechowic wrote on Christian way of peace. Batory
1575 Portuguese began shipping slaves from Angola. Portugal
1575 Willem exempted Mennonites from war. Anabaptists
1575 Pope Gregory XIII proclaimed a Jubilee Year.
1575.7 English massacred 500 Scots in Ireland. Ireland
1575.9.1 Felipe II declared Spain bankrupt. Dutch Revolt
1575.9 100,000 Tatars took 35,340 Poles as slaves. Batory
1575.9.22 Rudolf II became King of Bohemia. Austria
1575.12 Casimir led 16,000 mercenaries to France. Germany
1575-78 Henry Sidney governed Ireland.
1575-80 Turks captured and enslaved Cervantes.
1576.1 Protestant army of 20,000 plundered Burgundy. France
1576.1.18 Poland elected Stefan Batory king.
1576.2.5 Henri of Navarre converted back to Calvinism. France
1576.4.25 Holland and Zeeland formed Union of Delft. Dutch Revolt
1576.5 Monsieur Peace promised Protestants freedom. France
1576.6 Batory summoned a Diet at Warsaw
1576.6.30 Unpaid Spanish soldiers mutinied in Antwerp. Felipe II
1576 Julius of Brunswick began University of Helmstedt. Germany
1576 Venice lost 50,000 people during a plague.
1576 Guicciardini’s Ricordi was published in Paris.
1576 Jean Bodin published Six Books of the Republic. France
1576 England funded Frobisher’s Labrador expedition. Elizabeth
1576.7.25 Spanish mutineers sacked Aalst. Dutch Revolt
1576.9.24 Danzig imposed a blockade against Batory.
1576.10.12 Emperor Maximilian II died. Austria
1576.11.4 Mutineers sacked Antwerp, killing 7,000. Felipe II Dutch Revolt
1576.11.15 Ghent Pacification expelled Spanish troops. Felipe II Dutch Revolt
1576.12.2 Henri III ordered armed leagues organized.
1576.12.15 Spain and Dutch states agreed to a cease-fire. Dutch Revolt
1576.12 French nobles & clergy suppressed Protestants. Henri III
1576-77 Drury governed Munster & hanged 400 people. Ireland
1576-78 Johann of Austria governed the Netherlands. Dutch Revolt
1576-83 Ludwig made Palatinate Lutheran. Germany
1576-86 Stefan Batory ruled Poland.
1576-1612 Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor. Germany Austria German Empire
1577.1.9 States General formed the Union of Brussels. Dutch Revolt
1577.2.17 Johann agreed to Pacification of Ghent. Felipe II
1577.4.17 Polish army defeated Danzig rebels. Batory
1577.5.12 Brussels welcomed Johann as governor. Felipe II
1577.6-11 Teresa wrote The Interior Castle.
1577 Philip Sidney wrote Discourse on Irish Affairs.
1577.7.13 Russians invaded Livonia. Batory Ivan IV
1577.9.22 Elizabeth promised support to Willem of Orange. Elizabeth
1577.12.3 Juan de Ypres was imprisoned at Toledo. Teresa,
1577.12.16 Peace of Malborg ended Danzig’s revolt. Batory
1577.12.29 Orange’s men destroyed Ghent’s citadel. Dutch Revolt
1577-80 Francis Drake sailed around the world. Elizabeth
1578.1 Spaniards defeated Dutch at Gembloux. Felipe II Dutch Revolt
1578.5.18 Calvinists seized Ghent. Felipe II
1578.5.26 Calvinists took over Amsterdam’s government. Dutch Revolt
1578.6 Portugal lost 23,000 men fighting in Morocco.
1578 Polish army invaded Livonia. Ivan IV
1578 Willem of Orange proclaimed religious peace. Dutch Revolt
1578.8.4 Portugal’s King Sebastian died in battle. Felipe II
1578.8.16 Juan de la Cruz escaped from prison.
1578.10.1 Johann of Austria died of typhus. Felipe II
1578-79 Sweden’s Johan III was a Catholic.
1578-92 Duke of Parma governed Spanish Netherlands.
1578, 1580 John Lyly published his Euphues novels.
1578-81 Cardinal Henrique ruled Portugal. Felipe II
1578-92 Farnese governed the Low Countries for Spain.
1579.1.6 Walloon states formed the Arras Union. Felipe II Low Countries
1579.1.23 Dutch states formed the Closer Union. Low Countries
1579.2.28 Catherine & Henri of Navarre agreed on a treaty. Henri III
1579.3 Spanish forces plundered Maastricht. Low Countries
1579.4 Peasants in Provence killed 600 people. Henri III
1579.5.3 Willem of Orange signed the Union of Utrecht. Low Countries
1579.5.17 Farnese made treaty with Walloons & Catholics. Felipe II
1579.6.26 Poland declared war on Moscow. Batory Ivan IV
1579 Archduke Charles ordered Lutheran books burned. Germany
1579 Coornhert published Little Glass. Anabaptists
1579 Edmund Spenser wrote Shepheardes Calendar. Writing
1579 Buchanan wrote Law of the Scottish Kingship. Scotland
1579.8.30 56,000 Poles captured Polotsk. Batory
1579-85 Juan de la Cruz wrote Ascent of Mount Carmel.
1579-86 Tasso was in a mental institution.
1580.1 Wentworth spoke for Puritans in Parliament. Elizabeth
1580.3.15 Felipe II outlawed Willem of Orange. Low Countries
1580.3.26 Royalists killed 1,000 peasants in Romans. Henri III
1580.3.31 Holland & Zeeland supported Willem of Orange. Low Countries
1580.6.3 Spain’s army invaded Portugal. Felipe II Gregory XIII
1580.6.18 Portuguese Cortes named Dom Antonio king. Felipe II
1580 Lutheran Church adopted Book of Concord. Germany
1580 Jesuits started a college in Fribourg. Calvinism
1580 Willem’s Apology accused Felipe II of crimes.
1580 English starved Irish into submission. Ireland
1580.8.25 Spain’s army defeated Antonio by Lisbon. Felipe II Portugal
1580.9.5 48,000 Poles took Veliki Luki. Batory
1580.11 Grey’s forces slaughtered 600 men at Smerwick. Ireland
1580.12 Willem of Orange published his defense. Low Countries
1580-1630 Duke Charles Emmanuel I ruled Savoy. Venice
1580-1640 Spain dominated Portugal.
1581.1 Duke of Anjou became Prince of Netherlands. Low Countries
1581.1 James VI denounced papistry. Scotland
1581.4 Portuguese Cortes named Felipe II king. Portugal
1581 Beza published Harmony of Confessions. Germany
1581 First Slavonic Bible was published. Ivan IV
1581 Swedish army took Narva, killed 7,000 Russians. Sweden
1581.7.26 United Netherlands condemned Felipe II. Low Countries
1581.11.9 Ivan IV killed his son Ivan.
1581.12.1 Catholic Campion was hanged for treason. Elizabeth
1581-82 30,000 Irish died of starvation. Ireland
1581-83 Duke of Anjou fought for the Netherlands. Low Countries
1582.1.15 Poland & Russia agreed to a 10-year truce. Batory Ivan IV
1582.1 Guelders banned Catholic worship. Low Countries
1582.3.18 Juan Juaréguy wounded Willem of Orange. Low Countries
1582 Portuguese Council began governing. Felipe II
1582 Japan had 200 Christian churches. Portugal
1582 Cervantes’ Siege of Numantia was produced.
1582 Bruno published On the Shadows of Ideas.
1582 Philip Sidney wrote Astrophel and Stella.
1582.8 Presbyterians seized James VI. Scotland
1582.10.4 Teresa of Avila died.
1582.10.15 Pope Gregory XIII corrected Julian calendar. Germany
Most European nations began using the New Style (NS) Gregorian calendar, but the British, Sweden, Russia, and the Eastern Orthodox nations still used the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar, and their dates are ten days behind the Gregorian calendar until March 1, 1700 when they became eleven days behind.
1582.11 61,000 imperial forces invaded Guelders. Low Countries
1582.12 Archbishop Gebhard became a Calvinist. Germany
1582, 1586 Catholic universities began in Germany.
1582-1631 Papal States depended on grain from Sicily. Popes
1583.1 Anjou’s forces failed to take Antwerp. Henri III
1583.3 Pope Gregory XIII excommunicated Gebhard. Germany
1583 Emperor Rudolf moved his court to Prague. Bohemia
1583 Archbishop Whitgift promoted 6 Articles. Elizabeth
1583 University of Edinburgh was founded. Scotland
1583.7 Spanish fleet defeated Antonio and Huguenots. Felipe II
1583.8 Russia and Sweden made a 3-year truce. Ivan IV
1583.12.31 Thomas Erastus died in London. Germany
1583-93 Cardinal Albrecht governed Portugal.
1583-1625 James VI ruled Scotland.
1584.1.9 England expelled Mendoza for treason. Elizabeth
1584.3.3 Lyly’s Sapho and Phao was performed at court. Theater
1584.3.28 Ivan IV died of a stroke.
1584.5.12 Zborowski was executed for trying to start war. Batory
1584.5 Black Acts let James VI denounce presbyteries. Scotland
1584.6.10 Anjou died, and Henri of Navarre became prince. Henri III
1584 Gebhard was defeated and fled to Strasbourg. Germany
1584 Bern, Zurich, and Geneva formed an alliance. Calvinism
1584 First Icelandic Bible was printed.
1584 Felipe II’s Escorial palace was completed.
1584 Spanish forces took Ypres, Bruges, and Ghent. Low Countries
1584 Bruno wrote The Ash Wednesday Supper.
1585.7.7 Treaty ceded towns to Henri de Guise. Henri III
1584.7.10 Catholic Gérard assassinated Willem of Orange. Low Countries
1584.12.31 Felipe II allied with House of Guise.
1584-88 Boris Godunov led Russia’s Regency Council. Russia
1585.3.2 Dr. Parry was hanged for trying to kill Elizabeth.
1585.3.10 Brussels surrendered to Farnese. Low Countries
1585.5 Felipe II ordered English and Dutch ships seized.
1585.5.19 Spain seized English ships in its ports. Elizabeth
1585 Bruno wrote The Cabala of Pegasus.
1585.8.10 England allied with the United Provinces. Low Countries Elizabeth
1585.8.17 Spaniards took Antwerp after a long siege.Felipe II Low Countries
1585.9 Pope Sixtus V excommunicated Henri of Navarre.
1585.10.7 Henri III decreed that Huguenots are traitors. Henri III
1585.11.30 Henri of Navarre seized goods of nobles & clergy. Henri III
1585-90 Pope Sixtus V returned to severity.
1585-1605 Boris Godunov governed Russia.
1586.1.5 Pope Sixtus V banned astrology and divination.
1586.2.1 Drake ransomed Cartagena for 110,000 ducats. Elizabeth
1586.6 Roanoke colonists came home with Drake. Elizabeth
1586 Neuss was destroyed in war over Cologne. Germany
1586.7 Scotland’s James VI allied with England. Elizabeth
1586.9.20 Babington conspirators were executed. Elizabeth
1586.9.22 2,000 Scots were massacred at Ardnaree. Ireland
1586.10.5 7 Catholic cantons formed a federation. Calvinism
1586.10.17 Philip Sidney died from fighting at Zutphen. Elizabeth
1586.11.12 English found Mary Stuart guilty of conspiracy. Scotland
1586.12 20 Norman villages refused to pay taxes. Henri III
1586.12 Pope Sixtus V promised Spain 1 million crowns. Elizabeth
1586-87 French towns suffered a major plague. Henri III
1586-88 El Greco painted The Burial of Count Orgaz.
1586-96 Albrecht VII was Inquisitor-general in Portugal
1587.1 Elizabeth loaned Henri of Navarre £30,000.
1587.2.8 Mary Stuart was beheaded at Fotheringay. Elizabeth Scotland
1587.5.12 Catholic cantons allied with Felipe II. Calvinism
1587.4.20 Drake captured 24 ships in Cadiz Bay. Felipe II
1587.5.11 Pope Sixtus V began a poorhouse in Rome.
1587.6.20 Sixtus V ordered professors to review all books.
1587 Johann Spies published experiments with magic. Germany
1587.10.20 Protestants defeated Catholics in 3 Henris war. Henri III
1587.12.8 Henri III paid German mercenaries to go home.
1587-88 Marlowe’s Tamberlaine was performed.
1587-1609 Grand Duke Ferdinando ruled Tuscany. Florence
1587-1632 Zygmunt III ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1588.1 England commissioned three fleets. Elizabeth
1588.5.13 Henri III secretly left Paris.
1588.5.14 Parisians liberated the Bastille. Henri III
1588 Johann Fischart republished Witches’ Hammer. Germany
1588 Sheep ranchers killed 700 Moriscos in Codo. Felipe II
1588 Lyly’s comedy Endymion was performed. Theater
1588.7 Spanish armada fought English ships. Elizabeth
1588.7-9 20,000 Spaniards perished in sea war. Elizabeth
1588.9.8 Henri III replaced his ministers.
1588.8-9 English and storm defeated Spanish armada. Felipe II
1588.10 300 Spanish castaways were hanged in Galway. Ireland
1588.12.23 Henri III’s bodyguards murdered Henri de Guise.
1588.12.24 Cardinal de Guise was murdered. Henri III