BECK index

East Asia
Chronological Index of Events

to 1950

World Chronology to 1715
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950

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1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1905
1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945

(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 5000 Yang-shao culture grew rice in China.
c. 4000 Plows used in China.
c. 3500 Millet grown in China.
c. 3000 Brick houses built and cotton woven in Indus valley.
c. 2600 Silk was manufactured in China.
c. 2500 Copper and bronze used in Indus valley.
c. 2350 Lungshan culture practiced divination in China.
c. 2250 Legendary emperor Yao ended 70-year rule in China.
c. 2220 Legendary emperor Shun ended 30-year rule in China
2205-1766 Legendary Xia dynasty founded by Yu. China
c. 2200 Grain milled in China.
c. 1650 Bronze used in Yellow River area of China.
c. 1520 Tang founded Shang Dynasty in China.
c. 1500 Harappan civilization faded away in Indus valley.
1384 Pan Geng moved Shang capital to Anyang.
c. 1250 Shang king Wu Ding fought wars in China.
c. 1030 King Wen originated 64 hexagrams of Yi Jing.
c. 1025 Shang Dynasty overthrown by Zhou king Wu in China.
c. 1020 Duke of Zhou regent for Zhou king Cheng.
1002 Zhou king Zhao died.
878-841 Li Wang ruled Zhou kingdom.
827-782 Xuan ruled Zhou kingdom.
771 Zhou king Yu Wang killed by invading barbarians.
730-698 Duke Xi ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
722-481 Spring and Autumn era in China.
697-686 Duke Xiang ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
685-645 Duke Huan ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
684-646 Guan Zhong advised Duke Huan. Spring and Autumn Era
679 Duke Huan of Qi made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
647 Qin duke Mu sent grain to Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
645 Jin duke Yi-Wu attacked Qin. Spring and Autumn Era
637-629 Zhong-Er ruled Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
632 Zhong-Er defeated Chu at Cheng-bu, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
631 Qin duke Mu's attack on Jin failed. Spring and Autumn Era
597 Chu king Zhuang defeated Jin, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
551 Confucius born in Lu.
545 Heang Seu organized peace conference at Song. Spring and Autumn Era
542-480 Zilu studied with Confucius.
536 Zheng criminal code cast in bronze in China. Spring and Autumn Era
529 Chu king Ling died. Spring and Autumn Era
522 Confucius disciple Jan Qiu born.
521-481 Yen Hui studied with Confucius.
520 Confucius disciple Zi-Gong born.
c. 520 Lao-zi wrote Dao De Jing in Chu.
514-496 King of Wu studied Sun Tzu's Art of War.
507-425 Zi-Xia was a disciple of Confucius.
506 Wu invaded Chu, occupied capital at Ying. Sun Tzu's Art of War
506-443 Zi-yu was a disciple of Confucius.
505-436 Confucius Zeng Shen wrote Classic of Filial Piety.
503-447 Zi-zhang was a disciple of Confucius.
501 Confucius felt he understood his mission.
c. 495 Confucius traveled to Wei, Chen, Song, and Kuang.
494 Yue kingdom submitted to Wu. Sun Tzu's Art of War
492 Ji Kang-zi of Lu asked advice of Confucius.
488-432 Hui ruled Chu. Period of Warring States
487 Qi rebellion attacked Lu; Zi-Gong advised states. Spring and Autumn Era
484 Confucius returned to Lu.
482 Wu military power dominated China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
482 Wu connected Yangzi to Shantung by canal. Sun Tzu's Art of War
c. 480 Analects of Confucius written.
479 Confucius died in Lu.
473 Wu destroyed and annexed by Yue. Sun Tzu's Art of War
470 Yue became protector in China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
c. 470-390 Mo-zi taught philosophy of love in China.
453 Zhao, Wei, and Han states established in China. Warring States
453-221 Period of Warring States in China.
c. 450 Crossbow invented in China. Warring States
c. 440 Da Xue (Higher Education) by Zeng Shen or Zi-si. Confucian Works
c. 440 Zhong Yong (Center of Harmony) by Zi-si. Confucian Works
408 Wu Qi led Lu attack on Qi and Wei attack on Qin. Warring States
c. 405 Mo-zi imprisoned in Song.
c. 400 Zhou Rituals written in China. Li (Propriety)
393 Mo-zi advised Prince Wen of Lu Yang.
371-289 Mencius taught Confucian philosophy in China.
370-319 Hui ruled Liang advised by Mencius. Warring States
c. 370-295 Zhuang-zi wrote Daoist musings in Song.
359 Qin duke Xiao instituted reforms of ShangYang.
352-337 Han reformed by prime minister Shen Bu-hai. Warring States
340 Qin attacked state of Wei. Warring States
c. 340 Lie-zi told Daoist tales in Zheng.
339-329 King Wei ruled Chu. Zhuang-zi
338 ShangYang executed in Qin.
334 Yue taken over by Chu. Warring States
328 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin. Warring States
328-299 Huai ruled Chu. Warring States
325 Hui proclaimed king of Qin. Warring States
323 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Wei. Warring States
320-c. 310 Mencius advised Qi king Xuan.
c. 320 Qin army killed 80,000 in Han. Warring States
c. 320 Su Qin formed alliance against Qin. Warring States
c. 320-300 Ju Yuan diplomat in Chu, Qi, and Qin. Songs of Chu
317 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin again. Warring States
315 Yen king abdicated, caused revolt; Qi invaded Yen. Warring States
314 Qin attacked Wei. Warring States
313 Qin king Hui-wen sent Zhang Yi to Chu with gifts. Warring States
c. 310 Qi and Qin defeated Chu, killing 80,000. Warring States
310-212 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in China.
c. 302 Qi king Xuan founded Ji-Xia academy. Warring States
c. 300 Ju Yuan composed Songs of Chu.
293 Qin army attacked Han and Wei, killing 240,000. Warring States
292 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
288 Qin king Zhao proclaimed Western Emperor in China. Warring States
288 Qi king proclaimed Eastern Emperor in China. Warring States
286 Qi took over Song. Warring States
284 Yen, Qin, Wei, and Zhao invaded Qi. Warring States
284 Xun-zi and scholars fled Ji-Xia academy.
284-276 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in Chu.
c. 280 Qin devastated Zhao, Wei and Han. Warring States
c. 280 Han prince Han Fei-zi born.
278 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
c. 277 Poet Ju Yuan drowned. Songs of Chu
276-265 Xun-zi taught at Ji-Xia academy in Qi.
265-259 Xun-zi taught in Qin and Zhao.
260 Qin army defeated Zhao at Chang-ping, killing 400,000. Warring States
256 Qin army attacked Han, killing 40,000. Warring States
c. 250 Xun-zi magistrate of Lan-ling in Chu.
c. 250 Guan-zi and Book of ShangYang Legalist texts.
249 Qin army defeated and ended Zhou dynasty. Warring States
247 Li Si left Xun-zi and gained an office in Qin. Warring States
246 Zheng became king of Qin. Warring States
237 Li Si succeeded Lu Bu-wei as Qin prime minister. Warring States
234 Qin army attacked Han. Warring States
234 Han king An sent Legalist Han Fei-zi as his envoy to Qin.
233 Legalist Han Fei-zi died of poison in Qin.
230 Qin annexed Han. Warring States
228 Qin annexed Zhao. Warring States
225 Qin annexed Wei. Warring States
223 Qin annexed Chu. Warring States
222 Qin annexed Yen. Warring States
221 Qin annexed Qi. Warring States
221 Qin king Zheng proclaimed August Emperor (Huang-di).
221-206 Qin dynasty united China.
220-210 Great wall construction continued in China. Qin Empire
219 Li Si made a high minister of Qin empire.
218 Attempted assassination of Qin emperor.
214 500,000 "criminals" sent to invade Luliang in China. Qin Empire
213 Qin emperor ordered books burned.
213 Li Si made chancellor of Qin empire.
212 700,000 forced to build Qin emperor's palaces.
210 First Qin emperor died.
209 Chen She began revolt against Qin dynasty.
208 Zhao Gao appointed Chancellor of Qin empire.
207 Second Qin emperor killed.
206 King Zi-ying surrendered, ending Qin dynasty.
206 Xiang Yu declared Protector king of Western Chu. Han Dynasty
206 Liu Bang (governor of Pei) appointed king of Han. Han Dynasty
206-8 CE Western Han dynasty ruled China.
205 Xiang Yu defeated king of Han. Han Dynasty
202 Xiang Yu defeated committed suicide. Han Dynasty
202-195 King of Han named Emperor Gao-zu ruled China. Han Dynasty
201-169 Jia Yi wrote "Faults of Qin." Han Dynasty
200 Gao-zu established Chinese capital at Chang-an. Han Dynasty
c. 200 Daoist Lu Jia wrote New Discourses. Han Dynasty
196 Edict promoting men of virtue in China. Han Dynasty
195-188 Hui-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
194-185 Cao Can Daoist prime minister in Qi. Han Dynasty
188-180 Empress Lu ruled China as regent. Han Dynasty
180-157 Wen-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
c. 179-105 Confucian Dong Zhong-shu founded Yin Yang school.
177 Xiong-nu invaded Honan.Han Dynasty
174 Mao-Dun, founder of Xiong-nu empire, died. Han Dynasty
167 Mutilation removed from Chinese penal code. Han Dynasty
165 Civil service exams began in China. Han Dynasty
162 China's Wen-di made peace with Xiong-nu king. Han Dynasty
157-141 Jing-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
154 Chao Cuo executed for seizing territory in China. Han Dynasty
c. 150 Books found in house of Confucius. Confucian Works
c. 150 Steel and paper manufactured in China. Han Dynasty
145-101 Elara ruled Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 145-90 Sima Qian wrote biographies and history of China. Wu-di's Reign
144 Xiong-nu invaded Shanxi. Han Dynasty
141-87 Wu-di ruled China.
139 Huai-nan-zi presented to Wu-di.
136 Dong Zhong-shu founded imperial university in China. Wu-di's Reign
135 Empress Dowager Dou died in China. Wu-di's Reign
135-131 Chancellor Tian Fen promoted Confucians. Wu-di's Reign
133-119 Wu-di warred against Xiong-nu.
c. 130 Luxuriant Gems of the Annals written by Dong Zhong-shu. Confucian Works
128 China invaded Manchuria and Korea. Wu-di's Reign
122 Huai-nan king's rebellion failed. Wu-di's Reign
121 China invaded Mongolia. Wu-di's Reign
120 700,000 disaster victims moved to Shanxi. Wu-di's Reign
119 Imperial monopolies of salt and iron began in China. Wu-di's Reign
114 Wu-di's travel caused two governors' suicides.
112 China used criminals in army and construction. Wu-di's Reign
110 Wu-di broke with Confucians over sacrifices.
110 Sang Hung-yang began Chinese standards bureau. Wu-di's Reign
109 China invaded south to Vietnam. Wu-di's Reign
108 China established four commanderies in Korea. Wu-di's Reign
105 Chinese envoys reached Seleucia. Wu-di's Reign
103-90 China war with Xiong-nu killed many. Wu-di's Reign
101 Chinese sailors using compass reached India. Wu-di's Reign
c. 100 Li Ji compiled by Dai De and Dai Sheng. Li (Propriety)
c. 100 "Sir Fantasy" poem written by Sima Xiang-ru. Wu-di's Reign
99 Du Zhou prosecuted many in China. Wu-di's Reign
99 Historian Sima Qian arrested and castrated. Wu-di's Reign
91 Many executed for sorcery in China. Wu-di's Reign
87-68 Ho Guang ruled China for Zhao-di and Xuan-di. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81 Japanese emperor Sujin ordered shipbuilding. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81 Salt and iron monopolies debated in China. Confucian China 87-30 BC
77-6 Liu Xian added to Songs of Chu.
68-48 Xuan-di ruled China.
53 BC-18 CE Confucian philosopher Yang Xiong wrote. China
48-33 Yuan-di ruled China by Confucian principles.
43 BC-28 CE Huan Tan criticized Confucians. China
33-7 Cheng-di ruled China.
14 Peasants revolted in China.

CE
3 Wang Mang had his son and hundreds executed.
9-23 Wang Mang ruled China.
11, 14 Famines caused cannibalism in China. Wang Mang's Revolution
17 Peasant rebellion in Shandong led by Mother Lu. Wang Mang's Revolution
19 Wang Mang taxed Chinese property twice.
22 Red Eyebrows defeated imperial army in Liang. Wang Mang's Revolution
23 Han armies sacked Chang-an and killed Wang Mang.
25-57 Guang Wu Di ruled China. Later Han Empire
25-220 Later Han dynasty ruled China.
32-92 Ban Gu wrote histories in China. Later Han Empire
43 Han general Ma Yuan conquered northern Vietnam. Later Han Empire
49 Chinese recognized Puyo king in Manchuria. Later Han Empire
53 Taejo founded Koguryo state. Korea
73 Chinese army led by Dou Gu defeated the Xiong-nu. Later Han Empire
79 Confucian scholars conferred on classics. Later Han Empire
83 Wang Chong wrote Balanced Discussion. Later Han Empire
89 Xiong-nu tribes surrendered to Han army. Later Han Empire
c. 90-165 Wang Fu wrote Remarks of a Hermit. Later Han Empire
91-102 Ban Chao protector-general of China's Western Regions. Later Han Empire
94 Fifty states sent tribue to Chinese capital Luoyang. Later Han Empire
100-63 Daoist Zhu Mu wrote. Later Han Empire
105 Paper invented in China. Later Han Empire
110 Qiang revolted against Chinese. Later Han Empire
133 Flogging of high officials ended in China. Later Han Empire
135 Chinese eunuchs can adopt heirs. Later Han Empire
146 Chinese imperial academy had 30,000 students. Later Han Empire
c. 150 Indonesian traders settled on Madagascar. Java
151 Cui Shi wrote Treatise on Politics. Later Han Empire
159 Five eunuchs executed Liang Ji family. Later Han Empire
166 Buddha cult introduced at Luoyang court. Later Han Empire
175 Chinese departments headed by eunuchs. Later Han Empire
179 Buddhist Prajnaparamita translated into Chinese. Later Han Empire
184 Daoist rebellions erupted; 500,000 killed. Later Han Empire
184-214 Qiang had independent kingdom in Liang-zhou. Later Han Empire
187-226 Chinese governor Zhe Sie ruled Qiao-ji. Later Han Empire
189 General Yuan Shao massacred 2,000 eunuchs at Luoyang. Later Han Empire
192 Han general Dong Zhuo assassinated. Later Han Empire
210-63 Ruan Ji wrote "Songs of My Cares." China
214 Cao Cao's forces conquered Qiang kingdom. Later Han Empire
220 Cao Cao died; his son Cao Pei founded Wei kingdom. China
221 Liu Bei proclaimed Shu Han dynasty. China
222 Sun Chuan founded Wu dynasty. China
223-62 Xi Kang taught transcendence. China
226-49 Daoist Wang Bi advised Wei regency. China
234-86 Koi ruled Paekche. Korea
244 Wei army invaded the Koguryo capital. China Korea
248 Lin-yi (Champa) battled Chinese along the Song Giang. China
249 Wei king Sima Yi executed Cao Shuang and Ho Yen. China
253-333 Daoist alchemist Go Hung criticized Confucians. China
261-303 Lu Ji wrote "Poetic Exposition on Literature."
265 Sima Yen founded Qin dynasty at Luoyang. China
270-80 Funan and Champa fought Chinese. Vietnam
280 Qin annexed Wu kingdom. China
c. 284-336 Fan Yi ruled Lin-Yi. China
304 Cheng Han kingdom founded in Sichuan. China
313 Koguryo gained independence from Chinese. Korea
334-417 Huiyuan proclaimed Pure Land Buddhism. China
342 Xienpei invaded Koguryo. Korea
3c. 350 Ethiopian king Ezana adopted Christianity. Africa
356-402 Naemul ruled Silla. Korea
357-85 Fu Jian expanded Earlier Qin kingdom. China
371 Paekche army of 30,000 attacked Koguryo. Korea
372 Buddhism introduced into Koguryo from China. Korea
383 Fu Jian's Earlier Qin defeated by Eastern Qin. China
384 Chinese monk brought Buddhism to Paekche. Korea
386-534 Toba people founded Northern Wei kingdom. China
392-413 Kwanggaeto ruled Koguryo. Korea
393-415 Yao Xing ruled Later Qin and patronized Buddhism. China
399 Japan invaded Silla. Korea
399-414 Faxian traveled from China to India. China
400-02 Peasant rebellion threatened Jiankang. China
413-91 Changsu ruled Koguryo. Korea
417 General Liu Yu captured Luoyang and Chang-an. China
c. 420 Buddhaghosha translated and wrote Buddhist texts. China
424-51 Wu Di ruled Northern Wei, persecuted Buddhists. China
444 Northern Wei declared Daoism official religion. China
475 Koguryo army of 30,000 captured Paekche's capital. Korea
479-500 Tongsong ruled Paekche. Korea
485 Wei government distributed land. China
502-49 Liang Wu Di ruled Liang and promoted Buddhism. China
514-39 Pophung ruled Silla. Korea
523-34 Civil war fought in northern China.
523-53 Song ruled Paekche. Korea
528 Silla officially recognized Buddhism. Korea
538-97 Zhiyi founded Tiantai Buddhism. China
540-75 Chinhung ruled Silla. Korea
551 Paekche and Silla attacked Koguryo. Korea
562 Silla drove Japanese off the mainland. Korea
573 Confucians win debate over Buddhists and Daoists. China
574-622 Prince Shotoku applied ethics to Japanese government. Japan
577 Wu Di of Northern Zhou destroyed the Northern Qi. China
581-604 Sui Wen Di ruled reunified China.
585 Buddhist proponent Yomei became emperor of Japan.
589 Sui army defeated the Chen.
593-628 Soga empress Suiko reigned over Japan.
595 Sui dynasty imposed tribute on Champa king. China
598 Koguryo encroached on the Chinese empire. Korea
601 Most schools in China were abolished by Sui edict.
602-64 Xuan Zang translated Buddhist texts. Tang Dynasty
604 Japan adopted Chinese calendar.
604-18 Sui Yang Di ruled China.
606 Examinations based on Confucian classics instituted. Sui Dynasty
612-14 Chinese army invaded Korea. China
614-69 Nakatomi Kamatari reformed Japanese government. Japan
617-86 Wonhyo taught Buddhism in Korea.
618-26 Li Yuan founded Tang dynasty.
618-907 Tang dynasty ruled China.
621 Uniform coins were minted in Tang China.
622 Tang established protectorate over Annam.
624 Japan had 46 Buddhist temples.
626-49 Tai Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
627 Chenla king Ishanavarman annexed Funan. Cambodia
628 Tai Zong established relief granaries in China. Tang Dynasty
629-45 Xuan Zang traveled from China to India. Tang Dynasty
630 China subjugated the Eastern Turks. Tang Dynasty
631-47 Koguryo built a defensive wall. Korea
634-41 China fought Tibet. Tang Dynasty
637 New laws reduced capital offenses in China. Tang Dynasty
643 Qi prince Li You's revolt failed in China. Tang Dynasty
645 Tang emperor Tai Zong led invasion of Koguryo.
645-55 Kotoku ruled Japan.
646 Great Reform was implemented in Japan.
649-83 Gao Zong reigned in China. Tang Dynasty
651 Nepal sent a mission to China. Tang Dynasty
655 Koguryo and Paekche invaded Silla. Korea
660-705 Empress Wu ruled China. Tang Dynasty
661-71 Tenchi ruled Japan.
661-80 Munmu ruled Silla. Korea
663 Japan withdrew from Korea.
666 Chinese currency was debased 90%. Tang Dynasty
668-76 Chinese forces occupied Korea. Tang Dynasty
670 Tibet broke the peace with China. Tang Dynasty
673-86 Temmu ruled Japan.
674 Empress Wu proclaimed a reform program. Tang Dynasty
686-97 Empress Jito ruled Japan.
689 Silla began land reform. Korea
699 Koguryo general founded the state of Parhae. Korea
c. 699-761 Buddhist Wang Wei wrote poetry and painted. Tang Dynasty
701-62 Li Bo wrote poetry. Tang Dynasty
702 Taiho code was promulgated in Japan.
702-36 Songdok ruled Silla. Korea
705 Wu Jing wrote government guidebook. Tang Dynasty
710 Japanese capital was moved to Heijo (Nara). Japan
712 Japanese ancient records published as Kojiki. Japan
712-56 Xuan Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
712-70 Du Fu wrote poetry. Tang Dynasty
715 New statutes were promulgated in China. Tang Dynasty
715-74 Tantric monk Amoghavajra influenced Dai Zong. Tang Dynasty
716-41 Xuan Zong sponsored Tantric masters. Tang Dynasty
720 Japanese Nihongi chronicles were published. Japan
722 Upper Chenla attacked Chinese at Dongking. Tang Dynasty
722 Chinese army had 600,000 men. Tang Dynasty
722 Songdok distributed land to farmers. Korea
724-49 Shomu ruled Japan.
729 Chinese government began census of Buddhists. Tang Dynasty
730 Tibet made peace with China. Tang Dynasty
735-37 Smallpox epidemic devastated Japanese. Japan
736 Kegon (Huayen) Buddhism was introduced in Japan.
740 Fujiwara Hirotsugu's rebellion was quelled. Japan
742-64 Kyondkok ruled Silla. Korea
745 Uighurs killed their last kaghan Bai-mei. Tang Dynasty
751 Tang armies were defeated by Nan-zhao.
752 Rushana (Vairocana) Buddha was dedicated in Nara. Japan
754-64 Chinese population fell from 52,880,488 to 16,900,000. Tang Dynasty
755-63 Rebellion against Tang was led by general An Lu-shan.
756-62 Su Zong reigned during An Lu-shan's rebellion in China. Tang Dynasty
759 Tang state began the lucrative salt monopoly.
762-79 Dai Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
763 Tibetans invaded China's capital at Chang-an. Tang Dynasty
768 Civil war broke out in Silla. Korea
768-824 Writer Han Yu criticized Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
772-846 Bo Ju-yi wrote poetry and served government. Tang Dynasty
779-805 De Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
781-86 Tax rebellions occurred in northwest China. Tang Dynasty
781-806 Kammu ruled Japan.
788 Silla instituted civil service examinations. Korea
788-820 Shankara taught Vedanta philosophy. Hindu Kingdoms
801 Nan-zhao and China invaded Tibet. Tang Dynasty
805 Saicho (Dengyo Daishi) founded Tendai Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
806-20 Xian Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
807 China had an army of 850,000 men. Tang Dynasty
816 Kukai (Kobo Daishi) founded Shingon Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
c. 820 Chinese army reached 990,000 men. Tang Dynasty
827-40 Chinese emperor Wen Zong drank himself to death. Tang Dynasty
836 Chinese were forbidden to relate to foreigners. Tang Dynasty
840-46 Daoist Wu Zong ruled China and cut back Buddhists. Tang Dynasty
843-46 Buddhism was persecuted in China. Tang Dynasty
846-59 Xiuan Zong ruled China and revived Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
858-72 Yoshifusa governed Japan as regent.
859-73 Yi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
873-88 Xi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
874-83 Rebellions spread throughout China. Tang Dynasty
877-91 Fujiwara Mototsune governed Japan as regent.
888-904 Xi Zong reigned over a disintegrating China. Tang Dynasty
889 Peasant uprisings began in Silla. Korea
904 Chinese used gunpowder as a weapon. Tang Dynasty
907-23 Zhu Wen founded the Later Liang dynasty. Tang Dynasty
907-60 Five dynasties and ten kingdoms ruled China. Tang Dynasty
918 Wang Kon founded the Koryo dynasty. Korea
933 Tendai Ennin faction went to Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
935 Last Silla king Kyongsun surrendered. Korea
936 Koryo's first king Taejo unified the Korean peninsula. Korea
942-1017 Genshin wrote Essentials of Salvation. Japan's Heian Era
947-51 Later Hans destroyed 30,000 Buddhist monasteries. Tang Dynasty
947-1125 Khitans ruled Liao empire. Song Dynasty
960 Fujiwara Morosuke wrote Admonitions of Kujo-den. Japan's Heian Era
960-76 Tai-zi founded Song dynasty.
960-1279 Song dynasty ruled China.
976-97 Tai Zong ruled China. Song Dynasty
978 Chinese imperial library had 80,000 volumes. Song Dynasty
981 Enryakuji monks demonstrated at court. Japan's Heian Era
981-97 Songjong ruled Koryo. Korea
993 Khitan army invaded Koryo. Korea
c. 995 Sei Shonagon wrote Pillow Book. Japan's Heian Era
995-1027 Fujiwara Michinaga dominated the Japanese court. Japan's Heian Era
998-1022 Zeng Zong ruled China and paid Liao annual tribute. Song Dynasty
1017-73 Zhou Dunyi commented on the Book of Changes. Song Dynasty
1018-86 Sima Guang wrote a comprehensive history of China. Song Dynasty
1019 Liao army was driven out of Koryo. Korea
1020-77 Zhang Zai wrote Correcting Youthful Ignorance. Song Dynasty
1024 Paper money was introduced in China. Song Dynasty
1028-31 Taira revolt was led by Tadatsune. Japan's Heian Era
1030 Chinese printed with movable type. Song Dynasty
1032-85 Cheng Hao taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1033-1107 Cheng Yi taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1037-1101 Su Shi (Su Dong-po) was a Renaissance man. Neo-Confucian Ethics
1038-1227 Tanguts formed the Western Xia kingdom. Song Dynasty
1044 Fan Zhongyen negotiated a treaty with Western Xia. Song Dynasty
1044 Koryo built a wall from sea to sea. Korea
1046-83 Munjong ruled Koryo. Korea
1047 Wangzi led a revolt of Buddhists expecting Maitreya. Song Dynasty
1050-62 Nine Years War was fought in Japan.
1055 Choe Chung began private schools in Koryo. Korea
1068-85 Shen Zong ruled China with Wang An-shi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1070-71 Su Shi criticized Wang Anshi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1078 China produced 114,000 tons of cast iron. Song Dynasty
1081 Hiei monks set fire to a monastery at Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
1086-1129 Shirakawa ruled Japan as retired emperor priest.
1100-25 Hui Zong ruled China lavishly. Song Dynasty
1104-07 Jurchen invaded Koryo. Korea
1108 Taira general Masamori quelled revolt. Japan
1111-17 Hangzhou prohibited male prostitution. Song Dynasty
1113 20,000 armed Kofukuji monks attacked Enryakuji. Japan
1120 Fang La led revolt that captured Hangzhou. Song Dynasty
1122 Two million killed in Chinese rebellion. Song Dynasty
1122-1234 Jurchens conquered north China, founded Jin dynasty. Song Dynasty
1124-1211 Western Liao ruled East Turkestan. Song Dynasty
1127-62 Gao Zong ruled southern Song China. Song Dynasty
1129-56 Toba ruled Japan as cloistered emperor.
1130-1200 Zhu Xi taught Neo-Confucian Ethics.
1132 Chinese used mortars. Song Dynasty
1133-1212 Honen founded Jodo (Pure Land) Buddhism. Japan
1140-93 Renzong ruled Western Xia with Confucian institutions. Song Dynasty
1141 Western Liao defeated Seljuk Turks near Samarkand. Song Dynasty
1141-1215 Eisai founded Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Japan
1142 Southern Song agreed to pay Jin tribute. Song Dynasty
1146-70 Uijong ruled Koryo. Korea
1165 Hiei monks burned down Hosso fortress in Kyoto. Japan
1170-81 Taira Kiyomori ruled Japan as regent.
1170-97 Koryo suffered civil wars. Korea
1180-1185 Minamoto defeated Taira clan in Gempei civil war. Japan
1183 Yoritomi established bakufu at Kamakura. Japan
1192-99 Yoritomi ruled Japan as shogun.
1194 Zen prohibited in Japan.
1195 Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucian school banned in China.
1198-1200 Peasants and slaves revolted in Koryo. Korea
1198-1221 Go-Toba served as cloistered emperor of Japan.
1202 Koryo army mutinied. Korea
1203-20 Champa was ruled by Cambodia.
1206 Jurchens Jin army defeated fleeing Song forces. Song Dynasty
1206 Temujin proclaimed Genghis Khan of Mongol empire.
1212 Kamo Chomei wrote "An Account of My Hut." Japan
1215-1313 Tekla-Haymanot founded Asbo monastery. Japan
1221 Go-Toba banished after failed revolt. Japan
1222-82 Nichiren taught Buddhist chanting. Japan
1224-42 Hojo Yasutoki ruled Japan as regent for the shogun.
1225-64 Li Zong ruled southern Song China.
1227 Genghis Khan was killed besieging Xingzhongfu. Mongol Empire
1229-41 Ogodei ruled East Asian Mongol empire.
1229-42 Khitan prince Yelu Quzai administered Mongol empire.
1231-32 Mongol army invaded Koryo. Korea
1232 Joei Formulary established feudal law in Japan.
1236 Mongols issued paper money.
1236-83 Poet Wen Tianxiang executed by Kublai Khan. Mongol Empire
1247 500 Miura warriors committed suicide. Japan
c. 1247 Hojo Shigetoki wrote "Family Instructions." Japan
1248 Iyesus-Mo'a founded monastic school in Amhara. Japan
1253 Kublai Khan's forces conquered Nanchao. Mongol Empire
1253-57 Mongols sacked major cities of Koryo. Korea
1260 Mongols captured Damascus.
1260-94 Kublai Khan ruled Mongol empire.
1274, 1281 Mongols, Chinese, and Koreans invaded Kyushu. Japan
1275-91 Marco Polo served Kublai Khan in China. Mongol Empire
1275-1308 Chungnyol ruled Koryo. Korea
1276 Mongols captured Song capital at Linan.
1279-1368 Mongols ruled China as Yuan dynasty.
1283-1350 Yoshida Kenko wrote "Essays in Idleness." Feudal Japan
1286-1324 Guan Yunshi advised Confucian reforms. Yuan Dynasty
1289 Grand Canal built from Hangzhou to Beijing. Mongol Empire
1294-1307 Temur ruled Mongol China. Yuan Dynasty
1300 Wang wrote Romance of Western Chamber. Chinese Theater
1304 Giovanni converted 6,000 Chinese. Yuan Dynasty
1311-75 Astrologer Liu Ji advised first Ming emperor.
1312-20 Mongol emperor Renzong ruled China. Yuan Dynasty
1313-1905 Chinese used civil service exams on classics. Yuan Dynasty
1318-39 Go-Daigo was emperor of Japan.
1323 Mongol laws were promulgated in Yuan China.
1324-28 Yesun Temur enfeoffed 24 princes in Yuan China.
1325 Go-Daigo sent Buddhist Muso Soseki to China. Feudal Japan
1330-1400 Luo Guanzhong wrote novels.
1331-33 Go-Daigo banished to the island of Oki. Feudal Japan
1333 Kamakura Bakufu rule ended in Japan. Feudal Japan
1333-68 Toghon Temur was last Mongol ruler of China. Yuan Dynasty
1333-84 Kannami founded Kanza No theater troupe.
1333-92 Japan was divided in civil war.
1335 White Lotus Society revolts began in Yuan China.
1336-58 Takauji founded Ashikaga Bakufu in Kyoto. Feudal Japan
1336-74 Gao Qi wrote poems and stories. Short Stories
1341-1427 Qu Yu wrote stories.
1351 Red Turban revolts began in Yuan China.
1351-74 Kongmin ruled Koryo.
1355 Zhu Yuanzhang's rebels attacked Nanjing. Yuan Dynasty
1356 Paper money stopped circulating in China. Yuan Dynasty
1357 Red Turbans captured Kaifeng. Yuan Dynasty
1359 40,000 rebelling Red Turbans fled into Koryo.
1361 100,000 Red Turbans took over north Koryo.
1363 Mun Ik-chom brought cotton seeds to Koryo.
1363-1443 Zeami wrote No plays.
1368-1644 Ming dynasty ruled China.
1368-98 Hongwu founded Ming dynasty.
1370 Hongwu banned secret Buddhist societies. Ming Dynasty
1370 Koryo general Yi Song-gye defeated Mongols.
1373 96,328 Buddhists and Daoists ordained in China. Ming Dynasty
1374 Kanza theater troupe performed before shogun. No Plays
1375 China established imperial school system. Ming Dynasty
1376 Hongwu executed hundreds of officials in China.
1377 Ming army invaded Tibet.
1379-1439 Zhu Yudun wrote 31 plays. Theater
1380 Hongwu executed 15,000 people.
1387 First Ming land survey was done.
1388 General Lan Yu attacked the Mongols. Ming Dynasty
1388 Yi Song-gye deposed Koryo's King U.
1392-98 Chinese planted one billion trees. Ming Dynasty
1392-98 Yi Song-gye founded Korean Choson dynasty.
1393 Hongwu executed 15,000 people.
1395 Chinese repaired or built 40,987 reservoirs. Ming Dynasty
1397 Ming code of laws was completed.
1399-1402 Prince Zhu Di of Yan fought civil war. Ming Empire
1400-18 T'aejong (Yi Pang-won) ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1403-24 Zhu Di as Yongle ruled China. Ming Empire
1403-35 Great walls were built in north China. Ming Empire
1405 Japan promised China it would suppress piracy. Feudal Japan
1405-33 Zheng He led sailing expeditions. Ming Empire
1405-68 Zenchiku wrote No plays.
1407 Ming emperor Yongle's army took over Annam.
1407 Yongle Encyclopedia filled 11,095 volumes. Ming Empire
1415 Chinese completed the Grand Canal. Ming Empire
1418-50 Sejong ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1420 Yongle moved capital from Nanjing to Beijing. Ming Empire
1426-35 Xuande ruled China. Ming Empire
1428 Teamster revolt spread in Japan.
1428-41 Yoshinori was shogun of Japan.
1434-48 Chinese suffered famines and epidemics. Ming Empire
1443 Korea made a trade treaty with Japan. Choson Dynasty
1443 Phonetic Korean alphabet Han'gul was devised. Choson Dynasty
1444-49 Miners rebelled in China. Ming Empire
1447 Songs of Flying Dragons was printed in Han'gul. Choson Dynasty
1449 Oirats captured Ming emperor Yingzong.
1449-57 Jingtai ruled China. Ming Empire
1456-68 Sejo ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1464-87 Xianzong ruled China. Ming Empire
1465 China manufactured 300 cannons. Ming Empire
1467-77 Onin War was fought in Japan.
1469-94 Songjong was king of Korea. Choson Dynasty
1471 Korean National Code was promulgated. Choson Dynasty
1472-1529 Wang Yangming taught Confucianism.
1477 Korean law banned women from remarrying. Choson Dynasty
1479-93 Uprisings occurred in Japan.
1487-1505 Xiaozong ruled China. Ming Empire
1495-1506 Korea's Yonsan'gun executed dissenters. Choson Dynasty
1505-21 Zhengde ruled China. Ming Empire
1506-44 Chungjong ruled Koryo. Choson Dynasty
1519 Korean reformer Cho Kwang-jo was executed. Choson Dynasty
1519 Wang Yangming led victory over rebels. Ming Empire
1520-1604 Hyujong wrote Mirror of the Three Teachings. Korea
1521 Magellan was killed on island of Cebu. Philippines
1521-66 Jiajing ruled China. Ming Empire
1522 Luo Guanzhong wrote Three Kingdoms. Novels
1524 Wang Yangming wrote Instructions.
1527-1602 Li Zhi taught moral relativism. Ming Confucians
1535-1615 Zhuhong taught Buddhism in China. Ming Decline
1541-73 Altan's Mongols raided China. Ming Empire
1546-67 Myongjong ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1547-67 China banned foreign trade and fought pirates. Ming Empire
1549 Jesuit Francis Xavier arrived at Kagoshima. Japan
1550-1617 Tang Xianzu wrote romantic plays. Theater
1557 Portuguese at Macao began trade with China. Ming Empire
1559-82 Nobunaga increased his power in Japan.
1565 Legazpi began colonizing the Philippines.
1567-1608 Sonjo ruled Korea.
1571 Manila was founded. Philippines
1572-1620 Wanli was emperor of China. Ming Decline
1572-82 Tutor Zhang Juzheng governed China. Ming Decline
1575 Factions formed in Korean capital.
1583-1610 Jesuit Matteo Ricci taught in China. Ming Decline
1585 Ieyasu and Hideyoshi made peace.
1587 Hideyoshi subdued Satsuma armies of Kyushu.
1589 Nurhaci rescued kidnapped Chinese. Ming Decline
1590 Li Zhi published A Book to Burn. Ming Confucians
1592 Wu Chengen wrote Journey to the West. Novels
1592-98 Japanese invaded Korea. Hideyoshi
1593-1609 Jia canal was built in China. Ming Decline
1593-1815 Spain made Philippines commerce go by Mexico.
1598 Tang Xianzu wrote The Peony Pavilion. Theater
1598-1616 Ieyasu governed Japan.
1599 Manchurians adopted Jurchen alphabet. Ming Decline
1600 China had 230 million people. Ming Decline
1602 Yuan Liaofan wrote Silent Recompense. Ming Decline
1603 Okuni's dancing began Kabuki entertainment. Chikamatsu
1604 Confucians founded Donglin academy. Ming Decline
1608-13 Ho Kyun wrote Story of Hong Kil. Korea
1608-23 Kwanghaegun ruled Korea.
1611 Japan prohibited preaching Christianity. Ieyasu
1611 Nurhaci executed his brother Surhaci. Ming Decline
1611-80 Li Yu wrote comedies and novels. Theater
1616-32 Hidetada governed Japan.
1618 Nurhaci announced his seven grievances. Ming Decline
1620-27 Tianqi ruled China. Ming Decline
1622 Nine European priests were executed at Nagasaki. Japan
1622 Tianqi closed the Donglin Academy. Ming Decline
1622-73 Yu Hyong-won began Practical Learning in Korea.
1623-49 Injo ruled Korea.
1624 Japan expelled Spaniards.
1624-27 Wei Zhongxian persecuted Donglin movement. Ming Decline
1626 Nurhaci died fighting the Ming army.
1626 Yoshiwara quarter was established in Edo. Chikamatsu
1627 Amin led Manchu invasion of Korea. Ming Decline
1627-44 Chongzhen was last Ming emperor.
1629-43 Nurhaci's son Abahai led Manchus. Ming Decline
1630-47 Zhang Xianzhong led raids in China. Ming Decline
1631-45 Li Zicheng led rebels. Ming Decline
1633 Chinese, Manchus, and Mongols took exams. Ming Decline
1633 Daimyos were required to live in Edo. Japan
1633 Japan began excluding foreigners.
1635 Li Yu wrote erotic novel, Jou Pu Tuan. Novels
1636-37 Abahai led Manchu invasion of Korea.
1637-38 Shimabara revolt in Kyushu was crushed. Japan
1638-1864 Tokugawa Japan avoided mobilizing armies.
1639 Japan excluded foreigners.
1640 Dong Yue wrote Tower of Myriad Mirrors. Novels
1641 Japanese limited Dutch trade to Nagasaki.
1642 Schall von Bell taught Chinese gun-making. Kangxi
1643-50 Dorgon ruled Manchus as regent. Ming Decline, Qing Conquest
1644 Japan banned plays about current people. Chikamatsu
1644 Manchus captured Beijing. Ming Decline, Qing Conquest
1644-1912 Manchus ruled China as Qing dynasty. Qing Empire
1646-62 Yongli tried to reign as Ming emperor.
1647 Yamazaki wrote Refutation of Heresies. Japanese Confucianism
1648 Manchu forces captured Suzhou. Qing Conquest
1648 Russians reached Kamchatka coast. Kangxi
1648 Treaty ended Spanish-Dutch trade battles. Philippines
1650 Manchu army invaded Guangdong. Qing Conquest
1651-61 Shunzhi ruled Qing empire.
1652 Fifth Dalai Lama visited Beijing. Qing Conquest
1656 Zheng Chenggong led defeat of Qing fleet.
1658 600 Christians were killed in Omura. Japan
1658 Shunzhi revived Hanlin Academy. Qing Conquest
1659 Qing armies defeated Li Dingguo's Ming army.
1659-74 Hyonjong ruled Korea.
1661-67 Four regents governed Qing empire.
1662 Huang Zongxi published A Plan for the Prince. Confucian Intellectuals
1662-73 Wu Sangui governed Yunnan. Qing Conquest, Kangxi
1665 Yang Guangxian's book criticized Christianity. Kangxi
1667-1722 Kangxi ruled Qing empire.
1669 Spaniards claimed the Marianas Islands. Philippines
1670 Kangxi promulgated Sacred Edict.
1674-1720 Sukchong ruled Korea.
1674-81 Three feudatories rebelled against Qing. Kangxi
1675 Verbiest helped Qing make cannons. Kangxi
1675 Yamaga wrote An Autobiography in Exile. Japanese Confucianism
1678 Japan's government began running a deficit.
1678 Portuguese confirmed trading at Macao. Kangxi
1679 Kangxi hired scholars to write Ming history.
1680-1709 Tsunayoshi governed Japan.
1682 Saikaku wrote Life of an Amorous Man.
1683 Chikamatsu's play The Soga Heir was performed.
1683 Qing made Taiwan part of Fujian. Kangxi
1686 Olods led by Galdan attacked Outer Mongolia. Kangxi
1686 Saikaku wrote Five Women Who Loved Love.
1686 Saikaku wrote Life of an Amorous Woman.
1687 Japan proscribed Christianity, Nichiren sects. Japanese Confucianism
1688 Hong Sheng finished Palace of Eternal Youth. Theater
1689 Russians and Chinese made Nerchinsk treaty. Kangxi
1689 Saikaku wrote Japanese Family Storehouse.
1690 Tsunayoshi had a Confucian academy built. Japanese Confucianism
1692 Kangxi allowed Christians to preach in China.
1692 Novelist Kim Man-jung died. Korea
1692 Saikaku wrote This Scheming World.
1695 Gu Yenwu published book on Han Learning. Confucian Intellectuals
1695 Japan debased its currency.
1696 Kangxi led campaign against Dzungars.
1696 Miyazaki wrote The Farmer's Compendium. Japan
1696 Yen Yuan implemented new curriculum in Hebei. Confucian Intellectuals
1696-1771 Chen Hongmou promoted education. Qianlong, Confucian Intellectuals
1699 English established a factory at Canton. Qianlong
1699 Kong Shangren produced Peach Blossom Fan. Theater
1701-54 Wu Jingzi wrote satirical novel, The Scholars.
1702-03 47 ronin got revenge and committed seppuku. Japan
1703 Edo earthquake killed 150,000. Japan
1703-24 Chikamatsu wrote puppet plays.
1705 Dzungars repulsed Qing incursion into Tibet. Kangxi
1708 Korea allowed tax payments in rice.
1711 Kangxi froze the poll tax.
1712 Kangxi deposed his heir Yinreng.
1713 Qing converted corvée labor to a tax. Kangxi
1715 Arai Hakuseki wrote A Report on the Occident. Japanese Confucianism
1715-63 Cao Xueqin wrote Dream of the Red Chamber.
1716 Words of Hagakure Master appeared. Japanese Confucianism
1716-45 Yoshimune governed Japan with reforms.
1716-98 Yuan Mei wrote poetry, criticized Confucians.
1717 Olods and Dzungars invaded Tibet. Kangxi
1718 Jesuits helped Chinese produce an atlas. Kangxi
1720 Cohong guild was organized at Canton. Qianlong
1720 Qing army took over Lhasa. Kangxi
1721 Qing soldiers repressed rebellion on Taiwan. Yongzheng
1723 Yongzheng abolished exam discrimination.
1723, 1729 Suzhou textile workers went on strike. Yongzheng
1723-35 Yongzheng reformed the Qing empire.
1724 Qing troops put down Khoshote rebellion. Yongzheng
1724-76 Yongjo ruled Korea.
1727 Korean army put down a rebellion.
1727 Ogyu Sorai wrote Political Essays. Japanese Culture
1727 Qing made Kyakhta treaty with Russia. Yongzheng
1727 Two of Yongzheng's brothers died in prison.
1728 Chinese published Complete Collection. Yongzheng
1729 China banned selling and using opium. Yongzheng
1732 Qing crushed revolt by Taiwan aborigines. Yongzheng
1733 Food riots broke out in Edo. Japan
1736-95 Qianlong ruled Qing empire.
1737 Qianlong tried to ban liquor made from grain.
1742 New Japanese law allowed peasants to sell land.
1744-1829 Dagohoy Rebellion survived on Bohol Island. Philippines
1745 Aoki Konyo produced Dutch-Japanese dictionary.
1746, 1784 Qianlong persecuted Christians.
1746-48 Takeda, Namiki, Miyoshi produced three plays.
1747-49 Sichuan people defeated Qing forces. Qianlong
1748 Bereaved Qianlong punished officials.
1749 Zhang Guangsi was executed for abusing Miao. Qianlong
1750 Yongjo reduced military cloth tax. Korea
1751-1844 Alcalde-mayors in Philippines could do business.
1759 Qing army slaughtered Dzungars. Qianlong
1760-86 Ieharu let corrupt Tanuma govern Japan.
1762 Qing laws discriminated against Muslims. Qianlong
1762 Yongjo put Prince Sado to death. Korea
1762-1836 Chong Yag-yong wrote for Confucian reforms. Korea
1762-64 British navy sacked and occupied Manila. Philippines
1764 Qianlong lifted ban on intermarriage.
1767 British first contacted Tahitians.
1767 Qing punished Chinese miners at Hanoi. Qianlong
1767 Yamagata Daini was beheaded for treason. Japanese Culture
1768 Nizam 'Ali made a treaty with the English.
1769 Cook visited Tahiti and New Zealand.
1771-76 Qing army pacified Tibetans in Sichuan. Qianlong
1773-84 Scholars compiled massive Four Treasuries. Qianlong
1774 Muslim troops quelled White Lotus rebellion. Qianlong
1776-1800 Chongjo ruled Korea.
1778-93 Philippines fought Muslim raiders.
1780 Pak Chi-won published 26-volume Jehol Diary. Korea
1781 56 officials were executed for selling degrees. Qianlong
1782-87 Japan suffered famine.
1784 Pitt's India Act banned Company wars. Cornwallis
1784 Yi Sung-hun returned to Seoul as a Catholic. Korea
1785 Chongjo prohibited Christianity. Korea
1786-93 Cornwallis governed British India.
1786-99 Heshan administered Qing empire corruptly. Qianlong
1787 60,000 troops defeated Triad rebels on Taiwan. Qianlong
1787 Captain Bligh lost the Bounty to a mutiny. Tahiti
1787-1837 Ienari was shogun of Japan.
1787-93 Matsudaira Sadanobu governed Japan.
1788 Otsuki wrote Explanation of Dutch Studies. Japanese Culture
1788-1803 Pomare I ruled Tahiti.
1789 Guangxi troops were driven out of Vietnam. Qianlong
1790 Sadanobu imposed censorship on Japan.
1791 Comic writer Santo Kyoden was punished. Japan
1792 Dream of the Red Chamber was completed.
1792 Qing army drove Gurkhas back to Nepal. Qianlong
1793 Baptist missionary Carey came to Calcutta. Cornwallis Reforms
1793 Qianlong refused to negotiate with English.
1794-1856 Wei Yuan proposed numerous reforms. Daoguang Era
1795 Qing emperor Qianlong abdicated.
1795 Missionaries arrived in Tahiti.
1795-1819 Kamehameha I ruled the Hawaiian Islands.
1796 Opium was prohibited in China. Daoguang Era
1796-1804 White Lotus Society rebelled in China. Qianlong, Jiajing Era
1798 Honda Toshiaki wrote Secret Proposals. Japanese Culture
1799-1820 Jiajing ruled the Qing empire.
1800 English bought 23 million pounds of Chinese tea. Jiajing Era
1800-34 Sunjo was king of Korea.
1801 Korea persecuted Catholics.
1801 Korean government emancipated 66,067 slaves.
1801 Chong brothers were banished from Korea.
1802 Triads spread in Guangxi and Guangdong. Jiajing Era
1803-21 Pomare II ruled Tahiti.
1807 London Missionary Soc. sent Morrison to Canton. Daoguang
1808 Lin Qing was beaten for teaching Buddhism. Jiajing Era
1809 Fujian pirate chief was drowned. Jiajing Era
1809 Shen Fu's autobiographical account ends. Jiajing Era
1811 Hong Kyong-nae led rebellion in P'yongan. Korea
1811 Japan captured Russians at Kunashiri.
1812 Tahiti’s Pomare II became a Christian.
1813 Heavenly Reason Society revolted in China. Jiajing Era
1813 Banishing criminals to Manchuria was ended. Jiajing Era
1814 Kurozumi founded the sun goddess sect. Japan
1815 800 Christians were arrested in Sichuan. Jiajing Era
1815 Fernando VII ended Spain’s liberal constitution. Philippines
1817 Nanboku’s The Scarlet Princess of Edo played. Japan
1817-28 Jahangir led jihad in Xinjiang. Jiajing
1819 Missionaries arrived in Hawaii.
1819 Morrison translated Bible into Chinese. Daoguang Era
1819 Tahiti adopted puritanical laws.
1820 Revolutionary Iturbide seized Manila goods. Philippines
1821-35 Cao Zhenyong headed Qing government. Daoguang Era
1821-50 Daoguang Era ruled the Qing empire.
1821-59 Toghtakhu Toro improved Mongolia. Daoguang Era
1823 Novales mutiny in Manila failed. Philippines
1825 Aizawa Yashushi wrote New Proposals. Japan
1825 Japan’s exclusion order threatened death.
1825 Nanboku's Ghost Story at Yotsuya played. Japan
1825 Hawaii decreed laws against vices.
1825-54 Kamehameha III ruled Hawaii.
1826 China's trade balance turned negative. Daoguang Era
1826 Fernando VII returned parishes to friars. Philippines
1827 Japan banned prostitution, alcohol, gambling.
1827 Li Ruzhen completed Flowers in the Mirror.
1828 Dutch moved into western New Guinea. Melanesia
1831 In Choshu 100,000 protested cotton monopoly. Japan
1831 Wesleyans converted Tonga chief Taufa'ahau.
1831-93 Taufa‘ahau (George Tupou) ruled Tonga.
1833 British East India Company's monopoly ended. Daoguang Opium Wars
1833-54 Kamehameha III ruled Hawaii. Hawaii
1834 Manila was opened to world trade. Philippines
1834-49 Honjong ruled Korea.
1835 Kokand gained favorable treaty with Qing. Daoguang Era
1835 Peter Parker started a hospital at Canton. Daoguang Era
1835 Wesleyan missionaries came to Fiji.
1835-50 Corrupt Muchanga led Qing government. Daoguang Era Opium Wars
1835-98 Philippines had 50 different governors. Philippines
1837 Toghtakhu Toro consolidated 11 monasteries. Daoguang Era
1837 Oshio led a peasant rebellion in Osaka. Japan
1838 Chinese opium imports reached 2,800 tons. Opium Wars
1838 Healer Nakayama Miki began Tenri movement. Japan
1839 Lin Zexu tried to end opium imports to China.
1839 Korea executed 83 Catholics.
1839-40 Lin Zexu tried to end opium imports. Opium Wars
1840.4 Gladstone condemned war for opium smuggling. Opium Wars
1840 British fleet blockaded Canton and Ningbo. Opium Wars
1840 Hirose Tanso wrote Cirumlocutions. Japan
1840 Hawaii got a constitution and public schools.
1841.5 British destroyed 71 war-junks at Huangpu. Opium Wars
1841 Qishan-Elliot Chuanbi Convention was rejected. Opium Wars
1841 British captured Amoy, Zhoushan, and Ningbo. Opium Wars
1841 Hirata Atsutane was put under house arrest. Japan
1841-45 Mizuno implemented reforms in Japan.
1842.3 Yijing's attack on Ningbo failed. Opium Wars
1842.6 British captured abandoned Shanghai. Opium Wars
1842 Wei Yuan wrote on military reform. Daoguang Era
1842 British captured Shanghai, Zhenjiang & Nanjing. Opium Wars
1842.8 Treaty of Nanjing gave British concessions. Opium Wars
1842-57 Samoans fought tribal wars.
1843 Yu Zhi founded Infant Protection Society. Daoguang Era
1843.11 French military took over Tahiti.
1844 China made treaties with USA and France. Opium Wars
1844 Wei Yuan wrote about countries overseas. Daoguang Era
1844 Polynesian became Hawaii’s official newspaper.
1845 China Mail was founded in Hong Kong. Daoguang Era
1845 Torii Yozo was banished for corruption. Japan
1846 Three French warships approached Korea.
1848 Philippines defeated Muslims in Mindanao.
1849 Guangxi famine stimulated revolt. Taiping Revolution
1849 French marines attacked a Honolulu fort. Hawaii
1849-63 Ch'olchong ruled Korea.
1850 Xu Jiyu wrote about the maritime circuit. Daoguang Era
1850 China Herald was founded in Shanghai. Daoguang Era
1850 Philippines allowed Chinese immigration again.
1851.1.1 Hong Xiuquan was proclaimed Taiping king.
1851 Hong Xiuquan was proclaimed Taiping king.
1851 Nian rebellion began in Anhui province.
1851-61 Xianfeng ruled Qing empire. Opium Wars, Rebellions
1852.2 King Hong ordered beheading for adultery. Taiping Revolution
1852.12 Taiping rebellion captured Yuezhou and weapons.
1852-63 Smuggler Zhang Luoxing led Nian rebellion.
1853 15,000 peasants demanded equality in Nambu. Japan
1853 France claimed New Caledonia. Melanesia
1853.9 Small Swords Triads took over Shanghai. Taiping Revolution
1853-54 Perry's US ships made Japan open to trade. Japan
1853-64 Taiping Revolution made Nanjing its capital.
1854 Zeng Guofan's Xiang army fought Taiping rebels.
1854 Two Russian warships killed some Koreans.
1855.2 French helped Qing army regain Shanghai. Taiping Revolution
1855 Taiping northern campaign failed.
1855 Yellow River flooding spurred rebellion.
1855-63 Zhang Luoxing organized and led Nian rebels. Rebellions
1856 Arrow incident provoked British in China. Opium Wars
1856 Taiping leaders killed each other.
1856 Smallpox killed 60% of Guam’s people. Philippines
1856-63 Miao Peilin led rebellions in Huai.
1856-73 Du Wenxiu ruled Muslims' Pingnan kingdom. Rebellions
1857 Spain made the Mariana Islands a prison. Philippines
1857 United States made a treaty with Fiji.
1858 Anglo-French forces took Tianjin, made treaty. Opium Wars
1858 Guo Songdao opposed war with Europeans. Qing Reconstruction
1858 Japan made another treaty with the US. Japan
1859 Konko Daijin founded the Konkokyo sect. Japan
1859 Jesuits returned to the Philippines.
1859-64 Hong Ren'gan was Taiping prime minister.
1860.3 Ii Naosuke was assassinated in Edo. Japan
1860 Anglo-French captured Beijing, got treaty. Opium Wars Qing
1860 Feng Guifen wrote Protest from Jiaobin Studio. Qing Reconstruction
1860 Loyal King led Taiping attack on Shanghai.
1860 Samoa adopted the Vaimauga code of laws.
1860-64 Ch'oe Che-u founded Tonghak religion. Korea
1861 Prince Gong initiated a foreign office. Qing Reconstruction
1861-75 Tongzhi's reign was a return to order. Qing Reconstruction
1861-1908 Dowager Empress Cixi ruled China. Qing Qing
1862.6 Zeng Guofan began siege of Nanjing. Taiping Revolution
1862 China made trade treaty with Russia. Opium Wars
1862 Chinese began making explosives, steamships. Qing Reconstruction
1862 Language college opened in Beijing. Qing Reconstruction
1862 Taiping army led by Shi Dakai invaded Sichuan.
1863 Li Hongzhang's Huai army captured Suzhou. Taiping Revolution
1863 Qing general Senggelinqin defeated Nians. Rebellions
1863 Philippines began free public education. Philippines
1863-75 Robert Hart was customs inspector-general. Qing Reconstruction
1864.6 King Hong Xiuquan died at Nanjing. Taiping Revolution
1864 Gong distributed Elements of International Law. Qing Reconstruction
1864 Reformer Sakuma Shozan was assassinated. Japan
1864.7 Zeng's troops stormed Nanjing, killed Taipings.
1864-66 Zeng released his army of 120,000. Qing Reconstruction
1864-73 Taewon'gun ruled Korea as regent.
1864-1907 Kojong reigned in Korea. Reforms
1865 Nian rebels killed Qing general Senggelinqin. Rebellions
1865 Li and Zeng began Jiangnan Arsenal. Qing Reconstruction
1865 Empress Cixi chastised Prince Gong. Qing Reconstruction
1865 Cho Tu-sun led revision of Choson code. Korea
1866.2 Last 50,000 Taiping surrendered to Qing army.
1866 Hart and ex-prefect traveled to Europe. Qing Reconstruction
1866 Taylor and missionaries went inside China. Qing Reconstruction
1866 Korea executed 8,000 Catholics.
1866 Fukuzawa wrote Conditions in Western World.
1866 Tahiti Assembly adopted the Code Napoleon. Tahiti
1866, 1871 United States ships encountered Koreans.
1867.11 Shogun Keiki resigned to serve the Emperor. Japan
1867-69 Zuo Zongtang quelled Shaanxi revolt. Taiping Revolution
1868.1 Keiki surrendered; Tokugawa lands were taken. Meiji Restoration
1868.3 Meiji charter oath was promulgated.
1868.4 Meiji regime proscribed Christianity.
1868 Li and Zuo Zongtang defeated Nians. Rebellions
1868 USA made treaty protecting Chinese immigrants. Qing Reconstruction
1868-98 Malietoa Laupepa was king of Samoa.
1868-1912 Imperial Meiji ruled Japan.
1869 Zuo's imperial army pacified Shaanxi. Rebellions
1869 Zeng Guofan wrote “Exhortation to Learning.” Qing Reconstruction
1869 Suez Canal shortened European sea travel. Qing Philippines
1869 Meiji made Edo the capital Tokyo.
1869.9.21 Spain’s new constitution reformed Philippines.
1870 Mob killed ten Catholic nuns at Tianjin. Qing Reconstruction
1870-77 Ya'qub Beg ruled Kashgaria. Rebellions
1870-95 Li Hongzhang governed Zhili province. Qing Reconstruction
1871 Telegraph reached Shanghai and Hong Kong. Qing Reconstruction
1871 Japan and China agreed to a trade treaty. Qing Reconstruction Meiji
1871 Japan banned the sale of girls as prostitutes. Meiji Restoration
1871 Nakamura translated Self-Help, Mill's On Liberty. Meiji Restoration
1872 British passed Pacific Islanders Protection Act. Tahiti
1872 Li founded Chinese Steamship Company. Qing Reconstruction
1872 Mainichi was Japan's first daily newspaper. Meiji Restoration
1872 In Cavite mutiny 3 Filipino priests were executed. Philippines
1872 British passed Pacific Islanders Protection Act. Melanesia
1872-76 Qing empire had a trade surplus.
1872-76 Fukuzawa published Encouragement of Learning.
1873 Zuo's imperial army pacified Gansu. Rebellions
1873 Emperor Tongzhi received diplomats. Qing Reconstruction
1873 Qing consulate located at Singapore.
1873 Japan began male conscription. Meiji Restoration
1873 Japan allowed Christian missionaries. Meiji Restoration
1873 Japan built its first railroad. Meiji Restoration
1874 Japanese invaded Taiwan, accepted money. Qing Meiji Conflicts
1874 Ma’afu and Cakobau ceded Fiji to the British.
1874-87 David Kalakaua ruled Hawaii.
1875.1 Itagaki and Kido began the Society of Patriots. Meiji Conflicts
1875.5 Shen Baozhen began governing Lianjiang. Qing Reconstruction
1875 Russia ceded the Kurile Islands to Japan. Meiji Conflicts
1875 Japan’s Press Law jailed 49 newspaper editors. Meiji Conflicts
1875 Fukuzawa published his theory of civilization.
1875 Tonga became a constitutional monarchy.
1875 Hawaii and the U.S. made a reciprocal treaty.
1875.9.19 Japanese killed 31 Koreans at Kanghwa. Meiji Conflicts
1875, 1877 Li Hongzhang ordered 8 gunboats from England. China
1876.2 Korea and Japan agreed to a friendship treaty.
1877 Satsuma rebellion led by Saigo was crushed. Meiji Restoration
1875-77 China recovered Xinjiang.
1875-83 Young J. Allen published The Global Magazine. China
1875-1908 Emperor Guangxu reigned in China. Qing
1876.2 Korea and Japan agreed to a treaty. Meiji Conflicts
1876 Japanese peasants rebelled against land taxes. Meiji Conflicts
1876.9 China granted concessions to British.
1876-92 John Fryer edited Chinese scientific magazine. China
1877.1 Japanese land tax was reduced from 3 to 2.5%. Meiji Conflicts
1877.2 Chinese set up embassy in London. China
1877.5.29 Ya’qub Beg died in Korla. Rebellions China
1877 Guo Songdao began reforming Chinese laws. China
1877 Zuo Zongtang used steam power in a woolen mill. China
1877 Satsuma rebellion led by Saigo was crushed. Meiji Conflicts
1877 Nakae translated Rousseau’s Social Contract. People's Rights
1878.5.14 Six samurai killed Okubo with swords. People's Rights
1878 Japan created elected prefectural assemblies. People's Rights
1879.4 Japan annexed the Ryukyu Islands. People's Rights
1879 Japanese school system was decentralized. People's Rights
1879 Fiji began importing Indian laborers.
1880.2.15 Fukuzawa called for student military exemptions.
1880 Japanese petitioned for a national assembly. People's Rights
1880 Tahiti became a French colony.
1881.2.24 Russia returned much of Ili to China.
1881.3 Okuma proposed parliamentary constitution. People's Rights
1881 Itagaki began the Liberal party. People's Rights
1881 Japanese police stopped 282 political meetings. People's Rights
1881 Spain abolished tobacco monopoly in Philippines. Filipino Reformers
1882 Chinese navy had fifty steam warships. China
1882 Shanghai Electric Company began. China
1882 United States passed Chinese Exclusion Act. China
1882 Fukuzawa founded News of the Times.
1882 Korean mob attacked the Japanese legation. People's Rights
1882.8.20 Chinese abducted the Taewon’gun from Seoul. Korea
1882.8.29 Chinese and Koreans fought at Seoul.
1882.9 Korea agreed to pay Japan reparations. People's Rights
1882-86 Korea made treaties with western nations.
1882-86 Matsukata’s deflation caused a recession. People's Rights
1883.9 Poor People's Party began in Chichibu.
1883.12 French defeated Black Flag army at Sontay. China
1884.4 Cixi replaced Prince Gong on Grand Council.
1884.6 Chinese army defeated French near Baché. China
1884 Japan began an army staff college. People's Rights
1884 5,000 people revolted in Saitama prefecture. People's Rights
1884.8.22 French fleet attacked Fuzhou. China
1884.12 Germany claimed northeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1884.12.4 Korean coup was defeated by Chinese. People's Rights
1884.12.6 Yuan Shikai rescued Taewon’gon. China
1884.12 Germany claimed northeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1884-85 Berlin Conference divided up Africa. Togo
1884-89 Mori Arinori reformed Japanese education. Japan
1885.4.18 Ito and Li signed the Convention of Tianjin. Korea People's Rights
1885.6 French withdrew from Taiwan and Pescadores. China
1885 Chinese defeated French at Damsu and Langson. China
1885 Tsubouchi published The Essence of the Novel. Japan
1885 Germany annexed the Marshall Islands.Micronesia
1885.7 Fukuzawa praised missionaries’ moral influence.
1885.10 Prince Chun established Navy Yamen in Beijing. China
1885-90 Liu Mingchuan governed Taiwan, built railways. China
1886 Futabatei published The Drifting Cloud. Japan
1886-94 Liu Bingzhang governed Sichuan, opposed West. China
1887 Kang wrote Universal Principles of Humanity.
1887 Portuguese annexed Macao. China
1887 Some Japanese objected to ballroom dancing.
1887 Rizal published the novel Noli Me Tangere.
1887.7.7 Kalakaua accepted the “Bayonet Constitution.” Hawaii
1887.7 Ito based Japan’s exams on a German system.
1887.12 Yamagata expelled party members from Tokyo. Japan
1888 Chinese navy got cruisers from Germany. China
1888 Japan began a navy training college. People's Rights
1888 Dominicans dispossessed Calamba tenants. Filipino Reformers
1888 British annexed southeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1888.12 Filipinos began La Solidaridad in Barcelona.
1889.2.11 Mori was murdered by a Shinto fanatic. Japan
1889 Yu Kil-chun wrote Observations on a Journey. Korea
1889.7.30 Wilcox led coup attempt in Hawaii that failed.
1889.10.18 Okuma lost a leg by a terrorist bomb. Japan
1889-95 La Solidaridad advocated Filipino reforms.
1890 Japan had 716 newspapers. People's Rights
1890.7.1 Japan held first national elections.
1890.10.30 Imperial Rescript on Education began in Japan.
1891 Rizal published his novel El Filibusterismo.
1892 Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate. Micronesia
1892.7.14 Rizal was deported; Bonifacio formed Katipunan.
1892.7.3 Rizal and Bonifacio began Philippine League.
1892-95 Wu Dacheng governed Hunan. Kang's Reforms
1892-96 Ito was Japan’s prime minister again. Japan
1893 Southern Solomons became British Protectorate. Melanesia
1894.3 2 Korean agents assassinated Kim Ok-kyun. China Japan
1894 US treaty excluded Chinese immigrants. China
1894 Japanese built a railway from Seoul to Pusan. Korea
1894 Kitasato studied bubonic plague in Hong Kong. Japan
1894.7.4 Dole became president of Hawaii.
1894.7.23 Japan forced Korea’s Kojong to expel Chinese.
1894.8.1 Japan declared war on China.
1894.9.16 Japanese army captured P’yongyang.
1894.10.9 Japanese drove Chinese out of Korea.
1894.11 Sun Yatsen began Revive China Society.
1894.11 Japanese attacked Dairen and Port Arthur.
1894.11.22 Japan and the US signed a trade treaty.
1894-95 Japanese defeated Tonghak rebellion in Korea.
1894-95 Otori implemented reform laws in Korea.
1895.1.7 King Kojong proclaimed “Guiding Principles.” Korea
1895.1.8 Japan made Kojong declare Korea independent.
1895.1 Queen Liliuokalani was arrested and abdicated. Hawaii
1895.3.4 Japanese shot Li Hongzhang in the face. China
1895.4.17 China signed Treaty of Shimonoseki. Korea Japan
1895.5.5 Japan agreed to give up the Liaodong Peninsula.
1895.5-6 Taiwan was independent for one week. China Japan
1895 Kang and Liao Qichao submitted memorial.
1895 Sheng Xuanhuai began Beiyang College in Tianjin. China
1895.9 Liang Qichao began Chinese Global Magazine. Kang
1895.10.8 Japanese killed Korea’s Queen Min.
1895.10 British banned Sun Yatsen from Hong Kong.
1895.11.4 Japan retroceded Liaodong to China.
1895-97 Jiang Biao headed education in Hunan. Kang
1896.2.11 King Kojong moved into the Russian legation. Korea
1896.3 Jacinto edited Freedom advocating revolt. Filipino Reformers
1896.4 So Chae-p’il began The Independence. Korea
1896.5 Russia and China made a defense treaty. Japan
1896 Russians gained mining and timber in Korea.
1896 Japan abolished duties on cotton.
1896.8.30 Bonifacio began Filipino revolution.
1896.10 London’s Chinese legation abducted Sun Yatsen.
1896.12.30 Rizal was shot by a Filipino firing squad.
1896, 1898 China borrowed £16 million from Consortium.
1896-97 Tan Sitong wrote On the Study of Humanity. Kang's Reforms
1897.2.20 King Kojong moved back to the Kyongun Palace. Korea
1897.5.10 Revolutionary Aguinaldo executed Bonifacio. Filipino Revolution
1897.5 Ashio Copper Mine had to reduce pollution. Japan
1897 Kang wrote Study of Confucius as a Reformer.
1897 Sun Yatsen published Kidnapped in London.
1897.11 Germany seized Jiaozhou and got 99-year lease. China
1897.11 Yan Fu began editing daily National Review. Kang
1897.12 Russia took Dairen and Port Arthur. China
1897.12.27 Aguinaldo was paid to go to Hong Kong. Filipino Revolution
1898.1 Kang Youwei began advising Emperor Guangxu.
1898.2.9 Independence Club protested Russian influence. Korea
1898.3 Big Sword Society began killing foreigners. Boxer Uprising
1898.5.1 Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. US Intervention
1898.6.11 Guangxu began decreeing Kang’s reforms.
1898.6.12 Aguinaldo declared the Philippines Independent.
1898.6.20 US Navy took over Guam. Micronesia
1898 British leased Weihaiwei and Kaulung. China
1898 Zhang Zhidong published Exhortation to Learning. Kang
1898 Yellow River flooded. Boxer Uprising
1898 Tonghak patriarch Ch’oe Si-hyong was executed. Korea
1898 Meiji civil code was enacted. Japan
1898.6-11 Okuma led Japan’s first party cabinet.
1898.8.13 Spaniards in Manila surrendered to the US. US Intervention
1898.9 Revolutionaries made the Malolos constitution. US Intervention
1898.9 Tan Sitong was executed. Boxer Uprising
1898.9.16 Guangxu made Yuan Shikai vice president. Kang
1898.9.21 Cixi took over Qing administration. Kang
1898.11.4 Kojong arrested 17 independence leaders. Korea
1898.12.10 Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. US Intervention
1898-1900 Yamagata was Japan’s prime minister.
1898-1902 Liang Qichao published Public Opinion. Sun Yatsen
1899.1.23 Philippine Republic was inaugurated. Filipino Independence
1899.2.4 Americans began war for the Philippines. US Intervention
1899.3 Yuxian began governing Shandong. Boxer Uprising
1899.5.5 Archbishop Nozaleda excommunicated Aglipay. Filipino-American War
1899.5 Tavera founded pro-American La Democracia. Filipino-American War
1899 Germany bought most of Micronesia from Spain.
1899 French Polynesia annexed the Leeward Islands. Tahiti
1899.7 Kang began Society to Protect the Emperor. Sun Yatsen
1899.10.22 Mabini founded the Filipino National Church.
1899.11.14 Germany and the US divided Samoa.
1899.11.21 Cixi ordered governors to fight invaders. Boxer Uprising
1899-1902 220,000 Filipinos died in the American war.
1900.5 Boxers killed 68 Chinese Christians in Zhili.
1900.6.3 Boxers destroyed Beijing-Tianjin railway.
1900.6.10 Boxers stopped British troops.
1900.6.14 Hawaii became a US territory.
1900.6.21 Cixi declared war on foreigners. Boxer Uprising
1900.6.21 A. MacArthur proclaimed amnesty in Philippines. Filipino-American War
1900 Northern China suffered a severe drought. Boxer Uprising
1900 Japan provided 4 years of schooling.
1900 Nitobe wrote Bushido: The Soul of Japan. Japan
1900 Tonga became a British Protectorate.
1900.7 200,000 Russian troops invaded Manchuria. Boxer Uprising
1900.7.14 Foreign troops took over Tianjin. Boxer Uprising
1900.8 Foreign troops defeated Boxers in Beijing.
1900.9 Ito formed the Seiyukai party. Japan
1900.10 Cixi and Guangxu fled to Tian. Boxer Uprising
1900.10 Huizhou revolt led by Sun Yatsen failed.
1900.12.20 MacArthur proclaimed martial law in Philippines. Filipino-American War
1900-04 Abad wrote 4 revolutionary plays. Philippines
1901.1.16 China agreed to pay foreign nations. Boxer Uprising
1901.1.21 Philippine Commission established public schools. Filipino-American War
1901.2.3 Fukuzawa Yukichi died.
1901.3.23 Americans captured Aguinaldo.
1901.4 Ronglu led Bureau of Government Affairs. Late Qing
1901 Palma’s El Renacimiento criticized corruption. Filipino-American War
1902.1.7 Cixi returned to Beijing. Boxer Uprising
1902.1.30 Japan formed an alliance with the British.
1902.2.2 Union Obrera Democrata began in Philippines.
1902.4 Russia promised to evacuate Manchuria. Late Qing Japan
1902 Kang Youwei wrote Book of Great Unity.
1902 Ban on Manchu-Chinese marriages ended. Late Qing
1902 Female foot-binding was banned. Late Qing
1902 Zhang Binglin published Urgent Advice. Sun Yatsen
1902 US removed Philippines’ tariff.
1902-04 200,000 Filipinos died of cholera. Philippines
1902-07 Liang Qichao published New People’s Miscellany. Sun Yatsen
1903.1.18 Bishop Aglipay led the Filipino Church. Philippines
1903 Kotoku and Sakai began Commoner’s Daily. Japan
1903 Russia refused to evacuate southern Manchuria. Sun Yatsen
1903 Zou Rong wrote The Revolutionary Army. Sun Yatsen
1903 China imposed taxes on tobacco and liquor. Late Qing
1903.7 Russians crossed the Yalu River. Korea
1903.12 Huang Xing began China Revival Society. Sun Yatsen
1904.2.8 Japanese attacked Port Arthur.
1904.2.23 Korea accepted a Japanese protectorate. Japan
1904.5.1 Japan’s 1st Army invaded Manchuria.
1904 Japanese troops occupied Korea.
1904 Shimazaki published The Broken Commandment. Japan
1905.1.2 Russia surrendered Port Arthur to Japan.
1905.3 Russia & Japan fought largest battle at Mukden.
1905.5.27 Japan’s navy defeated the Russian fleet.
1905 China ended government exams after 1300 years. Late Qing
1905.7 Taft-Katsura Agreement was signed. Korea
1905.8.13 Sun Yatsen began Revolutionary Alliance.
1905.9.5 Russia and Japan signed Treaty of Portsmouth.
1905.11 Japan’s Ito established a Korean protectorate.
1905.11.26 The People’s Report began publishing. Sun Yatsen
1905.12 China recognized Japanese gains in Manchuria. Late Qing
1905.12 Son Pyong-hui changed Tonghak to Ch’ondogyo. Korea
1905-06 Chinese boycotted American goods. Late Qing
1906.3 US Army massacred 900 Moros at Bud Dajo. Philippines
1906.6 Zhang Binglin was released from prison. Sun Yatsen
1906 Yuan Shikai started schools for self-government.
1906 13,000 Chinese were studying in Japan. Late Qing
1906 Qiu Jin began The Chinese Women’s Journal. Sun Yatsen
1906 Hulbert began publishing the Corea Review. Korea
1906 Yi In-jik published his novel Tears of Blood. Korea
1906 Australia took over British New Guinea as Papua. Melanesia
1906-08 Saionji was prime minister of Japan.
1907 Yuan Shikai and Zhang Zhidong were transferred. Late Qing
1907 China banned students from political meetings. Late Qing
1907 Sun Yatsen promoted southern uprisings.
1907 Japan expelled Sun Yatsen with money.
1907 Japan provided 6 years of schooling.
1907 Kojong sent 3 Yis to The Hague peace meeting. Korea
1907 Nacionalistas won Philippines national election.
1907.7.6 Xu Xilin killed Governor Enming of Anhui. Sun Yatsen
1907.7 30 anarchists were executed with Xu Xilin. Sun Yatsen
1907.7 Russia and Japan divided Manchuria.
1908.2 2 Koreans assassinated Durham Stevens. Korea
1908 Yi Hae-jo wrote Snow on the Temple Hair. Korea
1908 Yi In-jik published his novel Silvery World. Korea
1908.8.27 China announced plan for a constitution. Late Qing
1908.11 Guangxu and Cixi died, replaced by Puyi & Chun. Late Qing
1908-40 Hubert Murray governed Papua. Melanesia
1909.1 Prince Chun forced Yuan Shikai to retire. Late Qing
1909.2 China held first provincial elections. Late Qing
1909 Korea People’s News began publishing.
1909.10.3 Chinese National Assembly was half appointed. Late Qing
1909.10 25 million Chinese petitioned for a parliament. Late Qing
1909.10.26 An Chung-gun assassinated Ito Hirobumi. Korea Japan
1910.8 Japan annexed Korea.
1910.10 Song Jiaoren began editing People’s Stand. Sun Yatsen
1910-11 2,500,000 Chinese died from floods. Late Qing
1910-16 General Terauchi governed Korea.
1910-28 China used Qing Code of laws. Late Qing
1910-45 Japan governed Korea as a colony.
1911.1.9 Japan hanged 12 radicals.
1911.4 Huang Xing led rebellion in Guangzhou. Chinese Revolution
1911.5.8 Prince Chun appointed a new cabinet. Chinese Revolution
1911.5 Qing regime nationalized railways. Chinese Revolution
1911.6.4 Chinese People’s Party was organized.
1911 Yi Hae-jo wrote The Peony Screen. Korea
1911 Nishida published Study of the Good. Japan
1911 English became language of the Philippines.
1911.8.24 32 railway protesters were killed in Chengdu. Chinese Revolution
1911.10.10 Wuchang battalion began mutinies. Chinese Revolution
1911.10 Japan sent arms to Manchu regime and rebels.
1911.11 Jiang Kanghu founded Chinese Socialist Party. Yuan Shikai
1911.11.8 Beijing Assembly elected Yuan Shikai premier. Chinese Revolution
1911.12 Revolutionies took Shanghai and Nanjing.
1911.12.29 Nanjing government elected Sun Yat-sen. Chinese Revolution
1912.1 Japan loaned 3 million yen to China’s republic.
1912.2.12 Emperor Puyi abdicated to Yuan Shikai. Chinese Revolution
1912.2.14 Parliament elected Yuan Shikai president. Chinese Revolution
1912.3.10 Yuan Shikai was inaugurated in Beijing. Chinese Revolution
1912.7.8 Russia & Japan secretly divided Inner Mongolia.
1912.9.9 Yuan appointed Sun Yat-sen director of railways.
1912.10 Sun Yat-sen spoke at Socialist party congress. Yuan Shikai
1912.12 Guomindang won Chinese elections. Yuan Shikai
1912-26 Ministers governed during Japan’s Taisho Era. Japan
1913.3.20 Song Jiaoren was assassinated. Yuan Shikai
1913.4.26 Yuan Shikai borrowed £25 million.
1913 Yuan Shikai banned the Socialist party.
1913 Liu Sifu founded Consciousness Society. May Fourth Movement
1913 Han Yong-un wrote on revitalizing Buddhism. Korea
1913.7 Rebellion broke out in Jiangxi. Yuan Shikai
1913.9 Yuan Shikai suppressed the rebellion.
1913.10.7 China recognized Tibet’s autonomy. Yuan Shikai
1913.11.4 Yuan Shikai banned Guomindang.
1914.1 Yuan Shikai annulled the 1912 constitution.
1914.5.1 Constitutional Compact gave president power. Yuan Shikai
1914 Tang Xiangming executed 5,000 people in Hunan. Yuan Shikai
1914.7.8 Sun Yat-sen formed Revolutionary Party. Yuan Shikai
1914.8 New Zealand took over Western Samoa.
1914.8.23 Japan declared war on Germany.
1914.9 Japan invaded the Shandong peninsula.
1914.9 Australia took over German New Guinea. Melanesia
1914.10 Japan’s navy occupied eastern Micronesia.
1914.11.7 Japanese troops occupied Qingdao. Yuan Shikai
1915.1 Japan presented China with 21 Demands. Yuan Shikai
1915.3.18 Chinese began boycotting Japan. Yuan Shikai
1915.5.25 Yuan Shikai signed treaty with Japan.
1915 Pak Un-sik published Tragic History of Korea. Korea
1915.9 Chen Duxiu founded New Youth. May Fourth Movement
1915.10.25 Sun Yatsen eloped with Song Qingling. Yuan Shikai
1915.11 Assembly approved Yuan Shikai as emperor.
1915.12 Cai E in Yunnan led opposition to imperial Yuan.
1916.3.22 Yuan Shikai cancelled his monarchy.
1916.6.6 President Yuan Shikai died.
1916.8 Jones Law created a Philippines legislature.
1916.9 Besant began another Home Rule League. India
1916.10 Yamagata replaced Okuma with Terauchi. Japan
1916.12 Cai Yuanpei became dean of Beijing University. May Fourth Movement
1916-17 Li Yuanhong was president of China.
1916-18 200,000 Chinese worked for Allies in Europe.
1917.2 Telegram revealed Germany-Japan-Mexico plot.
1917.5.14 Duan Qirui declared war on Germany. China
1917.6.25 Guangzhou declared independence. China
1917 Western nations backed Japan’s 21 Demands. China
1917 Yi Kwang-su published his novel Heartless. Korea
1917 Japan loaned Duan Qirui 145 million yen.
1917.7.1 Emperor Puyi was restored for 12 days. China
1917.7 Guangzhou elected Sun Yat-sen grand marshal. China
1918.1 New Youth began publishing in baihua. May Fourth Movement
1918.4 Mao began New People’s Study Society in Hunan. May Fourth Movement
1918.5 Chinese students demonstrated. China
1918.5.18 Eugene Chen published “Selling Out China.”
1918.6.26 Korean Socialist Party was founded. March First Movement
1918.6.30 Young China Association was founded.
1918 Korean land survey was completed.
1918 Japan had rice riots; 700 were prosecuted.
1918.11.16 Truce was declared in China’s civil war.
1918-22 Japanese troops fought Bolsheviks in Siberia.
1919.1.21 Kojong died in mysterious circumstances. March First Movement
1919.2 Koreans signed Declaration of Independence. March First Movement
1919.3.1 Korean independence protests erupted. March First Movement
1919.4.8 Japan sent 6 battalions to quell Koreans. March First Movement
1919.4.14 Koreans declared independence in Philadelphia. March First Movement
1919.4.30 Wilson et al granted Shandong to Japan. May Fourth Movement
1919.5.4 Beijing students began demonstrations. May Fourth Movement
1919.6.1 President Xu declared martial law in Beijing. May Fourth Movement
1919.6.13 Premier Qian resigned. May Fourth Movement
1919.6 Shanghai students and workers went on strike. May Fourth Movement
1919 Literary magazine Creation began in Korea. March First Movement
1919 Okawa began Japan National Essence Society.
1919.7.25 Soviet Union renounced factories in China. May Fourth Movement
1919.8 Sun Yat-sen founded Reconstruction. China
1919.10.10 Sun Yatsen reorganized Guomindang.
1919-20 Droughts devastated northern China.
1919-21 John Dewey taught in China.
1919-27 Admiral Saito governed Korea. March First Movement
1920.1 Fiji cancelled its indentured labor system.
1920 Women began attending Beijing University. May Fourth Movement
1920 Pak wrote on Korean independence movement. Korea
1920 Yi Tong-hwi founded Korean Communist Party. March First Movement
1920 Korean Independence Army fought Japanese. March First Movement
1920 Japan began subsidizing Korean rice production.
1920 New Women’s Association began in Japan.
1920-21 500,000 Chinese died in famine. China
1920-21 Bertrand Russell lectured in China.
1921.5 China made treaty with Weimar Republic.
1921.5 Japan Socialist Federation was banned.
1921 Wu Peifu crushed federalist efforts. China
1921.7 Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was founded. China
1921.9 103 Chinese students in Lyons were deported. China
1921-22 Sun Yatsen & Chen Jionming governed Canton.
1922.2.6 China signed the Nine-Power Treaty.
1922 China had 91 major strikes.
1922 Japan accepted navy limits, open China.
1923.1 Communists joined the Guomindang.
1923.6 CCP congress formulated many goals. China
1923 Rabindranath Tagore lectured in China.
1923 Hawaiian legislature gained equal treatment.
1923.9.1 Earthquake devastated Tokyo and Yokohama. Japan
1923.10 Borodin began advising Sun Yatsen.
1924.5 China and Soviet Union made concessions. China
1924.5 Sun Yatsen appointed Jiang on Huangpu.
1924 Warlords battled in northern China.
1924 Sun Yatsen lectured on three principles.
1924 Lu Xun published a book on Chinese fiction.
1924 League of Korean Labor and Agriculture formed.
1924 US excluded Japanese immigrants. Hawaii
1925.3.12 Sun Yatsen died of liver cancer.
1925.3.15 Japan arrested 1,568 radicals.
1925.5.30 Police fired on Shanghai students. May 30th Movement
1925.6 160,000 went on strike in Shanghai. May 30th Movement
1925 Russians sent weapons to Feng Yuxiang. May 30th Movement
1925 Kim Ku replaced Rhee as provisional president. Korea
1925 Japan greatly increased those eligible to vote.
1925 Japan rejected germ warfare Geneva Protocol.
1925.7.1 Wang Jingwei was president in Guangzhou. May 30th Movement
1925.8.20 Guangdong governor Liao Zhongkai was killed. May 30th Movement
1925.12 Japan jailed students for dangerous thoughts.
1926.3 Jiang declared martial law in Guangzhou. May 30th Movement
1926.3.18 47 students were killed in Beijing. May 30th Movement Lu Xun
1926.4 Peasant Movement held first national congress. Nationalist
1926.5-10 Mao Zedong lectured on the peasant movement.
1926 Lu Xun published a collection of stories.
1926 Han Yong-un published The Silence of Love. Korea
1926.7 Jiang began Nationalist northern expedition. May 30th Movement
1926.10.10 Jiang’s Nationalist army entered Wuchang. May 30th Movement
1927.1.1 Guomindang moved from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Nationalist
1927.1 Chinese broke into Hankou foreign concessions. Nationalist
1927.1 Hunan peasant unions had 1,300,000 members. Nationalist
1927.1 Provincial Federation of Unions held congresses. Nationalist
1927.2.10 League Against Imperialism began at Brussels. Nationalist
1927.2.15 Communists and nationalists formed Sin’ganhoe. Korea
1927.2.16 Lu Xun spoke in Hong Kong on “Silent China.”
1927.2.19 O’Malley-Chen Agreement made on Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.3.11 General Labor Union (GLU) leader was executed. Nationalist
1927.3.14 Shanghai fleet went over to the Guomindang. Nationalist
1927.3 Mao wrote on Hunan peasant movement. Communism
1927.3.18 Shanghai GLU fought Zhang Zongchang. Nationalist
1927.3.19 Samoan League (Mau) was formed.
1927.3.23 Jiang’s Nationalist troops occupied Nanjing.
1927.3.24 Nationalist army ended strike in Shanghai.
1927.3.28 Guomindang (GMD) expelled Communists. Nationalist
1927.4.3 Jiang appointed Wang Jingwei in Shanghai.
1927.4.9 Jiang declared martial law in Nanjing.
1927.4.12 Green Gang attacked unions in Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.4 Zhang Zuolin killed 19 CCP in Russian embassy. Nationalist
1927.4 Jiang’s army arrested and killed Communists.
1927.4.15 GLU was banned and ended strike in Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.4.17 Wuhan government dismissed Jiang.
1927.4.18 Jiang formed Nationalist government in Nanjing.
1927.5 Mao led attack on towns near Changsha. Nationalist
1927.5 Hubei peasant movement claimed 2.4 million. Communism
1927.5.18 Xia’s army fought Communists in Wuhan. Nationalist
1927.5.21 Xu’s Changsha garrison raided leftists. Nationalist Communism
1927.6.1 Stalin ordered CCP to take over Guomindang. Communism
1927.6.2 Jiang’s forces took Xuzhou.
1927.6 Feng Yuxiang accepted subsidy from Nanjing. Nationalist
1927.6.24 Mao Zedong led CCP in Hunan. Communism
1927.7 Communists resigned from the Guomindang.
1927.7 Warlord Sun Chuanfang defeated Jiang’s army.
1927.7.15 Wang Jingwei expelled Communists from GMD. Nationalist
1927.8.1 Zhou Enlai led Nanchang revolt. Nationalist
1927.8 20,000 Communists in Jiangxi were defeated. Nationalist
1927.8 Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi forced out Jiang.
1927.10 Jiang went to Japan, took a second wife.
1927.10 Mao led a peasant revolt in Hunan. Nationalist
1927.11.5 Jiang met with Japan’s prime minister Tanaka.
1927.12.10 Wang Jingwei accepted Jiang and resigned.
1927.12 Communist revolt in Guangzhou failed. Nationalist
1927.12 Vietnam National Party was founded in Tonkin.
1927-29 Tanaka was Japan’s prime minister.
1928.1 Hirohito was ceremoniously enthroned. Japan
1928.2 Jiang reorganized the Nationalist government.
1928.2.20 12,409,078 men voted in Japan.
1928.4 Mao & Zhu set up Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet base. Communism
1928.4.18 Japan sent 5,000 troops to Shandong. Nationalist
1928.5.11 Japan’s forces defeated Chinese at Jinan. Nationalist
1928.5.18 Tanaka let Zhang Zuolin go to Manchuria. Nationalist
1928.6.4 Japanese killed Zhang Zuolin near Mukden. Nationalist
1928.6.8 Nationalists let Yan Xishan occupy Beijing.
1928 China made treaties with 5 European nations. Nationalist
1928 Nelson published The Truth About Samoa. Samoa
1928 Mead published Coming of Age in Samoa. Samoa
1928.7 CCP congress met in Moscow under Li Lisan. Communism
1928.7.25 US signed tariff treaty with T. V. Soong. Nationalist
1928.8 Japan signed Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war.
1928.10.3 Nationalists adopted a provisional constitution.
1928-33 T. V. Soong was Nationalist Finance minister. Nationalist
1929.1.1 China abrogated all unequal treaties. Nationalist
1929.1.10 Zhang Xueliang had 2 former advisers shot. Nationalist Japan
1929.3 GMD congress was mostly appointed. Nationalist
1929.5 Feng Yuxiang lost his army to bribes. Nationalist
1929 Mao Dun published his novel Rainbow.
1929 Ba Jin published his novel Destruction.
1929.10 27 generals rebelled against Jiang. Nationalist
1929.11 Kwangju student movement began. Korea
1929.12 Jiang defeated rebellion in Henan and Hebei. Nationalist
1929.12 Mao Zedong began rectification campaigns. Communism
1929.12.28 Police killed Tupua Tamasese and 10 Samoans.
1930.2 League of Leftist Writers began. Communism Lu Xun
1930.2 Mao appointed Liu Shaoqi to expel dissidents. Communism
1930.3 New Zealand sent marines to Samoa.
1930.5 Civil war began among Nationalists.
1930 30 Japanese universities passed 15,000 students.
1930 Japan recognized Jiang’s Nationalist government.
1930 Dionisio founded Tangulan secret society. Philippines
1930.7 Mao and Zhu De were defeated at Nanchang. Communism
1930.7.27 Peng Dehuai captured Changsha for 9 days. Communism
1930.8.25 Communist Party of the Philippines began.
1930.9 Nationalists banned left-wing groups.
1930.10 Communists took over abandoned Jian.
1930.10 Jiang was baptized as a Christian. Nationalist
1930.12 Li Shaojiu used torture to get names. Communism
1930.12.29 Zhu De’s army defeated 100,000 Nationalists. Communism
1930-36 Yi Kiyong wrote novels about peasants. Korea
1931.2.7 Police killed 24 leftist writers. Communism Lu Xun
1931.3 Pearl Buck published her novel The Good Earth.
1931.5 Communists fought 200,000 Nationalists.
1931.5 Wang Jingwei led government in Guangzhou. Nationalist
1931 CCP executed 4,000 democrats in north Fujian. Communism
1931 Nationalists abolished the transit tax.
1931 Jiang sponsored fascist Blue Shirts. Nationalist
1931 Yangzi flood caused 14 million refugees. Nationalist
1931 Shen Congwen wrote Remembering Hu Yepin.
1931 Korean Independence Party formed.
1931.7 CCP executed 400 men in 20th Army. Communism
1931.7 Jiang led 300,000 men against Communists. Nationalist
1931.9.15 Zhang Xueliang moved troops south. Nationalist
1931.9.18 Japanese attacked Mukden. Nationalist
1931.9.21 Japanese invaded Manchuria from Korea. Nationalist
1931.9.23 League of Nations asked for cease-fire. Nationalist Japan
1931.10 League told Japan to leave Manchuria. Nationalist
1931.11.7 Chinese Soviet Republic began under Mao. Communism
1931.12.10 League sent Lytton commission to Manchuria. Nationalist
1931.12.13 Inukai became Japan’s prime minister.
1931.12 United Australia party won elections.
1932.1 Zhou Enlai replaced Mao Zedong. Communism
1932.1.28 Japanese deployed in Shanghai. Nationalist
1932.1.29 Japanese navy bombed Chapei. Nationalist
1932.2.20 Inukai’s Seiyukai party won elections. Japan
1932.3 Ding Ling joined the Communist Party.
1932.3 Puyi became head of Manzhouguo. Nationalist Japan
1932.4 CCP declared war on Japan. Communism
1932.4.20 Mao Zedong led capture of Zhangzhou. Communism
1932.5.15 Naval officers assassinated Inukai. Japan
1932.5 Armistice set up neutral zone around Shanghai. Nationalist
1932 Dai Li took over Zhejiang Police Academy. Nationalist
1932 Nationalists executed 24,000 urban Communists.
1932 Japanese planes destroyed Commercial Press. Lao She
1932 Korean Provisional Gov’t moved to Nanjing.
1932 Japan registered 11,118 periodicals.
1932.9.15 Japan promised to defend Manzhouguo.
1932.10.10 Japan arrested 2,200 dangerous thinkers.
1932.10 Lytton report criticized Japan in Manchuria. Nationalist
1933.1 Lu Xun joined civil rights alliance.
1933.2 Mao headed Land Investigation Movement. Communism
1933.2 League of Nations rejected Manzhouguo. Nationalist Japan
1933.2.20 Police tortured writer Kobayashi to death. Japan
1933.3.27 Japan withdrew from the League of Nations. Nationalist
1933.5.4 Ding Ling was arrested in Nanjing.
1933.5 Japanese invaded northern Hebei. Nationalist
1933.5.31 Tanggu Truce made demilitarized zone in Hebei. Japan
1933 Red Army reached 500,000. Communism
1933 Lao She published his novel Cat Country.
1933 Mao Dun published his novel Midnight.
1933 Ba Jin published his novel The Family.
1933.11 Cai Tingkai’s Fujian lasted 2 months. Nationalist
1933-35 Yu Ch’i-jin wrote plays about colonial Korea.
1934.3.1 Puyi was proclaimed Emperor Kangde. Nationalist Japan
1934 Jiang signed a secret treaty with Germany. Nationalist
1934 Jiang banned labor unions in 5 provinces. Nationalist
1934 Sheng Shicai took over Xinjiang. Nationalist
1934 Mao Zedong wrote Guerrilla War.
1934.7 Zhou Enlai proposed joining Jiang against Japan. Communism
1934.10.16 First Army began long march from Jiangxi. Communism
1935.1 Mao became chairman of Military Council. Communism
1935.2.19 Kikuchi accused Minobe of blasphemy. Japan
1935.4.6 Japan banned Minobe’s writings.
1935.5.14 Philippines ratified a constitution.
1935.6 90,000 marching Communists met in Sichuan.
1935 Dai Li had 1,700 secret operatives. Nationalist
1935.10.20 Long march ended in Wuqizhen, Shaanxi. Communism
1935.11.12 2nd Army began long march from Hunan-Hubei. Communism
1935.11 Jiang nationalized silver & issued paper money. Nationalist
1935.12.9 Beijing students were arrested. Nationalist
1935.12 Red Army opposed Japan and Jiang. Communism
1935-44 Quezon was Philippines President.
1936.1 Zhang Xueliang and Mao agreed on cease-fire. Communism
1936.2 CCP attacked Japanese in Hebei and Rehe. Communism
1936.2 Liu Shaoqi began National Student Vanguard. Communism
1936.2.20 Democratic Minseito party gained seats. Japan
1936.2.26 Ultranationalists fomented a mutiny and coup. Japan
1936.2.29 Japan’s army defeated the coup attempt.
1936.3 Mao proposed truce with Nationalists. Communism
1936.4 Jiang attacked a Soviet during negotiation. Communism
1936.6 Guangdong and Guangxi challenged Nationalists.
1936.7.16 Mao predicted Japanese would invade SE Asia. Communism
1936.10 Japanese forces invaded Suiyuan. Nationalist
1936.10.19 Writer Lu Xun died of tuberculosis.
1936.11.25 Japan signed Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany.
1936.12.12 Zhang Xueliang’s guards captured Jiang. Nationalist
1936.12.25 Jiang promised not to attack Communists. Nationalist
1937.2.19 GMD & CCP formed a united front against Japan. Nationalist
1937 Lao She published his novel Rickshaw Boy.
1937 Filipino women gained the right to vote. Philippines
1937.7.7 Marco Polo Bridge incident led to war. China Japan
1937.8.13 Japanese and Chinese fought in Shanghai.
1937.8 Mao Zedong wrote “On Practice.”
1937.9 CCP agreed to cooperate with the Nationalists. China
1937.11.9 Japanese captured Taiyuan. China
1937.11.11 Chinese began retreating from Shanghai. Japan
1937.12.8 Jiang moved his capital to Chongqing. China
1937.12.12 Japanese army began raping Nanjing. China
1937.12.14 Japanese set up a government in Beijing.
1937.12.30 Philippines made Tagalog its official language.
1937-45 14 million Chinese men were drafted. China
1938.1.22 Jiang and Yan Xishan approved a CCP base. China
1938.5 Mao Zedong wrote “On Protracted War.” China
1938.5.19 Chinese gave up Xuzhou to the Japanese.
1938.7.29 Japanese troops attacked USSR.
1938.8.11 Japan and USSR made a truce.
1938.10.21 Japanese troops took Guangzhou. China
1938.10.25 Japanese troops captured Wuhan. China
1938.12.2 Chinese opened the Burma Road.
1938.12.2 Hirohito approved “Burn all; kill all; steal all.” Japan
1939.3 CCP began governing Shaan-Gan-Ning. Japanese Occupation
1939.5.11 Guandong Army invaded Outer Mongolia. Japan
1939.5 Japan began bombing Chongqing. Japan
1939 Pearl Buck published her novel The Patriot.
1939 Japanese occupied Guangxi and Jiangxi.
1939.7 US stopped selling oil and iron to Japan.
1939.7 Liu Shaoqi taught Communism at Yan’an. Japanese Occupation
1939.8 Zhukov’s army defeated Japanese in Mongolia. Japan
1939.9.15 Japan and USSR signed a truce.
1939.10 Mao began The Communist newspaper. Japanese Occupation
1940.1 Mao published On New Democracy. Japanese Occupation
1940.1.30 Japan inaugurated government in Nanjing.
1940 US sent 100 P-40 fighters to China. Japanese Occupation
1940.8-12 Communists attacked Japanese in north China. Japanese Occupation
1940.9.19 Free French took control of New Caledonia. Melanesia
1940.9.27 Japan, Germany and Italy signed Tripartite Pact.
1940.10.12 Premier Konoe began fascist IRAA. Japan
1940.11.30 Japan and Wang Jingwei signed Basic Treaty.
1940-44 Wang Jingwei helped Japan govern China. Japanese Occupation
1941.1.7 Nationalists attacked Communist troops. Japanese Occupation
1941.1 Japan helped Thailand defeat Indochina.
1941.3 Federation of Democratic Parties began in China. Japanese Occupation
1941.4.13 Japan and USSR signed a neutrality pact.
1941.4 USSR stopped loaning money to China. Japanese Occupation
1941 Communists held elections in the Yan’an zone. Japanese Occupation
1941 Syngman Rhee published Japan Inside Out. Korea
1941.7 Japan occupied most of Vietnam.
1941.7 Liu Shaoqi lectured “On Inner-Party Struggle.” Japanese Occupation
1941.7.24 Japan’s army occupied Saigon.
1941.7.26 Roosevelt combined US and Philippine forces.
1941.7.26 Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in US banks. Japan
1941.8.1 US embargoed oil, gas and metals from Japan.
1941.10.4 Sorge told Moscow that Japan was going south.
1941.10.16 Premier Konoe opposed war and resigned. Japan
1941.11 American-Japanese negotiations failed.
1941.12.7 Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor. Hawaii
1941.12.8 Japan attacked Malaya and Hong Kong.
1941.12.8 Japan invaded the Philippines.
1941.12.11 Japanese forces took Guam from US. Micronesia
1941.12.16 Japanese troops invaded British Borneo.
1941.12.22 Japan invaded Luzon.
1941.12.25 British surrendered Hong Kong to Japanese.
1941-44 Tojo Hideki was Japan’s prime minister.
1942.1.2 Japanese forces captured Manila. Philippines
1942.1 Pearl Buck published her novel Dragon Seed.
1942.2 Mao began his Rectification Campaign. China
1942.2.14 Japanese paratroopers invaded Sumatra.
1942.2.15 Japan took Singapore and 85,000 prisoners.
1942.3.8 Dutch surrendered to Japanese in Borneo.
1942.3.8 Japanese forces captured Rangoon.
1942.3.9 Dutch surrendered Java to the Japanese.
1942.4 Japanese disrupted Burma Road at Lashio. China
1942.4 Japanese forces took Bataan.
1942.4 Imperial candidates won Japanese elections.
1942.4.18 Col. Doolittle led bombing of Tokyo. Japan
1942.5.7 Corregidor fell to the Japanese.
1942.5 Mao Zedong lectured on literature and art.
1942.5 US and Japan fought in the Coral Sea.
1942.6.1 Japanese forces captured Mandalay.
1942.6 US navy defeated Japanese at Midway.
1942 2 million died in famine in Henan. China
1942 500,000 Chinese soldiers defected to Japan. China
1942 Koreans were conscripted into Japan’s army.
1942.8 Americans invaded Guadalcanal. Japan
1942.12.20 Japanese planes raided Calcutta. India
1942-45 Hukbalahaps fought the Japanese. Philippines
1943.1 Allies ended unequal treaties with China.
1943.2 Japanese evacuated Guadalcanal.
1943.3 Jiang published China’s Destiny. China
1943.6 MacArthur led US attack on New Guinea. Japan
1943 Japanese attacked the Hubei rice region. China
1943 Nationalists replaced Soviets in Xinjiang. China
1943 Japan lost 6,203 planes and 4,824 airmen. Japan
1943.10 Pearl Buck published her novel The Promise.
1943.11.1 China signed the Moscow Declaration.
1943.11.5 Tojo presided at Greater East Asia Conference. Japan
1943.11 Nimitz led US attacks on Gilbert Islands. Japan
1944.2 US Marines invaded Marshall Islands. Japan Micronesia
1944.3 Japanese and Indians invaded Assam.
1944.6 US B-29s began bombing Japanese targets. China
1944.6 Henry Wallace visited Chongqing. China
1944.6.15 US Marines invaded Saipan. Japan Micronesia
1944 Japanese forces invaded southern China.
1944.7.18 General Koiso replaced resigning Tojo. Japan
1944.7-8 US troops defeated Japanese on Guam. Micronesia
1944.10.12 US B-29s attacked Japan’s planes on Taiwan.
1944.10.19 Roosevelt recalled General Stilwell. China
1944.10.23 US-Japanese naval battle for Leyte Gulf began.
1944.10.23 Americans landed on Leyte. Philippines
1944.10.24 Roosevelt ended martial law in Hawaii.
1944.11 Gen. Hurley signed an agreement with Mao. China
1944.11 Qasimi proclaimed Eastern Turkestan Republic. China
1944.12 Jiang rejected an alliance with the Communists. China
1944-45 Communist counter-offensive expanded. China
1945.2 Americans captured Manila. Japan Philippines
1945.3.9 US B-29s killed 90,000 people in Tokyo. Japan
1945.3.16 US Marines secured Iwo Jima. Japan
1945.4.5 USSR cancelled neutrality pact with Japan.
1945.4 Guomindang congress met in Chongqing. China
1945.4-6 CCP held a national congress at Yan’an. China
1945.4-6 548,000 Americans invaded Okinawa. Japan
1945.6.22 Hirohito authorized peace negotiation. Japan
1945 US increased its aid to China.
1945 Dai Li directed 50,000 spies in China. Japanese Occupation
1945 France granted Tahiti an elected Assembly.
1945 Ban on farm workers’ unions in Hawaii ended.
1945.7.4 MacArthur proclaimed the Philippines liberated. Philippines
1945.7 Filipino workers began Democratic Alliance. Philippines
1945.7.26 Allies’ Potsdam Declaration warned Japanese.
1945.7.28 Premier Suzuki ignored Potsdam offer. Japan
1945.8.6 US dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima. Japan
1945.8.8 Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. China
1945.8.9 US dropped a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki. Japan
1945.8.10 Mao, Jiang, and Hurley met in Chongqing.
1945.8.11 Lin Biao’s PLA began occupying Manchuria. Jiang
1945.8.14 Japan agreed to Allies’ surrender terms.
1945.8.15 USSR began occupying north Korea.
1945.8.15 Hirohito spoke on Japanese radio.
1945.8 US and USSR divided Korea at 38th parallel.
1945.8.17 Japan’s government began burning documents.
1945.8.17 Prince Higashikuni replaced resigning Suzuki. Japan
1945.9.2 US and Japan formally signed surrender terms.
1945.9.8 US 8th Army began occupying south Korea.
1945.9.20 Stalin ordered liberal policies in north Korea.
1945.10.4 MacArthur abolished repressive Japanese laws.
1945.10.14 Kim Il Sung was welcomed in P’yongyang. Korea
1945.10.20 Syngman Rhee was welcomed in Seoul. Korea
1945.10.22 Militarist Japanese teachers were dismissed.
1945.11.16 236 of 455 Japanese films were banned. Films
1945.12.1 4 anti-war protesters were killed in Kunming. Civil War
1945.12.8 “History of the Pacific War” was published. Japan
1945.12.15 SCAP disestablished Shinto in Japan.
1945.12.17 Japanese women gained the right to vote.
1945.12.22 Japan’s Diet passed a Trade Union Law.
1945-49 Japan had Civil Censorship Detachment.
1946.1.2 USSR accepted trusteeship in north Korea.
1946.1.10 Marshall mediated a truce in China. Jiang
1946.1.24 Shidehara proposed a “no-war” article. Japan
1946.2.25 CCP and Guomindang made an agreement.
1946.3.27 Japan disbanded brothels for occupiers.
1946.3-5 US-Soviet Joint Commission in Korea failed.
1946.4 Lin Biao’s PLA captured Changchun and Harbin. Jiang
1946.4 Japanese elected 39 women to the Diet.
1946.4 US Congress passed Philippine Trade Act.
1946.4.23 Philippines elected Roxas president.
1946.5 Soviet forces withdrew from Manchuria. USSR
1946.6 2 million Nationalists attacked Communists. Civil War
1946 Pearl Buck published Pavilion of Women.
1946 Kurosawa directed No Regrets for Our Youth.
1946 US began testing nuclear bombs at Bikini Atoll. Micronesia
1946.7.4 Independent Philippines made treaty with US.
1946.8 Kamei’s film The Tragedy of Japan was banned. Censorship
1946.8.21 Japan’s Diet approved the new constitution.
1946.8.23 North Korean Workers Party formed.
1946.10 US declared martial law in south Korea.
1946.10 Japan’s Diet passed the Farm Land Reform Law.
1946.11.15 China’s new National Assembly met. Civil War
1946.12.25 Nationalists adopted a constitution. Civil War
1946-49 Japanese war criminals were tried.
1947.1 Marshall left China to civil war.
1947.1.31 MacArthur prohibited a general strike in Japan.
1947.3 Nationalist army captured Yan’an. Civil War
1947.3 US secured 22 bases in the Philippines.
1947.4 Katayama’s socialist coalition lasted 9 months. Japan
1947.5.3 Japan’s new constitution took effect.
1947.5 Nationalists banned strikes, protest & petitions. Civil War
1947 Shanghai had 2,538 labor strikes. Civil War
1947 Mao issued Manifesto of the CCP. Civil War
1947.7.18 US began UN trusteeship of Micronesia.
1947.10 Communists implemented agrarian reform. Civil War
1948.2 UNTCOK authorized elections in Korea.
1948.2 Japan had 123,510 homeless children.
1948.3.6 Roxas outlawed the Hukbalahaps. Philippines
1948.4.15 Roxas died and was succeeded by Quirino. Philippines
1948.4.19 Nationalists elected Jiang president. Civil War
1948.5.10 South Korea held democratic elections.
1948 Ding Ling wrote Sun Shines over Sanggan River.
1948 Communists’ PLA went on the offensive. Civil War
1948 Kurosawa directed Drunken Angel.
1948.7.20 ROK National Assembly elected Rhee president. Korea
1948.8.19 Nationalists issued new currency in emergency. Civil War
1948.8.25 DPRK held elections in north Korea.
1948.12.23 7 major Japanese war criminals were hanged.
1948-54 Yoshida was Japan’s prime minister.
1949.1.14 Mao announced 8 surrender conditions. Civil War
1949.1 Lin Biao’s army captured Tianjin and Beijing. Civil War
1949.1.21 Jiang resigned as president. Civil War
1949.1.28 Kim Il Sung praised the People’s Economic Plan. Korea
1949.3.17 USSR and DPRK made Assistance agreement. Korea
1949.3.25 Mao entered Beijing in triumph. Civil War
1949.4 South Korea arrested 80,710 Communists.
1949.4.21 Communist army crossed the Yangzi. Civil War
1949 Japan began 167 new universities.
1949 Japan had 6,500,000 members in 35,000 unions.
1949 Kurosawa directed Quiet Duel and Stray Dog.
1949.8 South and North Koreans fought in North Korea.
1949.9.24 Xinjiang’s Burhan went over to Communists. Civil War
1949.10.1 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. Civil War
1949.12.8 Jiang fled to Taiwan. Civil War

Copyright © 2005, 2010 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1715
Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950
Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of America to 1817

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