Links take you to the beginning of the section containing the
You can jump to the following years:
(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)
c. 13,000 Cereals were harvested in Nile valley. Egypt
c. 12,000 Dogs were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 10,000 Goats were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8500 Goats' milk was drunk in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8000 Women planted seeds in the Near East.Sumer
c. 8000 Brick houses were built at Jericho for 2,000 people. Israel
c. 7700 Sheep were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 7000 Emmer wheat was domesticated in Kurdistan. Sumer
c. 6500 Pottery was widespread in the Near East. Sumer
c. 6400 Wheel was invented by Sumerians. Sumer
c. 6000 Irrigation was used the Euphrates River. Sumer
c. 6000 Plow was used in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 6000 Catal Huyuk had 5,000 people. Sumer
c. 5500 Wheat and barley were cultivated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle were domesticated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Copper was smelted in Persia.
c. 5400 Eridu was first Sumerian city. Sumer
c. 5000 Yang-shao culture grew rice in China.
c. 5000 Wars were fought over water in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 5000 Dikes and canals were built in Egypt.
c. 4500 Boats sailed on the Euphrates. Sumer
c. 4000 Wheat, barley, peas, sesame were irrigated in Indus valley.
c. 4000 Asses, horses, buffalo, camels, cattle were bred in Indus.
c. 4000 Plows were used in China.
c. 3800 Uruk had 10,000 people. Sumer
c. 3500 Sumerians developed government by priests. Sumer
c. 3500 Wheeled vehicles were drawn by animals in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3500 Millet was grown in China.
c. 3400 Pictographic writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3100 Menes, first king of Egypt, conquered south. Old Kingdom
c. 3000 Cuneiform writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3000 Hieroglyphics were used in Egypt. Egypt
c. 3000 Uruk had 50,000 people. Sumer
c. 3000 Brick houses were built and cotton was woven in Indus valley.
c. 2890 Hetepsekhemui founded 2nd dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2800 Sickle was invented in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Paper was invented in Egypt. Egypt
c. 2700 Mebaragesi ruled Kish in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Djoser founded Old Kingdom, first pyramid in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2700 Physician Imhotep designed pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2613 Snefru founded 4th dynasty, great pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2600 Oxen were used with plows in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2600 Gilgamesh ruled Uruk. Sumer
c. 2600 Silk was manufactured in China.
c. 2580 Khufu built largest pyramid. Old Kingdom
c. 2550 74 attendants were buried with king at Ur. Sumer
c. 2525 Menkaure ruled Egypt 12 years. Old Kingdom
c. 2510 Kish king Mesalim arbitrated Umma-Lagash dispute. Sumer
c. 2500 Ziqqurats were built in Ur, Uruk, Eridu, and Nippur. Sumer
c. 2500 Cuneiform script was taught in Sumerian schools. Sumer
c. 2500 Libraries were established at Shuruppak and Eresh. Sumer
c. 2500 Epic of Gilgamesh was written in Sumer.
c. 2500 Ur-Nanshe built canals at Lagash. Sumer
c. 2500 Copper and bronze were used in Indus valley. Sumer
c. 2500 Iron was smelted in Near East. Sumer
c. 2480 Queen Khentkaues founded 5th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2450 Wisdom of Ptah-hotep appeared in Egypt. Early Egyptian Literature
c. 2450 Lagash King Eannatum warred on Elamites and Mari. Sumer
c. 2410 Lagash King Urukagina reformed priesthood. Sumer
2414-2390 Lugalzagesi ruled Umma, plundered Lagash. Sumer
2390 Kish King Sargon defeated Lugalzagesi.
2370 Sargon's wars established Akkadian empire.
c. 2350 Lungshan culture practiced divination in China.
c. 2345 Teti founded 6th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2300 Urban phase began in Indus valley.
c. 2290 Naram-Sin and Elamites made a treaty. Sargon
2275-2185 Pepi II ruled Egypt. Old Kingdom
2274 Naram-Sin died after ruling Akkadian empire. Sargon
c. 2250 Elamite King Puzur-Inshushinak claimed empire. Sargon
c. 2250 Legendary emperor Yao ended 70-year rule in China.
2249 Akkadian King Shar-kali-sharri killed in revolution. Sargon
c. 2220 Legendary Emperor Shun ended 30-year rule in China
2205-1766 Legendary Xia dynasty founded by Yu. China
c. 2200 Grain was milled in China.
2197- 2178 Gudea governed Lagash and rebuilt temples. Sumerian Revival
2185-2040 Civil wars occurred in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2176 Uruk Governor Utu-hegal revolted against Guti. Sumerian Revival
2169 Ur-Nammu was proclaimed King of Sumer at Ur.
c. 2160 Law code was promulgated by Ur-Nammu. Sumerian Revival
2150-2103 Shulgi ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2133 Mentuhotep I founded 11th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2103-2094 Amar-Sin ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
c. 2100 "Instructions for Merikare" was written in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2094-2086 Shu-Sin ruled disintegrating Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2083 Eshnunna became independent. Sumerian Revival
2073 Ishbi-Irra established Isin dynasty. Sumerian Revival
c. 2060 Third dynasty of Ur ended. Sumerian Revival
c. 2050 Eshnunna law code was formulated by King Bilalama. Sumerian Revival
2040 Middle Kingdom began in Egypt.
2009-1997 Mentuhotep III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
c. 2000 Decimal system used in Mesopotamia. Sumerian Revival
1991 Amenemhet I founded 12th dynasty in Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1971-1926 Sesostris I ruled Egypt and invaded Nubia. Middle Kingdom
1990-1980 Lipit-Ishtar ruled Isin with law code.
1980 Larsa King Gungunum attacked Isin.
1950 Babylonian dynasty founded by Amorite Samu'abum.
1917-1893 Enlil-bani ruled Isin.
c. 1900 Hittites settled in Anatolia.
c. 1900 Harappan civilization declined.
1890 Elamite Kudur-Mabuk took over Larsa.
1878-1840 Sesostris III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1869-1837 Shamshi-Adad ruled first Assyrian empire.
1850 Larsa King Rim-Sin defeated Babylonians.
1848-1806 Hammurabi ruled Babylon with law code.
1844-1799 Amenemhet III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1810 Mesopotamia conquered by Hammurabi.
1806-1768 Samsu-iluna ruled shrinking Babylonian empire.
1702-1682 Ammisaduqa ruled Babylon.
c. 1700 Hittite King Hattusilis I founded Hattusas.
1674 Hyksos took Memphis and ruled Egypt for a century.
c. 1650 Hittite King Mursilis captured Babylon.
c. 1650 Bronze was used in Yellow River area of China.
1626-1157 Kassite dynasty was founded by Agum II.
c. 1600 Babylonian hymn to Ishtar was sung.
c. 1600 Egyptian Book of the Dead was sold on papyrus.
c. 1600 "The Admonitions of a Prophet" was written by Ipuwer. Hyksos
c. 1570 Ahmose expelled Hyksos and founded 18th dynasty.
c. 1550 Hurrians established at Alalakh.
1546-1525 Amenhotep I ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1525-1512 Thutmose I expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
c. 1520 Tang founded Shang Dynasty in China.
1512-1504 Thutmose II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1504-1482 Hatshepsut ruled as regent in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1500 Horses moved from Egypt to Sahara. New Kingdom
c. 1500 Harappan civilization faded away in Indus valley.
c. 1500-900 Vedas composed in India.
1490 Kassite King Burnaburiash I made peace with Assyria.
1490-1436 Thutmose III expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
1480 Hurrian King Idrimi ruled at Alalakh.
1450-1425 Amenhotep II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1425-1417 Thutmose IV ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1417-1380 Amenhotep III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1400 Mitanni-Hittite treaty invoked Aryan gods.
1384 Pan Geng moved Shang capital to Anyang.
1380-1363 Akhenaten changed Egyptian religion. New Kingdom
1380 Suppiluliumas became Hittite king.
c. 1370 Hittite Suppiluliumas plundered Wassukkanni.
c. 1360 Mitanni king Tushratta was murdered. Hittites
1352 Tutankhamen died at 19 in Egypt. New Kingdom
1348-1320 Horemheb ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1320 Muwatallis became Hittite king.
1304-1237 Ramses II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1300 Egyptians fought Hittites at Kadesh. New Kingdom
c. 1284 Ramses II and Hattusilis III made a treaty. New Kingdom
c. 1275 Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt.
1274-1245 Assyrian Shalmaneser I destroyed Mitannians.
c. 1265 Tudhaliyas IV became Hittite king.
c. 1250 Shang king Wu Ding fought wars in China.
1244-1208 Tukulti-Ninurta I ruled Assyria.
c. 1240 Joshua and Hebrews invaded Canaan.
1221 Libyan invasion was defeated by Egypt's Merneptah. New Kingdom
c. 1200 Sea raiders destroyed Hittite empire.
c. 1200 "The Instruction of Amenemope" appeared in Egypt. Egyptian Literature
1198-1166 Ramses III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1179-1133 Ashur-dan ruled Assyria.
1157 Elamite king Shutruk-nahhunte captured Babylon. Assyrian Empire
c. 1170 Worker strike occurred in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1141 Philistines defeated Israelites. Conquest of Canaan
c. 1140 Elamite King Kutir-nahhunte died. Assyrian Empire
1133-1116 Ashur-resh-ishi ruled Assyria.
1124-1104 Nebuchadrezzar I ruled Babylon at Isin. Assyrian Empire
1115-1077 Tiglath-pileser I ruled Assyria.
c. 1100 Kosalas and Videhas ruled northern India. Vedas
1074-1057 Ashur-bel-kala ruled Assyria.
1050-1032 Ashurnasirpal I ruled Assyria.
c. 1030 King Wen originated 64 hexagrams of Yi Jing.
c. 1025 Shang Dynasty was overthrown by Zhou King Wu in China.
c. 1025 Samuel anointed Saul King of Judah.
c. 1020 Duke of Zhou regent for Zhou king Cheng.
c. 1012 David anointed King of Judah.
c. 1005-961 David ruled Israel.
1002 Zhou king Zhao died.
967-935 Tiglath-pileser II ruled Assyria.
c. 961-927 Solomon ruled Israel.
c. 950 Aryan conquest covered northern India. Vedas
945 Shoshenk I founded 22nd dynasty in Egypt.
934-912 Ashur-dan II ruled Assyria.
927-907 Jeroboam I ruled Israel.
926 Shoshenk I invaded Israel, plundered Jerusalem.
926-910 Rehoboam ruled Judah.
911-891 Adad-nirari II ruled Assyria.
908-868 Asa ruled Judah.
906-883 Baasha ruled Israel.
c. 900-700 Brahmanas were composed in India.
c. 900 Bharata war occurred in India. Brahmanas
c. 900 Arishtanemi refused to sacrifice deer at his wedding. Brahmanas
890-884 Tukulti-Ninurta II ruled Assyria.
883-859 Ashurnasirpal II ruled Assyria.
882-871 Omri ruled Israel.
878-841 Li Wang ruled Zhou kingdom.
878 Assyria's Ashurnasirpal II conquered Phoenicia.
871-852 Ahab ruled Israel.
868-847 Jehoshaphat ruled Judah.
c. 860 Elijah led prophet school at Mt. Carmel. Israel
c. 860 Ahab defeated Syrian king Benhadad. Israel
858-844 Aram ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
858-824 Shalmaneser III ruled Assyria.
853 Ahab and Syria battled Assyria's Shalmaneser III. Israel
851 Moab rebelled against Israel King Ahaziah.
851 Elijah died and was replaced by Elisha. Israel
851-845 Jehoram ruled Israel.
850 Marduk-zakir-shumi made King of Babylon. Assyrian Empire
849 Shalmaneser III attacked Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 845 Syrian king Benhadad besieged Samaria. Israel
845-840 Athaliah queen of Judah; Edom revolted.
845-818 Jehu ruled Israel.
840-801 Jehoash ruled Judah.
836 Civil wars began in Egypt during reign of Takelot II.
827-782 Xuan ruled Zhou kingdom.
823-811 Shamsi-Adad V ruled Assyria.
c. 810 Sammuramat (Semiramis) regent in Assyria.
818-802 Jehoahaz ruled Israel.
814 Carthage was founded in north Africa by Phoenicians. North Africa
810-785 Menua ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
806 Assyrian King Adad-nirari III invaded Syria.
802-787 Jehoash ruled Israel.
801-787 Amaziah ruled Judah.
c. 800-600 Book of Odes composed in China.
c. 790 Israel King Jehoash defeated Judah king Amaziah.
787-747 Jeroboam II ruled Israel.
787-736 Uzziah ruled Judah.
785-753 Argishti ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
783 Assyrian King Adad-nirari III died.
771 Zhou king Yu Wang killed by invading barbarians.
c. 760 Amos prophesied in Israel and Judah.
753-735 Sarduri II ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 750 Hosea prophesied in Israel.
c. 750 Scythians drove Cimmerians from Caucasus mountains. Assyrian Empire
c. 750 Harnesses and bits used by Europeans and Assyrians.
c. 750-400 Upanishads composed in India.
747-738 Menahem ruled Israel.
745-727 Tiglath-pileser III ruled Assyria.
744 65,000 Iranians displaced. Assyrian Empire
c. 742-697 Isaiah and Micah prophesied in Israel and Judah.
741-725 Ahaz ruled Judah allied with Assyria.
736 Assyria'sTiglath-pileser III defeated Urartu's Sarduri II.
731-723 Hoshea ruled Israel.
730 Kushite King Piankhi took Memphis. Egypt
730-698 Duke Xi ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
725-722 Assyrian King Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria.
725-697 Hezekiah ruled Judah.
722 Samaria captured by Assyrians. Israel
722-481 Spring and Autumn era in China.
721-705 Sargon II ruled Assyria.
c. 720 Marduk-apal-iddina II (Merodach-baladan) ruled Babylon. Assyrian Empire
720 Tefnahkte succeeded by Bocchoris in Egyptian delta.
716 Kushite Shabaka invaded Egypt. Nubia
714 Assyria's Sargon II attacked Urartu.
704-681 Sennacherib ruled Assyria.
701 Egypt and Judah rebelled against Assyria.
c. 700 Parshva taught nonviolence in India. Mahavira
697-686 Duke Xiang ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
696-642 Manasseh ruled Judah.
694 Sennacherib attacked Elam and destroyed Babylon. Assyrian Empire
690-664 Kushite Taharqa ruled Egypt.
687-652 Gyges ruled Lydia. Assyrian Empire
685-645 Duke Huan ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
684-646 Guan Zhong advised Duke Huan. Spring and Autumn Era
681-669 Esarhaddon ruled Assyria.
679 Duke Huan of Qi was made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
677 Sidon revolt was put down by Assyria.
671 Assyria's Esarhaddon drove Kushites out of Memphis. Egypt Nubia
c669-627 Ashurbanipal ruled Assyria.
664 Kushite Tanutamen invaded Egypt. Nubia
664 Elam attacked Babylon. Assyrian Empire
656 Psamtik's Saite dynasty united Egypt.
653 Medes attack on Nineveh defeated. Assyrian Empire
653-625 Scythians subjugated Medes. Assyrian Empire
651 Babylon's Shamash-shum-ukin revolted from Assyria.
c. 650 Kapila founded Samkhya philosophy.
c. 650 Lydia minted first coins. Assyrian Empire
649 Assyria's Ashurbanipal took over Babylon.
647 Qin duke Mu sent grain to Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
645 Jin duke Yi-Wu attacked Qin. Spring and Autumn Era
639 Assyria's Ashurbanipal destroyed Susa in Elam.
639-609 Josiah ruled Judah.
637-629 Zhong-Er ruled Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
632 Zhong-Er defeated Chu at Cheng-bu, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
631 Qin duke Mu's attack on Jin failed. Spring and Autumn Era
c. 630 Zephaniah prophesied in Judah.
c. 628-551 Zarathushtra taught new religion in Persia.
c. 627-580 Jeremiah prophesied in Judah.
626-605 Nabopolassar ruled Babylon.
623-612 Sin-shar-ishkun ruled Assyria.
c. 620 Deuteronomy codified laws of Moses. Judah
c. 620 Nahum prophesied in Judah.
616 Medes attacked Nineveh. Persian Empire
612-609 Ashur-uballit II ruled Assyria.
c. 610-560 Alyattes ruled Lydia. Babylonian Empire
609 Assyrian army surrendered to Babylonians.
609 Pharaoh Necho ordered canal from Nile to Red Sea. Egypt
605 Babylon defeated Egypt at Carchemish.
605-562 Nebuchadrezzar II ruled Babylonian Empire.
c. 600 Dharma Sutras passed on orally in India.
c. 600 Habakkuk prophesied in Judah.
597 Chu king Zhuang defeated Jin, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
597 Jehoiachin surrendered Jerusalem to Babylon. Judah
597-588 Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem for Babylon. Judah
595-589 Psamtik II ruled Egypt. Egypt
593 Psamtik II's Egyptians with Greeks invaded Nubia. Egypt
593-563 Ezekiel prophesied in Babylon.
593-568 Aspelta ruled Kushites at Meroe. Nubia
586 Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar captured Jerusalem.
586-573 Babylonians besieged Tyre.
585 Nebuchadrezzar mediated Mede-Lydian truce. Babylonian Empire
585-550 Astyages ruled Medes. Persian Empire
568 Babylonians invaded Egypt.
563 Siddartha Gautama (Buddha) was born in India.
562-560 Amel-Marduk ruled Babylon.
c. 562 Mahavira was born in India.
560-556 Neriglissar ruled Babylon.
c. 560-546 Croesus ruled Lydia. Persian Empire
559-529 Cyrus II ruled Persian Empire.
556-539 Nabonidus ruled Babylon.
553 Nabonidus recaptured Harran from Persians. Babylonian Empire
551 Confucius born in Lu.
550 Cyrus II took over Median empire. Persian Empire
c. 550 Purana Kassapa taught no-action in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Pakudha Katyayana taught eternalism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Ajita Keshakambalin taught materialism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Sanjaya Belatthiputta taught equanimity in India. Contemporaries
549 Persian Empire took over Armenia from Medes.
545 Heang Seu organized peace conference at Song. Spring and Autumn Era
544 Lydia's Croesus attacked Persians and lost empire.
c. 544-491 Bimbisara ruled Magadha.
542-480 Zilu studied with Confucius.
c. 540 Second Isaiah prophesied in Babylon.
539-538 Persia's Cyrus conquered and destroyed Babylon.
537 Cyrus made Cambyses King of Babylon. Persian Empire
537 50,000 Jews moved from Babylon to Israel.
536 Zheng criminal code cast in bronze in China. Spring and Autumn Era
534 Siddartha Gautama renounced the world in India.
c. 532 Mahavira renounced the world in India.
529 Chu king Ling died. Spring and Autumn Era
529-522 Cambyses II ruled Persian Empire.
528 Buddha founded religion in India.
525 Persian King Cambyses conquered Egypt.
522 Confucius disciple Jan Qiu born.
521-481 Yen Hui studied with Confucius.
521 Darius had Oroites executed in Sardis. Persian Empire
520 Confucius disciple Zi-Gong born.
520 Haggai prophesied in Israel. Jews
c. 520 Lao-zi wrote Dao De Jing in Chu.
c. 520 Mankhali Gosala taught transformation in India. Contemporaries
520-486 Darius ruled Persian Empire.
c. 519 Mahavira founded Jain religion in India.
519 Darius invaded Scythians. Persian Empire
518 Darius reconquered Egypt. Persian Empire
516 Jerusalem temple rebuilt by Jews.
514-496 King of Wu studied Sun Tzu's Art of War.
513 Hindush satrapy added to Persian Empire.
c. 512 Darius invaded European Scythians. Persian Empire
508 Ananda became Buddha's personal attendant.
507-425 Zi-Xia was a disciple of Confucius.
506 Wu invaded Chu, occupied capital at Ying. Sun Tzu's Art of War
506-443 Zi-yu was a disciple of Confucius.
505-436 Confucius Zeng Shen wrote Classic of Filial Piety.
503-447 Zi-zhang was a disciple of Confucius.
501 Confucius felt he understood his mission.
500 Ionian cities revolted against Persia.
499 Ionians burned Sardis. Persia
498 Cypress was defeated by Persians.
c. 495 Confucius traveled to Wei, Chen, Song, and Kuang.
494 Yue kingdom submitted to Wu. Sun Tzu's Art of War
494 Persians defeated Greek fleet off Miletus.
492 Ji Kang-zi of Lu asked advice of Confucius.
491 Devadatta caused schism among Buddhists. Community (Sangha)
c. 491-460 Ajatashatru ruled Magadha.
c. 490-470 Mahavira died; Sudharma led Jain order in India.
488-432 Hui ruled Chu. Period of Warring States
487 Qi rebellion attacked Lu; Zi-Gong advised states. Spring and Autumn Era
486-465 Xerxes ruled Persian empire.
484 Confucius returned to Lu.
483 Buddha died; first Buddhist Council was led by Mahakassapa. Community (Sangha)
482 Babylonian revolt by satrap Zopyrus defeated. Persian-Greek Wars
482 Wu military power dominated China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
482 Wu connected Yangzi to Shantung by canal. Sun Tzu's Art of War
c. 480 Analects of Confucius written.
480 1000 Greeks killed by Persians at Thermopylae.
480 Athens evacuated; Persians defeated at Salamis.
479 Confucius died in Lu.
479 Greeks defeated Persians at Plataea and Mycale.
479 Ionians revolted from Persia.
473 Wu destroyed and annexed by Yue. Sun Tzu's Art of War
470 Yue became protector in China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
c. 470-452 Arya Jambu Swamy led Jain order in India.
c. 470-390 Mo-zi taught philosophy of love in China.
465 Egypt revolted against Persia.
464-424 Artaxerxes I ruled Persian empire.
459 Athenians captured Memphis in Egypt.
458 Ezra led 1600 Jews from Persia to Jerusalem.
454 Persia reconquered Egypt.
453 Zhao, Wei, and Han states established in China. Warring States
453-221 Period of Warring States in China.
c. 450 Crossbow invented in China. Warring States
449 Treaty of Callias between Athens and Persia.
445-433 Nehemiah governed in Jerusalem for Persia. Jews
c. 440 Da Xue (Higher Education) by Zeng Shen or Zi-si. Confucian Works
c. 440 Zhong Yong (Center of Harmony) by Zi-si. Confucian Works
424-404 Darius II ruled Persian empire.
408 Wu Qi led Lu attack on Qi and Wei attack on Qin. Warring States
c. 405 Mo-zi imprisoned in Song.
404 Egypt revolted from the Persian empire.
404-359 Artaxerxes II ruled Persian empire.
c. 400 Zhou Rituals was written in China. Li (Propriety)
c. 400 Ramayana was passed on orally.
c. 400 Mahabharata by Vyasa was passed on orally.
c. 400 Kanada wrote Vaishesika Sutras.
c. 400 Ruth, Joel, Malichi, Jonah, and Esther. Jews in the Persian Empire
396 Egypt aided Sparta in war on Persia.
394 Persian navy defeated Spartan navy off Cnidus.
393 Mo-zi advised Prince Wen of Lu Yang.
386 Peace of Antalcidas was between Greeks and Persia.
380 Persia defeated Egypt and Euagoras.
377-353 Mausolus ruled Caria. Persia
371-289 Mencius taught Confucian philosophy in China.
370-319 Hui ruled Liang advised by Mencius. Warring States
c. 370-295 Zhuang-zi wrote Daoist musings in Song.
367 Ariobarzanes revolted from Persia.
367 Persia recognized independence of Messenia.
362 Ariobarzanes crucified by Persia in satrap revolt.
361 Agesilaus mercenary in Egypt's revolt from Persia.
359 Qin duke Xiao instituted reforms of ShangYang.
352-337 Han reformed by prime minister Shen Bu-hai. Warring States
c. 350 Nyaya Sutras by Gautama.
c. 350 Mimamsa Sutra by Jaimini.
c. 350 Vedanta Sutra by Badarayana.
c. 350 Jataka tales told in India.
340 Qin attacked state of Wei. Warring States
c. 340 Lie-zi told Daoist tales in Zheng.
339-329 King Wei ruled Chu. Zhuang-zi
338 ShangYang executed in Qin.
336-330 Darius III ruled Persian empire.
334 Yue taken over by Chu. Warring States
332 Alexander's army conquered Phoenicia, Judea, and Egypt.
331 Alexandria founded in Egypt. Alexander
328 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin. Warring States
328-308 Nastasen ruled Kushites using Meroitic script. Africa
328-299 Huai ruled Chu. Warring States
325 Hui proclaimed King of Qin. Warring States
324-300 Chandragupta founded Mauryan dynasty.
323 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Wei. Warring States
320-c. 310 Mencius advised Qi King Xuan.
c. 320 Qin army killed 80,000 in Han. Warring States
c. 320 Su Qin formed alliance against Qin. Warring States
c. 320-300 Ju Yuan diplomat in Chu, Qi, and Qin. Songs of Chu
317 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin again. Warring States
317 Eudemus left India. Mauryan Empire
315 Yen king abdicated, caused revolt; Qi invaded Yen. Warring States
314 Qin attacked Wei. Warring States
313 Qin king Hui-wen sent Zhang Yi to Chu with gifts. Warring States
c. 310 Qi and Qin defeated Chu, killing 80,000. Warring States
310-212 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in China.
c. 302 Qi king Xuan founded Ji-Xia academy. Warring States
c. 300 Ju Yuan composed Songs of Chu.
c. 300 Kautilya wrote Artha Shastra.
293 Qin army attacked Han and Wei, killing 240,000. Warring States
292 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
288 Qin King Zhao proclaimed Western Emperor in China. Warring States
288 Qi King was proclaimed Eastern Emperor in China. Warring States
286 Qi took over Song. Warring States
284 Yen, Qin, Wei, and Zhao invaded Qi. Warring States
284 Xun-zi and scholars fled Ji-Xia academy.
284-276 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in Chu.
c. 280 Qin devastated Zhao, Wei and Han. Warring States
c. 280 Han prince Han Fei-zi was born.
278 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
c. 277 Poet Ju Yuan drowned. Songs of Chu
276-265 Xun-zi taught at Ji-Xia academy in Qi.
c. 273-236 Ashoka ruled India.
265-259 Xun-zi taught in Qin and Zhao.
261 Ashoka converted to Buddhism.
260 Qin army defeated Zhao at Chang-ping, killing 400,000. Warring States
256 Qin army attacked Han, killing 40,000. Warring States
c. 250 Xun-zi magistrate of Lan-ling in Chu.
c. 250 Guan-zi and Book of ShangYang Legalist texts.
249 Qin army defeated and ended Zhou dynasty. Warring States
247 Li Si left Xun-zi and gained an office in Qin. Warring States
c. 247 Ashoka prohibited killing animals for sport.
247-207 Devanampiyatissa ruled Ceylon. India
246 Zheng became king of Qin. Warring States
237 Li Si succeeded Lu Bu-wei as Qin prime minister. Warring States
234 Qin army attacked Han. Warring States
234 Han king An sent Legalist Han Fei-zi as his envoy to Qin.
233 Legalist Han Fei-zi died of poison in Qin.
230 Qin annexed Han. Warring States
228 Qin annexed Zhao. Warring States
225 Qin annexed Wei. Warring States
223 Qin annexed Chu. Warring States
222 Qin annexed Yen. Warring States
221 Qin annexed Qi. Warring States
221 Qin king Zheng proclaimed August Emperor (Huang-di).
221-206 Qin dynasty united China.
220-210 Great wall construction continued in China. Qin Empire
219 Li Si made a high minister of Qin empire.
218 Attempted assassination of Qin emperor.
214 500,000 "criminals" sent to invade Luliang in China. Qin Empire
213 Qin emperor ordered books burned.
213 Li Si made chancellor of Qin empire.
212 700,000 forced to build Qin emperor's palaces.
210 First Qin emperor died.
209 Chen She began revolt against Qin dynasty.
208 Zhao Gao appointed Chancellor of Qin empire.
207 Second Qin emperor killed.
206 King Zi-ying surrendered, ending Qin dynasty.
206 Xiang Yu declared Protector king of Western Chu. Han Dynasty
206 Liu Bang (governor of Pei) appointed king of Han. Han Dynasty
206-8 CE Western Han dynasty ruled China.
205 Xiang Yu defeated king of Han. Han Dynasty
203-187 Nubians controlled Thebes.
202 Xiang Yu defeated committed suicide. Han Dynasty
202-195 King of Han named Emperor Gao-zu ruled China. Han Dynasty
201-169 Jia Yi wrote "Faults of Qin." Han Dynasty
200 Gao-zu established Chinese capital at Chang-an. Han Dynasty
c. 200 Daoist Lu Jia wrote New Discourses. Han Dynasty
c. 200 Yoga Sutras written by Patanjali. Yoga
196 Edict promoting men of virtue in China. Han Dynasty
195-188 Hui-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
194-185 Cao Can Daoist prime minister in Qi. Han Dynasty
188-180 Empress Lu ruled China as regent. Han Dynasty
c. 187 Brihadratha's death ended Mauryan dynasty in India.
c. 187-151 Pushyamitra ruled in India.
c. 180 Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach written. Judea
180-157 Wen-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
c. 179-105 Confucian Dong Zhong-shu founded Yin Yang school.
177 Xiong-nu invaded Honan.Han Dynasty
175 Bactrians invaded northern Mauryan empire.
174 Mao-Dun, founder of Xiong-nu empire, died. Han Dynasty
c. 170 Bactrian king Demetrius II conquered northwest India.
167 Mutilation removed from Chinese penal code. Han Dynasty
165 Civil service exams began in China. Han Dynasty
162 China's Wen-di made peace with Xiong-nu king. Han Dynasty
157-141 Jing-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
154 Chao Cuo executed for seizing territory in China. Han Dynasty
c. 150 Laws of Manu written.
c. 150 Panchatantra tales written down.
c. 150 Books found in house of Confucius. Confucian Works
c. 150 Steel and paper manufactured in China. Han Dynasty
145-101 Elara ruled Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 145-90 Sima Qian wrote biographies and history of China. Wu-di's Reign
144 Xiong-nu invaded Shanxi. Han Dynasty
141-87 Wu-di ruled China.
139 Huai-nan-zi presented to Wu-di.
136 Dong Zhong-shu founded imperial university in China. Wu-di's Reign
135 Empress Dowager Dou died in China. Wu-di's Reign
135-131 Chancellor Tian Fen promoted Confucians. Wu-di's Reign
133-119 Wu-di warred against Xiong-nu.
c. 130 Luxuriant Gems of the Annals written by Dong Zhong-shu. Confucian Works
128 China invaded Manchuria and Korea. Wu-di's Reign
122 Huai-nan king's rebellion failed. Wu-di's Reign
121 China invaded Mongolia. Wu-di's Reign
120 700,000 disaster victims moved to Shanxi. Wu-di's Reign
119 Imperial monopolies of salt and iron began in China. Wu-di's Reign
114 Wu-di's travel caused two governors' suicides.
112 China used criminals in army and construction. Wu-di's Reign
110 Wu-di broke with Confucians over sacrifices.
110 Sang Hung-yang began Chinese standards bureau. Wu-di's Reign
109 China invaded south to Vietnam. Wu-di's Reign
108 China established four commanderies in Korea. Wu-di's Reign
105 Chinese envoys reached Seleucia. Wu-di's Reign
103-90 China war with Xiong-nu killed many. Wu-di's Reign
103-76 Alexander Janneus ruled Judea.
102 Marius' proletarian Roman army defeated Ambrones.
101 Chinese sailors using compass reached India. Wu-di's Reign
101-77 Dutthagamani ruled and unified Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 100 Li Ji compiled by Dai De and Dai Sheng. Li (Propriety)
c. 100 "Sir Fantasy" poem written by Sima Xiang-ru. Wu-di's Reign
c. 100 Bhagavad-Gita written.
99 Du Zhou prosecuted many in China. Wu-di's Reign
99 Historian Sima Qian arrested and castrated. Wu-di's Reign
91 Many executed for sorcery in China. Wu-di's Reign
87-68 Ho Guang ruled China for Zhao-di and Xuan-di. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81 Japanese emperor Sujin ordered shipbuilding. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81 Salt and iron monopolies debated in China. Confucian China 87-30 BC
77-59 Saddhatissa ruled Sri Lanka. India
77-6 Liu Xian added to Songs of Chu.
c. 75-30 Kanvas dynasty ruled in India.
68-48 Xuan-di ruled China.
53 BC-18 CE Confucian philosopher Yang Xiong wrote. China
48-33 Yuan-di ruled China by Confucian principles.
43 BC-28 CE Huan Tan criticized Confucians. China
33-7 Cheng-di ruled China.
30-7 Satavana king Simuka ruled Andhra in India.
29-17 Vattagamani ruled island of Lanka. India
26 Romans secured sea trade to Somalia and India.
c. 20 Buddhist Tripitaka was written in Pali. India
14 Peasants revolted in China.
3 Wang Mang had his son and hundreds executed.
9-23 Wang Mang ruled China.
11, 14 Famines caused cannibalism in China. Wang Mang's Revolution
16-38 Kutkannatissa ruled Lanka. India
17 Peasant rebellion in Shandong led by Mother Lu. Wang Mang's Revolution
19 Wang Mang taxed Chinese property twice.
22 Red Eyebrows defeated imperial army in Liang. Wang Mang's Revolution
22 End of Shaka Maues' 40-year rule of Pahlava India.
23 Han armies sacked Chang-an and killed Wang Mang.
25-57 Guang Wu Di ruled China. Later Han Empire
25-220 Later Han dynasty ruled China.
32-92 Ban Gu wrote histories in China. Later Han Empire
39 Lady Trung Trac led rebellion in Vietnam.
43 Han general Ma Yuan conquered northern Vietnam. Later Han Empire
49 Chinese recognized Puyo king in Manchuria. Later Han Empire
c. 50 Ethiopian dynasty was founded at Axum. Ethiopia
c. 50 Buddhist Surangama Sutra written in Sanskrit. India
c. 52-68 Thomas established Syrian churches in Malabar. India
53 Taejo founded Koguryo state. Korea
73 Chinese army led by Dou Gu defeated the Xiong-nu. Later Han Empire
c. 75 Periplus of the Erythraean Sea by an Alexandrian. Ethiopia
78-101 Kanishka ruled western half of northern India.
79 Confucian scholars conferred on classics. Later Han Empire
83 Wang Chong wrote Balanced Discussion. Later Han Empire
89 Xiong-nu tribes surrendered to Han army. Later Han Empire
c. 90-165 Wang Fu wrote Remarks of a Hermit. Later Han Empire
91-102 Ban Chao protector-general of China's Western Regions. Later Han Empire
94 Fifty states sent tribue to Chinese capital Luoyang. Later Han Empire
c. 100 Buddhist Ashvaghosha wrote poetry, and plays. India
100-63 Daoist Zhu Mu wrote. Later Han Empire
105 Paper invented in China. Later Han Empire
110 Qiang revolted against Chinese. Later Han Empire
c. 125 Gautamiputra Satakarni restored Satavana kingdom. India
127-71 Vasabha founded dynasty on Lanka. India
133 Flogging of high officials ended in China. Later Han Empire
135 Chinese eunuchs can adopt heirs. Later Han Empire
145-76 Vasudeva ruled Kushanas. India
146 Chinese imperial academy had 30,000 students. Later Han Empire
c. 150 Nagarjuna founded Madhyamika school of Buddhism. India
c. 150 Indonesian traders settled on Madagascar. Java
151 Cui Shi wrote Treatise on Politics. Later Han Empire
159 Five eunuchs executed Liang Ji family. Later Han Empire
165-67 Plague spread from Parthia to Rome.
166 Roman army destroyed Seleucia and Ctesiphon. Parthian Empire
166 Buddha cult introduced at Luoyang court. Later Han Empire
174-96 Gajabahu ruled Lanka and invaded Cholas. India
175 Chinese departments headed by eunuchs. Later Han Empire
179 Buddhist Prajnaparamita translated into Chinese. Later Han Empire
184 Daoist rebellions erupted; 500,000 killed. Later Han Empire
184-214 Qiang had independent kingdom in Liang-zhou. Later Han Empire
187-226 Chinese governor Zhe Sie ruled Qiao-ji. Later Han Empire
189 General Yuan Shao massacred 2,000 eunuchs at Luoyang. Later Han Empire
192 Han general Dong Zhuo assassinated. Later Han Empire
198 Roman army plundered Ctesiphon. Parthian Empire
c. 200 Tamil poem The Ankle Bracelet (Silappadikaram). India
c. 200 Jain philosopher Kunda Kunda taught. India
c. 200 Bharata wrote Natya Shastra. India
c. 200 Bhasa wrote plays in India.
210-63 Ruan Ji wrote "Songs of My Cares." China
213-24 Artaban IV rules as the last Parthian king.
214 Cao Cao's forces conquered Qiang kingdom. Later Han Empire
216-74 Mani founded Manichaean religion in Persia.
220 Cao Cao died; his son Cao Pei founded Wei kingdom. China
221 Liu Bei proclaimed Shu Han dynasty. China
222 Sun Chuan founded Wu dynasty. China
223-62 Xi Kang taught transcendence. China
224 Persian Ardashir founded Sasanian dynasty.
226-40 Ardashir ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
226-49 Daoist Wang Bi advised Wei regency. China
231-33 Emperor Alexander Severus fought Persia. Sasanian Persia
234-86 Koi ruled Paekche. Korea
240 Mani proclaimed himself a prophet.
240-70 Shapur I ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
243 Romans drove the Persians out of Syria. Sasanian Persia
244 Wei army invaded the Koguryo capital. China Korea
248 Lin-yi (Champa) battled Chinese along the Song Giang. China
249 Wei king Sima Yi executed Cao Shuang and Ho Yen. China
253-333 Daoist alchemist Go Hung criticized Confucians. China
255 Persian King Shapur banished Mani.
259 Persians defeated, captured Emperor Valerian. Sasanian Persia
259 Palmyran King Odenathus destroyed Nahardea. Sasanian Persia
261-303 Lu Ji wrote "Poetic Exposition on Literature."
262 Syrian and Roman forces defeated the Persians. Sasanian Persia
265 Sima Yen founded Qin dynasty at Luoyang. China
269-91 Voharikatissa ruled Lanka. India
270-80 Funan and Champa fought Chinese. Vietnam
274-93 Bahram II ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
280 Qin annexed Wu kingdom. China
282 Persia lost Ctesiphon Seleucia to the Romans. Sasanian Persia
c. 284-336 Fan Yi ruled Lin-Yi. China
291 Persian Bahram II killed Manichaean leader Sisin.
291-99 Abhayanaga invaded and ruled Lanka. India
293-302 Narseh ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
296 Diocletian persecuted Manichaeans in Africa.
303 Hormizd II executed Manichaean leader Innai.
304 Cheng Han kingdom founded in Sichuan. China
309-22 Gothabhaya ruled Lanka and persecuted monks. India
313 Koguryo gained independence from Chinese. Korea
320 Chandra-gupta I inaugurated Gupta empire.
334-62 Mahasena ruled Lanka. India
334-417 Huiyuan proclaimed Pure Land Buddhism. China
c. 340-80 Samudra-gupta ruled Gupta empire.
341 Sasanian Shapur II made treaty with Armenia.
342 Xienpei invaded Koguryo. Korea
350 Sassanian king Shapur II made treaty with Kushanas. India
c. 350 Vasubandhu taught Yogachara Buddhism. India
c. 350 Ethiopian king Ezana adopted Christianity.
c. 350 Ethiopians conquered Kush.
356-402 Naemul ruled Silla. Korea
357-85 Fu Jian expanded Earlier Qin kingdom. China
371 Paekche army of 30,000 attacked Koguryo. Korea
372 Buddhism introduced into Koguryo from China. Korea
380-414 Chandra-gupta II ruled Gupta empire.
383 Fu Jian's Earlier Qin defeated by Eastern Qin. China
383-88 Shapur III ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
384 Chinese monk brought Buddhism to Paekche. Korea
386-534 Toba people founded Northern Wei kingdom. China
392-413 Kwanggaeto ruled Koguryo. Korea
393-415 Yao Xing ruled Later Qin and patronized Buddhism. China
399 Japan invaded Silla. Korea
399-414 Faxian traveled from China to India. China
399-420 Yazdgard I ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
c. 400 Kalidasa wrote plays and poetry in India.
400-02 Peasant rebellion threatened Jiankang. China
c. 400-1000 Puranas written in India.
413-91 Changsu ruled Koguryo. Korea
414-55 Kumara-gupta ruled Gupta empire.
417 General Liu Yu captured Luoyang and Chang-an. China
c. 420 Buddhaghosha translated and wrote Buddhist texts. China
421-38 Bahram V ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
424-51 Wu Di ruled Northern Wei, persecuted Buddhists. China
431 Chinese attacked Champa. Vietnam
438-57 Yazdgard II ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
444 Northern Wei declared Daoism official religion. China
446 Dongking governor Tan Ho-chu attacked Champa. Vietnam
455 Persia forbade Sabbath celebration. Sasanian Persia
455-67 Skanda-gupta ruled Gupta empire and defeated Huns.
459-84 Peroz ruled Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
475 Koguryo army of 30,000 captured Paekche's capital. Korea
479-500 Tongsong ruled Paekche. Korea
484-88 Balash ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
485 Wei government distributed land. China
488-531 Kavadh I ruled Persia. Sasanian Persia
c. 490 Mazdak taught socialist sharing in Persia. Sasanian Persia
499 Kavadh regained throne from Zamasp. Sasanian Persia
502-49 Liang Wu Di ruled Liang and promoted Buddhism. China
503 Kavadh invaded Armenia. Sasanian Persia
505 Kavadh agreed to a truce with Celer. Sasanian Persia
514-39 Pophung ruled Silla. Korea
c. 515-30 Huna Mihirakula ruled India.
523-34 Civil war fought in northern China.
523-53 Song ruled Paekche. Korea
525 Abyssinian army conquered Yemen. Sasanian Persia
528 Silla officially recognized Buddhism. Korea
531-79 Khusrau I ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
533 Khusrau I made peace with the Roman empire. Sasanian Persia
538-97 Zhiyi founded Tiantai Buddhism. China
540 Khusrau I led an army that attacked Syria. Sasanian Persia
540-75 Chinhung ruled Silla. Korea
543 Theodora sent Monophysite Julian to Nubia.
543 Funan king Rudravarman raided Dongking. Vietnam
544-47 Li Bon ruled Nam Viet. Vietnam
549-57 Persia battled the Roman empire. Sasanian Persia
551 Paekche and Silla attacked Koguryo. Korea
554 Persians and Turks destroyed the Hephthalites. Sasanian Persia
557 Rome and Persia made a five-year truce. Sasanian Persia
562 Khusrau I and Justinian signed a 50-year treaty. Sasanian Persia
562 Silla drove Japanese off the mainland. Korea
566-97 Kirtivarman I ruled Chalukyas. India
570 Muhammad was born in Mecca.
572 Persians drove Abyssinians out of Yemen. Sasanian Persia
573 Confucians win debate over Buddhists and Daoists. China
574 Persians captured Antioch and 292,000 prisoners. Sasanian Persia
574-622 Prince Shotoku applied ethics to Japanese government. Japan
577 Wu Di of Northern Zhou destroyed the Northern Qi. China
579-90 Hormizd IV ruled the Persian empire.Sasanian Persia
580-606 Prabhakara-vardhana ruled Thaneswar. India
581-604 Sui Wen Di ruled reunified China.
585 Buddhist proponent Yomei became emperor of Japan.
589 Sui army defeated the Chen.
590-628 Khusrau II ruled the Persian empire. Sasanian Persia
593-628 Soga empress Suiko reigned over Japan.
595 Sui dynasty imposed tribute on Champa king. China
595 Muhammad married Khadijah.
597-610 Mangalesha ruled Chalukyas. India
598 Koguryo encroached on the Chinese empire. Korea
c. 600 Tiru Valluvar wrote Tamil classic The Kural. India
601 Most schools in China were abolished by Sui edict.
602 Li family rebellion crushed in Vietnam.
602-64 Xuan Zang translated Buddhist texts. Tang Dynasty
604 Japan adopted Chinese calendar.
604-18 Sui Yang Di ruled China.
605 Persians over-ran Syria, Palestine, & Phoenicia. Sasanian Persia
606 Examinations based on Confucian classics instituted. Sui Dynasty
606-47 Harsha conquered northern India and wrote plays.
610 Muhammad began reciting the Koran.
610-42 Pulakeshin II ruled Chalukya empire. India
612-14 Chinese army invaded Korea. China
614 Persians captured Jerusalem. Sasanian Persia
614-69 Nakatomi Kamatari reformed Japanese government. Japan
617-86 Wonhyo taught Buddhism in Korea.
618-26 Li Yuan founded Tang dynasty.
618-907 Tang dynasty ruled China.
619 Persians invaded Egypt, conquered Alexandria. Sasanian Persia
621 Uniform coins were minted in Tang China.
622 Tang established protectorate over Annam.
622 Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina.
624 Japan had 46 Buddhist temples.
624 Muhammad and his men attacked a Quraysh caravan.
626-49 Tai Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
627 Chenla king Ishanavarman annexed Funan. Cambodia
627 Bani Nadir Jews joined the fight against Muhammad.
628 Khusrau II’s son deposed & killed him. Sasanian Persia North Africa
628 Tai Zong established relief granaries in China. Tang Dynasty
629 Muhammad made a pilgrimage to Mecca.
629-45 Xuan Zang traveled from China to India. Tang Dynasty
630 China subjugated the Eastern Turks. Tang Dynasty
630 Muhammad began a campaign against Byzantine Syrians.
631 Muhammad announced war against idolaters.
631-47 Koguryo built a defensive wall. Korea
632.6.8 Muhammad died in Mecca.
632-34 Muhammad was succeeded by Abu Bakr. Islamic Wars
634 Khalid with 40,000 Muslims took Damascus. Islamic Wars
634-41 China fought Tibet. Tang Dynasty
634 'Umar was elected second Caliph. Islamic Wars
637 New laws reduced capital offenses in China. Tang Dynasty
637 Muslims defeated Persian army; Basra was founded. Islamic Wars
637 Jerusalem capitulated to 'Umar's terms. Islamic Wars
638 Antioch bought safety for 300,000 gold coins. Islamic Wars
639 Famine and pestilence followed the conquest of Syria. Islamic Wars
c. 640 Bana wrote epic romances in Harsha's court. India
640 'Amr led the Muslim invasion of Egypt. Islamic Wars
641 Muslims defeated the Sassanian empire. Islamic Wars
641 Nubian Mukurra was attacked by Arabs.
642, 645 Muslims conquered Alexandria. Islamic Wars North Africa
643 Xuan Zang observed a great assembly at Kanauj. India
643 Qi prince Li You's revolt failed in China. Tang Dynasty
644 Caliph 'Umar was assassinated while praying. Islamic Wars
644-56 Caliph 'Uthman appointed Umayyad relatives.
645 Tang emperor Tai Zong led invasion of Koguryo.
645-55 Kotoku ruled Japan.
646 Great Reform was implemented in Japan.
647 Arabs took Caesarea in Cappadocia. 'Uthman and 'Ali
647 'Abd-Allah Ibn Sa'd led invasion of North Africa. 'Uthman and 'Ali
649-83 Gao Zong reigned in China. Tang Dynasty
650 Caliph 'Uthman lost the prophet's ring in a stream.
651 Nepal sent a mission to China. Tang Dynasty
651 Persian king Yazdgard was killed at Marv. Islamic Wars
651 Nubians made a treaty with Muslims.
654 Arab fleet captured Rhodes. 'Uthman and 'Ali
655 Koguryo and Paekche invaded Silla. Korea
655 Muslim navy made Cyprus pay tribute. 'Uthman and 'Ali
655-81 Vikramaditya I ruled the Chalukya empire. India
656 Caliph 'Uthman was assassinated by a conspiracy.
656-61 'Ali was the fourth Caliph amid civil war.
660 Arabs were repelled from India. 'Uthman and 'Ali
660 Mu'awiya was proclaimed Caliph at Jerusalem. 'Uthman and 'Ali
660-705 Empress Wu ruled China. Tang Dynasty
661 'Ali was the third consecutive Caliph murdered.
661-71 Tenchi ruled Japan.
661-80 Munmu ruled Silla. Korea
661-750 Umayyad Caliphate spread Islam.
662-84 Shiladitya III ruled Valabhi and conquered Gurjara. India
663 Japan withdrew from Korea.
664-73 Ziyad Ibn Abihi of Ta'if governed Basra. Umayyad Caliphate
666 Chinese currency was debased 90%. Tang Dynasty
668-76 Chinese forces occupied Korea. Tang Dynasty
668-703 Manavarman ruled Lanka. India
670 Tibet broke the peace with China. Tang Dynasty
672 Caliph Mu'awiya's navy captured Rhodes. Umayyad Caliphate
673-86 Temmu ruled Japan.
674 Empress Wu proclaimed a reform program. Tang Dynasty
674 Muslims attacked Constantinople. Umayyad Caliphate
674 Caliph Mu'awiya's navy captured Crete. Umayyad Caliphate
674-78 Muslims besieged Constantinople. Umayyad Caliphate
676-704 'Dus-srong ruled Tibet.
678 Mu'awiya made a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire. Umayyad Caliphate
680 Caliph Mu'awiya was succeeded by his son Yazid. Umayyad Caliphate
680.10.10 'Ali's son Husain and supporters were massacred. Umayyad Caliphate
683 Kabul revolted and defeated a Muslim army. Umayyad Caliphate
683 Muslims destroyed Medina and attacked Mecca. Umayyad Caliphate
685 Zabul's army was routed by the Arabs. India
685 Caliph Marwan was succeeded by his son 'Abd-al-Malik. Umayyad Caliphate
685-704 Caliph's brother 'Abd al-Aziz governed Egypt. Umayyad Caliphate
685-705 'Abd-al-Malik ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
686-97 Empress Jito ruled Japan.
687 Muslim revolutionary Mukhtar was killed at Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
689 Silla began land reform. Korea
691 'Abd-al-Malik led an attack on Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
692 Tibet regained four Turkestan garrisons.
692 Muslims defeated the Byzantine army at Sebastopolis. Umayyad Caliphate
692 Syrian forces led by al-Hajjaj captured Mecca. Umayyad Caliphate
694-714 Al-Hajjaj governed Sasanian provinces. Umayyad Caliphate
695 Zabul and Kabul defeated Arabs. Umayyad Caliphate
696-733 Vijayaditya ruled the Chalukya empire. India
697 Merkurios became Nubian king and strengthened church.
699 Koguryo general founded the state of Parhae. Korea
699 Muslim army returned to ravage Zabulistan. Umayyad Caliphate
c. 699-761 Buddhist Wang Wei wrote poetry and painted. Tang Dynasty
700-67 Abu-Hanifah of Iraq was a liberal jurist. Umayyad Caliphate
701-62 Li Bo wrote poetry. Tang Dynasty
702 Taiho code was promulgated in Japan.
702 Nepal revolted from Tibet.
702-36 Songdok ruled Silla. Korea
704-16 Pure Land Buddhist Ci-min traveled in India.
705 Wu Jing wrote government guidebook. Tang Dynasty
705-15 Al-Walid ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
705-55 Khri-Ide-btsug-brtan ruled Tibet.
709 Musa ibn Nusayr conquered Tangier. North Africa
710 Japanese capital was moved to Heijo (Nara). Japan
711 Tariq's Muslims defeated Roderick's army. Umayyad Caliphate
711-18 Muslims took over most of Spain. North Africa
712 Japanese ancient records published as Kojiki. Japan
712 Muslim general Muhammad-ibn-Qasim invaded Sindh. Umayyad Caliphate
712-56 Xuan Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
712-70 Du Fu wrote poetry. Tang Dynasty
713 Kashmir asked China for aid against Arabs. India
715 New statutes were promulgated in China. Tang Dynasty
715-74 Tantric monk Amoghavajra influenced Dai Zong. Tang Dynasty
716-41 Xuan Zong sponsored Tantric masters. Tang Dynasty
717-20 Caliph 'Umar ruled Islam more justly. Umayyad Caliphate
717-801 Sufi Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya of Basra lived and taught.
720 Japanese Nihongi chronicles were published. Japan
c. 720 Bhavabhuti wrote plays in India.
720-24 Caliph Yazid II reversed 'Umar's reforms. Umayyad Caliphate
721 Muslims were defeated at Toulouse. Umayyad Caliphate
722 Upper Chenla attacked Chinese at Dongking. Tang Dynasty
722 Chinese army had 600,000 men. Tang Dynasty
722 Songdok distributed land to farmers. Korea
724-43 Hisham ruled Islam as Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
724-49 Shomu ruled Japan.
c. 724-60 Lalitaditya ruled Kashmir. India
725 Muslims raiding in Burgundy sacked Autun. Umayyad Caliphate
726-40 Muslim armies invaded Asia Minor annually. Umayyad Caliphate
728 Early Sufi al-Hasan died.
729 Chinese government began census of Buddhists. Tang Dynasty
730 Tibet made peace with China. Tang Dynasty
c. 730 Vedanta philosopher Shankara taught in India.
733-47 Vikramaditya II ruled Chalukya empire. India
c. 735 Valabhi kingdom was destroyed by Arab invasion. India
735-37 Smallpox epidemic devastated Japanese. Japan
736 Tibet attacked Gilgit.
736 Kegon (Huayen) Buddhism was introduced in Japan.
740 Fujiwara Hirotsugu's rebellion was quelled. Japan
740 Husain's grandson Zayd Ibn 'Ali led a revolt in Kufa. Umayyad Caliphate
740-41 Tibet expelled foreign monks during a plague.
742-64 Kyondkok ruled Silla. Korea
744-50 Civil wars ended the Umayyad Caliphate. Umayyad Caliphate
744-57 Kirtivarman II was the last ruler of the Chalukya empire. India
745 Uighurs killed their last kaghan Bai-mei. Tang Dynasty
748-79 Kolofeng ruled Nanchao. Vietnam
749 Padmasambhava founded Adi-yoga Tibetan Buddhism.
749 'Abbasids proclaimed Abu'l-'Abbas al-Saffah Caliph. Umayyad Caliphate
750 Nan-chao allied with Tibet.
750-945 'Abbasid Caliphate ruled most of Islam.
751 Tang armies were defeated by Nan-zhao.
751 Muslim paper mill was founded at Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
752 Rushana (Vairocana) Buddha was dedicated in Nara. Japan
753 Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga controlled Maharashtra. Hindu Kingdoms
754-64 Chinese population fell from 52,880,488 to 16,900,000. Tang Dynasty
754-75 Caliph Al-Mansur ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
755-63 Rebellion against Tang was led by general An Lu-shan.
755 Tibet collected tribute from the Pala king of Bengal.
755-97 Khri-slon-Ide-brtsan ruled Tibet.
756-62 Su Zong reigned during An Lu-shan's rebellion in China. Tang Dynasty
756-88 Umayyad Rahman Ibn Mu'awiya ruled Spain at Cordoba.
756-1031 Umayyads ruled Muslim Spain.
758 Arabs and Persians sacked Canton. 'Abbasid Caliphate
759 Tang state began the lucrative salt monopoly.
762 Islamic capital at Baghdad was begun. 'Abbasid Caliphate
762-79 Dai Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
763 Tibetans invaded China's capital at Chang-an. Tang Dynasty
767 'Abd al-Rahman made a 20-year truce with Asturias. Umayyad Spain
768 Civil war broke out in Silla. Korea
768-824 Writer Han Yu criticized Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
772 Al-Fazari in Baghdad called Ghana the land of gold. West Africa
772-846 Bo Ju-yi wrote poetry and served government. Tang Dynasty
774 Javanese invaded Annam and Champa. Java
775-85 Caliph Al-Mahdi ruled most of Islam. 'Abbasid Caliphate
776 Early Sufi Abu Hashim died.
777 Early Sufi Ibrahim Ibn Adham died.
779-805 De Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
781-86 Tax rebellions occurred in northwest China. Tang Dynasty
781-806 Kammu ruled Japan.
781-857 Harith Muhasibi was a theologian of the Shafi'i school.
783 Persian prophet Salik Ibn Abdul Quddus was crucified. 'Abbasid Caliphate
785 Tibet invaded Shensi.
786-809 Caliph Harun al-Rashid ruled from wealthy Baghdad. 'Abbasid Caliphate
788 Silla instituted civil service examinations. Korea
788-820 Shankara taught Vedanta philosophy. Hindu Kingdoms
788-974 Idrisid dynasty ruled Morocco. 'Abbasid Caliphate
791 Buddhism was made the official religion of Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
793-814 Rashtrakuta king Govinda III ruled most of India. Hindu Kingdoms
794 Walid ibn Tarif in Jazira led a Khariji rebellion. 'Abbasid Caliphate
795 Islamic jurist Malik ibn Anas died. 'Abbasid Caliphate
796-859 Dhu al-Nun Misri was an ascetic Sufi.
797 'Abbasids and Byzantines exchanged prisoners.
c. 799-847 Vijayaditya II ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
801 Nan-zhao and China invaded Tibet. Tang Dynasty
802 Harun divided his empire between his two sons. 'Abbasid Caliphate
802-50 Jayavarman II ruled Cambodia.
803 Harun al-Rashid had his best friend Ja'far killed. 'Abbasid Caliphate
804 Tibetan king Mu-ne-btsan-po was murdered. Tibet
805 Saicho (Dengyo Daishi) founded Tendai Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
805 Rafi Ibn Layth led a rebellion in Samarkand. 'Abbasid Caliphate
805 Muslim navy plundered Cyprus. 'Abbasid Caliphate
806 Muslims led by Harun al-Rashid captured Tyana. 'Abbasid Caliphate
806-20 Xian Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
807 China had an army of 850,000 men. Tang Dynasty
807 Muslim navy plundered Rhodes. 'Abbasid Caliphate
813-33 Caliph Al-Ma'mun ruled from Marv and Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
816 Kukai (Kobo Daishi) founded Shingon Buddhism. Japan's Heian Era
817 Vengi king Vijayaditya II overthrew Rashtrakutas. Hindu Kingdoms
817-37 Ral-pa-can ruled Tibet.
c. 820 Chinese army reached 990,000 men. Tang Dynasty
820 Islamic jurist al-Shafi'i died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
821 Karakka reinstated Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I. Hindu Kingdoms
822 Tibetan king Ral-pa-can made peace with China. Tibet
824-44 Sena I ruled Lanka, fled Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
825-961 Muslims ruled Crete. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
827 Al Ma'mun declared the Qur'an a creation. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
827-40 Chinese emperor Wen Zong drank himself to death. Tang Dynasty
829-37 Toledo revolted. Umayyad Spain
831 Aghlabids occupied most of Sicily. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
832 Nanchao plundered the Pyu capital. Vietnam
833-42 Caliph Al-Mu'tasim acquired an army of Turkish slaves. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
836 Chinese were forbidden to relate to foreigners. Tang Dynasty
836 Al-Mu'tasim had a new capital built at Samarra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
836 Nubians made a treaty with the Baghdad Caliph.
840 Muslims destroyed independent Capua. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
840-46 Daoist Wu Zong ruled China and cut back Buddhists. Tang Dynasty
841 Muslims captured Bari. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
842-47 Caliph Al-Wathiq enforced his liberal views. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
843-46 Buddhism was persecuted in China. Tang Dynasty
844 Vikings raided Gijon, La Coruña, and Seville. Umayyad Spain
844-79 Sena II ruled Lanka and defeated the Pandyas. Hindu Kingdoms
846 Muslim army from Cordoba sacked Leon. Umayyad Spain
846-59 Xiuan Zong ruled China and revived Buddhism. Tang Dynasty
847-61 Caliph al-Mutawakkil reasserted Sunni orthodoxy. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
848-92 Vijayaditya III ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
849 Burmese capital of Pagan was founded. Burma
c. 850 Thousand Legends was translated into Arabic. 1001 Nights
852-86 Muhammad I ruled Muslim Spain. Umayyad Spain
854-93 Indravarman II ruled Champa. Cambodia
855-83 Avanti-varman ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
858-72 Yoshifusa governed Japan as regent.
858-922 Persian Sufi al-Hallaj lived.
859-73 Yi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
863 Nanchao captured the Annam capital. Vietnam
863 Utamish, first Turkish vizier, was assassinated. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
865-925 Al-Razi taught Platonic philosophy and medicine.
867 Muslims besieged Dubrovnik. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
868-905 Tulunids ruled Egypt and Syria. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
869 Al-Jahiz, author of Book of Proof, died. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-91 Al-Muwaffaq ruled for his brother Caliph al-Mutamid. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
870-950 Al-Farabi combined Platonic philosophy and Islam.
871 Ex-slaves destroyed Basra. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
871-907 Aditya I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
873-88 Xi Zong ruled China. Tang Dynasty
874 Persian Sufi Bayazid Bistami died.
874-83 Rebellions spread throughout China. Tang Dynasty
876 Ya'qub was defeated trying to take Baghdad. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
877-91 Fujiwara Mototsune governed Japan as regent.
878 Muslims conquered Syracuse. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
878-914 Rashtrakuta king Krishna II fought wars. Hindu Kingdoms
882-942 Saadia ben Joseph taught Judaic philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
883 Muslims defeated Byzantines at Tarsus. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
888-904 Xi Zong reigned over a disintegrating China. Tang Dynasty
889 Peasant uprisings began in Silla. Korea
892-902 Caliph al-Mu'tadid regained territories from the Tulunids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
892-907 Isma'il ruled the Samanid state.
892-922 Chalukya-Bhima I ruled the Chalukyas. Hindu Kingdoms
893-974 Yahya ibn 'Adi taught Jacobite Christian philosophy. Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, and Miskawayh
902-08 Caliph al-Muktafi made peace with Saminids and Saffarids. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
904 Chinese used gunpowder as a weapon. Tang Dynasty
907 Sufi Abu'l-Husayn an-Nuri died.
907-23 Zhu Wen founded the Later Liang dynasty. Tang Dynasty
907-53 Parantaka I ruled the Chola empire in south India. Hindu Kingdoms
907-60 Five dynasties and ten kingdoms ruled China. Tang Dynasty
908-32 Caliph al-Muktadir ruled a disintegrating Muslim empire. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
909 Fatimids and Berbers conquered Qairawan.
910 Sufi scholar Junayd of Baghdad died.
913 Al-Tabari wrote Muslim history up to this year. ‘Abbasid Caliphate 809-945
914-22 Rashtrakuta king Indra III captured Kanauj. Hindu Kingdoms
918 Wang Kon founded the Koryo dynasty. Korea
920 Fatimids built their capital at Mahdiyya.
929-47 Sindok founded a dynasty in east Java.
933 Tendai Ennin faction went to Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
935 Last Silla king Kyongsun surrendered. Korea
936 Koryo's first king Taejo unified the Korean peninsula. Korea
936-1030 Miskawayh wrote history and taught philosophy.
939 Vietnam became independent.
939-67 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III ruled an empire in India. Hindu Kingdoms
942-1017 Genshin wrote Essentials of Salvation. Japan's Heian Era
945 Cambodians invaded Champa.
945 Buyid brothers took power in Baghdad.
947-51 Later Hans destroyed 30,000 Buddhist monasteries. Tang Dynasty
947-1125 Khitans ruled Liao empire. Song Dynasty
949 Rashtrakuta king Krishna III defeated the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
953-69 Mahendra IV ruled Lanka and restored monasteries. Hindu Kingdoms
960 Fujiwara Morosuke wrote Admonitions of Kujo-den. Japan's Heian Era
960-76 Tai-zi founded Song dynasty.
960-1279 Song dynasty ruled China.
961-76 Al-Hakam II ruled from flourishing Cordoba. Umayyad Spain
962 Nubians occupied southern Egypt. Africa
968 Fatimids and Berbers took over Egypt.
974 Chalukya king Taila II defeated Ganga Marasimha III. Hindu Kingdoms
974-95 Rajamalla IV ruled Gangas. Hindu Kingdoms
976-97 Tai Zong ruled China. Song Dynasty
977 Sebuk-Tegin founded the Ghaznavid empire.
978 Chinese imperial library had 80,000 volumes. Song Dynasty
979-1027 Mahendra V ruled Lanka. India
980-1003 Queen Didda ruled Kashmir. Hindu Kingdoms
980-1010 Ferdowsi wrote The Book of Kings (Shah-nameh).
980-1037 Avicenna developed Aristotelian philosophy.
981 Annam (Vietnam) repelled a Song invasion.
981 Enryakuji monks demonstrated at court. Japan's Heian Era
981-97 Songjong ruled Koryo. Korea
985-1014 Rajaraja I ruled the Cholas. Hindu Kingdoms
988-1069 Buddhist Tilopa taught Naropa in India.
c. 989 Invading Ghazni sultan Sabutkin defeated Hindu chiefs. Muslim Invaders
990 Soninke of Ghana captured Awdaghost. West Africa
990-1006 Srivijaya fought east Java.
991-1031 Caliph al-Qadir codified Sunni doctrine. Buyids
992-1074 Drogmi taught Tantric Buddhism in Tibet.
993 Khitan army invaded Koryo. Korea
994-1064 Ibn Hazm wrote wise books.
c. 995 Sei Shonagon wrote Pillow Book. Japan's Heian Era
995-1027 Fujiwara Michinaga dominated the Japanese court. Japan's Heian Era
998-1022 Zeng Zong ruled China and paid Liao annual tribute. Song Dynasty
998-1030 Mahmud expanded the militaristic Ghaznavid empire.
999 Fatimids and Byzantines agreed to a ten-year truce.
1000-27 Ghazni ruler Mahmud invaded India 12 times.
1002-50 Suryavarman I ruled Cambodia.
1006-88 'Abdullah Ansari taught Sufis in Herat.
1009-28 Ly Cong Uan ruled Vietnam.
c. 1010 Murasaki Shikibu wrote The Tale of Genji.
1010 Gao king Kossoi became a Muslim. West Africa
1011-61 Nasr al-Daula ruled southeastern Anatolia. Buyids
1012-44 Rajendra I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1012-96 Kagyu-pa Buddhist Marpa taught Milarepa. Tibetan Buddhism
1013 Mahmud attacked and annexed most of the Punjab. Muslim Invaders
1016-1100 Naropa taught Marpa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1017-1137 Ramanuja taught non-dualist devotion to Vishnu. India
1017-73 Zhou Dunyi commented on the Book of Changes. Song Dynasty
1018-52 Rajadhiraja I co-ruled the Chola empire. India
1018-86 Sima Guang wrote a comprehensive history of China. Song Dynasty
1018-92 Nizam al-Mulk wrote Rules for Kings.
1019 Liao army was driven out of Koryo. Korea
1019-42 Airlangga ruled Java.
1020-77 Zhang Zai wrote Correcting Youthful Ignorance. Song Dynasty
1022-70 Ibn Gabirol taught Neo-Platonic philosophy.
1024 Paper money was introduced in China. Song Dynasty
1025 Cholas invaded Malayu. India
1025 Mahmud's army killed 50,000 Hindus in Kathiawar. Muslim Invaders
1028-31 Taira revolt was led by Tadatsune. Japan's Heian Era
1028-54 Ly Phat Ma ruled Vietnam.
1030 Chinese printed with movable type. Song Dynasty
1032-85 Cheng Hao taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1033-1107 Cheng Yi taught Neo-Confucian ethics.
1034 Punjab governor Ahmad Niyaltigin plundered Banaras. India
1036 Juddala chief Yahya b. Ibrahim went to Mecca. North Africa
1037-1101 Su Shi (Su Dong-po) was a Renaissance man. Neo-Confucian Ethics
1038-73 Badis ruled Berber kingdom of Granada. Umayyad Spain
1038-1227 Tanguts formed the Western Xia kingdom. Song Dynasty
1040 Seljuk Turks defeated Ghaznavids at Dandanqan.
1040-1123 Milarepa taught Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1042 Minh-dao law code was promulgated in Vietnam.
1042 Atisha brought Buddhist reforms from India to Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1042-69 Al-Mutadid ruled Seville. Umayyad Spain
1043 Bhoja and Hindu chiefs conquered Muslim territories. India
1043-68 Someshvara I ruled the Chalukyas. India
1044 Fan Zhongyen negotiated a treaty with Western Xia. Song Dynasty
1044 Koryo built a wall from sea to sea. Korea
1044-77 Anawrahta ruled Burma.
1046-83 Munjong ruled Koryo. Korea
1047 Wangzi led a revolt of Buddhists expecting Maitreya. Song Dynasty
1047-1101 Vinayaditya ruled Hoysalas. India
1050-62 Nine Years War was fought in Japan.
1053 Almoravids led by ibn ‘Umar took Sijilmasa. North Africa
1054-72 Ly Nhat Ton ruled Vietnam.
1055 Choe Chung began private schools in Koryo. Korea
1055 Tughril-Beg founded the Seljuk regime in Baghdad.
1055-1110 Vijayabahu ruled Lanka. India
1057-61 Vietnam battled Chinese.
1058-1126 Al-Ghazali wrote Intentions of the Philosophers.
1059-99 Ibrahim ruled the Ghaznavid kingdom in Afghanistan.
1063-72 Alp-Arslan ruled the Seljuk empire.
1065 Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan invaded Armenia.
1067 Seljuk Turks captured Caesarea.
1068-76 Someshvara II ruled the Chalukyas. India
1068-85 Shen Zong ruled China with Wang An-shi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1069-91 Al-Mutamid was king of Seville. Umayyad Spain
c. 1070 Vidyakara collected Treasury of Well-Turned Verse. Literature of Medieval India
c. 1070 Somadeva wrote Ocean of the Streams of Story. Literature of Medieval India
1070-71 Su Shi criticized Wang Anshi's reforms. Song Dynasty
1070-1120 Kulottunga I ruled the Cholas. India
1071 Seljuks defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert.
1072-92 Malik-Shah ruled the Seljuk empire.
1072-1127 Ly Can Duc ruled Vietnam.
1073 Dkon-mchog Rgyal-po founded Sakya monastery in Tibet.
1076 Almoravids took Kumbi in Ghana. West Africa
1076-1126 Vikramaditya VI ruled the Chalukyas. India
1078 China produced 114,000 tons of cast iron. Song Dynasty
1081 Hiei monks set fire to a monastery at Miidera. Japan's Heian Era
c. 1085 Sefawa king Dunama b. Hummay converted to Islam. West Africa
1086 Chola king Kulottunga I ordered a land survey. India
1086-1129 Shirakawa ruled Japan as retired emperor priest.
1087 Almoravid general Abu-Bakr b. 'Umar was killed in Tagant. West Africa
1088 Lanka king Vijayabahu made peace with the Cholas. India
1088-1172 Hemachandra taught Jainism. India
1095-1134 Gijimasu ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1096 Cholas under Kulottunga I invaded Kalinga. India
1097 About 67,000 crusaders have entered Asia. Crusades
1099.7 Franks conquered Jerusalem. Crusades
1100-25 Hui Zong ruled China lavishly. Song Dynasty
1104 Muhammad Tapar overthrew his brother in Iraq. Crusades
1104-07 Jurchen invaded Koryo. Korea
1108 Taira general Masamori quelled revolt. Japan
1110 Poet Jayangondar described Chola invasion of Kalinga. India
1111-17 Hangzhou prohibited male prostitution. Song Dynasty
1113 20,000 armed Kofukuji monks attacked Enryakuji. Japan
1113-50 Suryavarman II ruled Cambodia and annexed Champa.
1113-65 Alaungsithu ruled Burma.
1118-35 Vikrama Chola ruled Cholas. India
1120 Fang La led revolt that captured Hangzhou. Song Dynasty
1122 Two million killed in Chinese rebellion. Song Dynasty
1122-1234 Jurchens conquered north China, founded Jin dynasty. Song Dynasty
1124-1211 Western Liao ruled East Turkestan. Song Dynasty
1126-98 Averroes wrote Decisive Treatise.
1127-62 Gao Zong ruled southern Song China. Song Dynasty
1128 Ethiopians fought Muslim settlers in Shoa.
1129-56 Toba ruled Japan as cloistered emperor.
1130-1200 Zhu Xi taught Neo-Confucian Ethics.
c. 1131 Sana'i wrote The Enclosed Garden of Truth.
1132 Chinese used mortars. Song Dynasty
1133-1212 Honen founded Jodo (Pure Land) Buddhism. Japan
1136-94 Tsaraki ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1137-1270 Zagwe dynasty ruled Ethiopia.
1140-93 Renzong ruled Western Xia with Confucian institutions. Song Dynasty
1141 Western Liao defeated Seljuk Turks near Samarkand. Song Dynasty
1141-1215 Eisai founded Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Japan
1142 Southern Song agreed to pay Jin tribute. Song Dynasty
1146-70 Uijong ruled Koryo. Korea
1146-74 Nur-ad-Din ruled Aleppo and became sultan.
1147 Tusum founded Khyenpa Karmapa Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1149 Nur-ad-Din's forces defeated Raymond of Antioch.
1149-54 Fatamid al-Zafir was Caliph of Egypt. Nur-ad-Din
1150 Lharje founded Cur-lka monastery in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism
1153-91 Persian philosopher Suhrawardi was a mystic.
1156 Kalachuri king Bijjala took Kalyana from Chalukyas. India
1157 Baldwin III broke his treaty with Nur-ad-Din.
1163-79 Rajadhiraja II ruled Cholas. India
1165 Hiei monks burned down Hosso fortress in Kyoto. Japan
1170-81 Taira Kiyomori ruled Japan as regent.
1170-97 Koryo suffered civil wars. Korea
1171 Nubians attacked Egypt.
1173 Ghuzz Turks made Muhammad Ghuri governor of Ghazni. India
1173 Egypt's Turan-Shah attacked Nubians.
1173-1220 Ballala II ruled Hoysalas. India
1174-1211 Narapatisithu ruled Burma.
1177 Champa attacked Angkor. Cambodia
1178 Lakshmanasena began ruling Bengal. India
1178 Muhammad Ghuri attacked Gujurat. India
1178-1216 Kulottunga III ruled Cholas, ravaged Pandyas. India
1180-1185 Minamoto defeated Taira clan in Gempei civil war. Japan
1183 Yoritomi established bakufu at Kamakura. Japan
1186 Muhammad Ghuri captured Khusrav Malik at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1188 Farid al-Din 'Attar wrote Conference of the Birds.
1190 Cambodia invaded Champa.
1190 Buddhist monk Chapata returned to Burma.
1192-99 Yoritomi ruled Japan as shogun.
1193 Hoysala king Ballala II proclaimed independence. India
1194 Zen prohibited in Japan.
1195 Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucian school banned in China.
1197 Aybak's Muslim army invaded Gujurat, killing 50,000. Muslim Invaders
1197-1276 Madhva taught dualist Vedanta philosophy. Hindu
1198-1200 Peasants and slaves revolted in Koryo. Korea
1198-1221 Go-Toba served as cloistered emperor of Japan.
1202 Koryo army mutinied. Korea
1202 Aybak besieged Chandella king Paramardi at Kalanjara. India
1203 Soso chief Sumaguru Kante sacked Kumbi. West Africa
1203-20 Champa was ruled by Cambodia.
1206 Jurchens Jin army defeated fleeing Song forces. Song Dynasty
1206 Temujin proclaimed Genghis Khan of Mongol empire.
1206 Muhammad Ghuri murdered at Lahore. Muslim Invaders
1207-73 Jalal al-Din Rumi wrote Masnavi tales and Discourses.
1212 Kamo Chomei wrote "An Account of My Hut." Japan
1215-1313 Tekla-Haymanot founded Asbo monastery. Ethiopia
1216 Iltutmish captured his rival Yildiz in the Punjab. India
1220-34 Narasimha II ruled Hoysala. India
1221 Go-Toba banished after failed revolt. Japan
1221 Mongols’ Genghis Khan invaded India & Persia. Crusades
1222-82 Nichiren taught Buddhist chanting. Japan
1224-42 Hojo Yasutoki ruled Japan as regent for the shogun.
1225 Tran dynasty founded in Vietnam.
1225-64 Li Zong ruled southern Song China.
1227 Genghis Khan was killed besieging Xingzhongfu. Mongol Empire
1229 Friedrich II made Jerusalem treaty with al-Kamil. Crusades
1229-36 Baghdad Caliph recognized Iltutmish as Delhi sultan. India
1229-41 Ogodei ruled East Asian Mongol empire.
1229-42 Khitan prince Yelu Quzai administered Mongol empire.
1231-32 Mongol army invaded Koryo. Korea
1232 Joei Formulary established feudal law in Japan.
1234 Chahadadeva captured Narwar from Muslims. India
1234-63 Someshvara ruled Hoysalas. India
1235 Sundiata defeated and killed Sumaguru, founded Mali. West Africa
1235 Nasir ad-Din Tusi wrote The Nasiriean Ethics.
1236 Mongols issued paper money.
1236-83 Poet Wen Tianxiang executed by Kublai Khan. Mongol Empire
1238 Thais defeated Khmers at Sukothai. Thailand
1239 Mongol army led by Ogodei's son Koden invaded Tibet.
1239-1317 Thai leader Mangrai founded Chiengmai. Thailand
1243-95 Jayavarman VIII ruled Cambodia.
1244 Tibetan Sakya Panchen initiated Godan in Mongolia.
1245 Mongols invaded India.
1246-79 Rajendra III ruled Cholas. India
1247 500 Miura warriors committed suicide. Japan
c. 1247 Hojo Shigetoki wrote "Family Instructions." Japan
1248 Iyesus-Mo'a founded monastic school in Amhara. Japan
1251 Muslim general Balban defeated Chahadadeva. Muslim Invaders
1252 Mongols invaded Tibet.
1252-1334 Shaikh Safi al-Din founded Safavi religious order. Persia
1253 Kublai Khan's forces conquered Nanchao. Mongol Empire
1253-54 Indian Muslim Raihan replaced Balban at Delhi. India
1253-57 Mongols sacked major cities of Koryo. Korea
1253-1325 Amir Khusrau wrote Persian poetry. Muslim Invaders
1255-70 Wali ruled Mali empire. West Africa
1256 Mongols led by Hulagu invaded Turkestan and Persia.
1256-87 Narathihapate misruled Burma.
1257 Mongols pillaged Hanoi. Vietnam
1258 Mongol army sacked Baghdad. Crusades
1258 Sa'di published The Rose Garden.
1260 Mongols captured Damascus.
1260 Egyptians defeated Mongols at ‘Ain Jalut. Middle East
1260-94 Kublai Khan ruled Mongol empire.
1265-82 Mongol Il-khan Abagha ruled Persia.
1265-87 Balban ruled Delhi sultanate. India
1268-92 Kertanagara ruled Java.
1268-1310 Maravarman Kulashekhara ruled Pandyas. India
1270 Yekunno-Amlak claimed Solomonid dynasty in Ethiopia.
1272 Nubian King Dawud captured 'Aydhab.
1274, 1281 Mongols, Chinese, and Koreans invaded Kyushu. Japan
1275-91 Marco Polo served Kublai Khan in China. Mongol Empire
1275-1308 Chungnyol ruled Koryo. Korea
1276 Mongols captured Song capital at Linan.
1277, 1283 Mongol army defeated Burmese. Burma
1279 Pandyas annexed territories of Cholas and Hoysalas. India
1279-90 Kalavun was sultan of Egypt. Crusades
1279-98 Ramkamhaeng ruled Thais at Sukothai. Thailand
1279-1368 Mongols ruled China as Yuan dynasty.
1283-1350 Yoshida Kenko wrote "Essays in Idleness." Feudal Japan
1285 Mongols invaded India.
1285 Iran Mongols invaded southern Tibet.
1285 Kublai Khan's son Togan defeated by Vietnam.
1285 Ifat king 'Umar Walasma defeated and annexed Shoa. Ethiopia
1285 Sakura usurped Mali throne. West Africa
1286-1324 Guan Yunshi advised Confucian reforms. Yuan Dynasty
1289 Kalavun’s Egyptian army destroyed Tripoli. Crusades
1289 Grand Canal built from Hangzhou to Beijing. Mongol Empire
1290 Chinese army burned Drigung temple in Tibet.
1290 Khalji Jalal-ud-din Firuz became sultan in Delhi. India
1290 Nubian King Shamamun captured garrison at Dunkula.
1291 Mamluks destroyed Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa. Crusades
c. 1293 Marco Polo visited south India.
1294-1307 Temur ruled Mongol China. Yuan Dynasty
1295 Malayu submitted to Thailand.
1295-1304 Ghazan founded Mongols' Il-khan dynasty. Crusades
1295-1308 Indravarman III ruled Cambodia with Buddhism.
1296-1316 'Ala-ud-din Khalji ruled Delhi Sultanate. Delhi Sultanate
1299 Mongols invaded India.
1299 Ghazan's Mongol army invaded Syria. Crusades
1299-1326 Osman Ghazi founded Ottoman dynasty.
1300 Wang wrote Romance of Western Chamber. Chinese Theater
1303 Khalji army killed 30,000 Hindus at Chitor. Delhi Sultanate
1304 Giovanni converted 6,000 Chinese. Yuan Dynasty
1304-16 Khudabanda ruled Mongols' Il-khan empire. Persia
1310-41 Al-Nasir Muhammad ruled Egypt. North Africa
1311 Kafur invaded Ma'bar from Devagiri. Delhi Sultanate
1311-75 Astrologer Liu Ji advised first Ming emperor.
1312 Vietnam's Tran Anh Ton invaded Champa.
1312-20 Mongol emperor Renzong ruled China. Yuan Dynasty
1312-37 Mansa Musa ruled Mali. Africa
1313-1905 Chinese used civil service exams on classics. Yuan Dynasty
1314-44 Amda-Siyon ruled Ethiopia.
1316-35 Abu Sa'id ruled declining Il-khan empire. Persia
1317 Sanbu made Dongola church a mosque. North Africa
1318-39 Go-Daigo was emperor of Japan.
1320-25 Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah ruled in Delhi.
1320-57 Minh-ton ruled Vietnam.
1320-89 Hafiz wrote mystical poetry. Persia
1323 Mongol laws were promulgated in Yuan China.
1324 Mansa Musa spent gold in Cairo, went to Mecca. Africa
1324-28 Yesun Temur enfeoffed 24 princes in Yuan China.
1324-60 Orkhan ruled Ottoman empire.
1325 Go-Daigo sent Buddhist Muso Soseki to China. Feudal Japan
1325-51 Muhammad bin Tughluq ruled as Delhi sultan.
1329 Mossi pillaged Timbuktu. Africa
1330-64 Vizier Gaja Mada expanded Javanese empire.
1330-1400 Luo Guanzhong wrote novels.
1331-33 Go-Daigo banished to the island of Oki. Feudal Japan
1332 Ethiopia beat Ifat, Dawaro, Sharka, Bali, Adal.
1332-1406 Ibn Khaldun wrote on philosophy of history.
1333 Kamakura Bakufu rule ended in Japan. Feudal Japan
1333-68 Toghon Temur was last Mongol ruler of China. Yuan Dynasty
1333-84 Kannami founded Kanza No theater troupe.
1333-92 Japan was divided in civil war.
1334 Ma'bar rebelled against Delhi.
1334-42 Ibn Battuta visited India. Delhi Sultanate
1335 White Lotus Society revolts began in Yuan China.
1336 Vijayanagar became independent of Delhi. North India
1336-56 Harihara I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1336-58 Takauji founded Ashikaga Bakufu in Kyoto. Feudal Japan
1336-74 Gao Qi wrote poems and stories. Short Stories
1338 Bengal became independent of Delhi.
1340 'Ubayd-i-Zakani wrote "Ethics of the Aristocracy." Persia
1340 Hasan-i Buzurg founded Jalayarid dynasty. Persia
1341-60 Sulayman ruled Mali. Africa
1341-1427 Qu Yu wrote stories.
1344-72 Saifa Harud ruled Ethiopia.
1347 Abu'l-Hasan conquered Tunis.
1347-1527 Bahmani kingdom ruled Deccan. Delhi Sultanate, South India
1349-85 Yaji ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1350-69 Ramadhipati ruled Siam and founded Ayudhya.
1350-89 Hayam Wuruk ruled Java.
1351 Red Turban revolts began in Yuan China.
1351-74 Kongmin ruled Koryo.
1351-88 Firuz Shah ruled as Delhi sultan.
1352 Ethiopian Christian Ewostatewos died.
1353 Ibn Battuta visited Mali. West Africa
1353-71 Fa Ngum founded and ruled Laos.
1353-85 Binnya U ruled Mon. Burma
1355 Zhu Yuanzhang's rebels attacked Nanjing. Yuan Dynasty
1355-85 Ku Na ruled Chiang Mai, promoted Buddhism. Laos
1356 Paper money stopped circulating in China. Yuan Dynasty
1356-77 Bukka I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1357 Red Turbans captured Kaifeng. Yuan Dynasty
1359 40,000 rebelling Red Turbans fled into Koryo.
1359-89 Hammu Musa II ruled Tlemcen. Algeria
1359-89 Sikander ruled Bengal. Delhi Sultanate
1360-74 Mari-Djata II ruled Mali. West Africa
1361 100,000 Red Turbans took over north Koryo.
1361-89 Murad I ruled Ottoman empire.
1363 Mun Ik-chom brought cotton seeds to Koryo.
1363-1443 Zeami wrote No plays.
1364 Turks defeated Serbians and Hungarians. Ottoman
1365 Cypriots, Venetians, Genoese took Alexandria. Egypt
1365 Prapanca wrote poem Nagarakertagama. Java
1368-98 Hongwu founded Ming dynasty.
1368-1401 Mingyi Swasawke ruled Burma.
1368-1644 Ming dynasty ruled China.
1370 Hongwu banned secret Buddhist societies. Ming Dynasty
1370 Koryo general Yi Song-gye defeated Mongols.
1370-88 Boromaraja I ruled Siam, took over Sukhothai.
1370-94 Abul-'Abbas ruled Hafsid state. North Africa
1371 Champa sacked Hanoi. Vietnam
1373 96,328 Buddhists and Daoists ordained in China. Ming Dynasty
1373-1403 Muslim Sa'ad-ad-din ruled Zeila. Ethiopia
1373-1416 Sam Sene Thai ruled Laos.
1374 Kanza theater troupe performed before shogun. No Plays
1375 China established imperial school system. Ming Dynasty
1375 Timur invaded Mughalistan.
1376 Hongwu executed hundreds of officials in China.
1377 Ming army invaded Tibet.
1377-1404 Harihara II ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1379-1439 Zhu Yudun wrote 31 plays. Theater
1380 Hongwu executed 15,000 people.
1382-99 Barquq ruled Egypt.
1382-1411 Dawit ruled Ethiopia.
1385-1423 Razadarit ruled Mon. Burma
1386 Timur invaded Persia.
1387 First Ming land survey was done.
1388 General Lan Yu attacked the Mongols. Ming Dynasty
1388 Yi Song-gye deposed Koryo's King U.
1389 Turks defeated Serbians at Kosovo. Ottoman
1389-1402 Bayezid I ruled Ottoman empire.
1389-1429 Vikramavarddhana ruled Java.
1390 Ewostatewos men founded Eritrean monastery. Ethiopia
1390 Gujarat's Farhat-ul-Mulk became independent. Delhi Sultanate
1390-1410 Kananeji ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1390-1422 Marwar became independent under Chunda. North India
1392-98 Chinese planted one billion trees. Ming Dynasty
1392-98 Yi Song-gye founded Korean Choson dynasty.
1393 Hongwu executed 15,000 people.
1393 Timur conquered the Muzaffarids.
1394-1434 Abu Faris ruled Ifriqiya in Tunis.
1395 Chinese repaired or built 40,987 reservoirs. Ming Dynasty
1396 Turks defeated Hungarian Sigismund's crusade. Ottoman
1397 Ming code of laws was completed.
1398-99 Timur invaded India, massacred Hindus. Delhi Sultanate
1399-1402 Prince Zhu Di of Yan fought civil war. Ming Empire
1400-18 T'aejong (Yi Pang-won) ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1401 Gujarat became independent of Delhi. North India
1401 Timur conquered Baghdad.
1402 Timur defeated Ottomans at Ankara.
1402-40 Ibrahim Sharqi ruled kingdom of Jaunpur. Delhi Sultanate
1403-24 Zhu Di as Yongle ruled China. Ming Empire
1403-35 Great walls were built in north China. Ming Empire
1405 Japan promised China it would suppress piracy. Feudal Japan
1405.2.18 Timur died on his way to China.
1405-12 Mahmud ruled small Delhi kingdom.
1405-33 Zheng He led sailing expeditions. Ming Empire
1405-68 Zenchiku wrote No plays.
1406-22 Devaraya I ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1407 Ming emperor Yongle's army took over Annam.
1407 Yongle Encyclopedia filled 11,095 volumes. Ming Empire
1409 Tsongkhapa founded Gelugpa Buddhism. North India
1409-47 Shah Rukh ruled the Timurid empire.
1411-43 Ahmad ruled Gujarat as sultan. North India
1411-65 Parakramabahu VI ruled Sri Lanka. South India
1412-33 Shah Muhammad ruled Baghdad. Timurids
1413-20 'Ali Shah ruled Kashmir and killed Hindus. North India
1413-21 Mehmed I ruled Ottoman empire.
1414 Paramesvara in Melaka converted to Islam. Malaya
1414-21 Khizr Khan ruled Delhi.
1414-29 Yeshaq ruled Ethiopia.
1415 Chinese completed the Grand Canal. Ming Empire
1418-27 Vietnamese drove Chinese out of Annam.
1418-50 Sejong ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1419 Qara Yusuf invaded Georgia and Shirvan. Timurids
1420 Songhai ruler Muhammad Da'o raided Mali. West Africa
1420 Yongle moved capital from Nanjing to Beijing. Ming Empire
1420-70 Zain-ul 'Abidin ruled Kashmir. North India
1421-34 Mubarak Shah ruled Delhi.
1421-38 Dauda ruled Kano in Hausaland. West Africa
1421-51 Murad II ruled Ottoman empire.
1422-38 Barsbay ruled Egypt.
1422-46 Devaraya II ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1423-30 Turks fought Venetians for Salonika. Ottoman
1424-48 Boromaraja II ruled Siam, conquered Angkor.
1426-35 Xuande ruled China. Ming Empire
1428 Teamster revolt spread in Japan.
1428-41 Yoshinori was shogun of Japan.
1432-45 Ahmad Badlay ruled Adal. Ethiopia
1433 Tuareg chief Akilu-ag-Malwal occupied Timbuktu. Africa
1434 Khmer court moved capital to Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1434-48 Chinese suffered famines and epidemics. Ming Empire
1434-68 Zara Ya'qob ruled Ethiopia.
1435-88 Hafsid Abu ‘Amr ‘Uthman ruled Maghrib. Algeria
1436-58 Ahmad II ruled Bahmani kingdom. South India
1437-59 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah ruled Bengal. North India
1438-88 Jodha ruled Marwar. North India
1439 Serbia was annexed to Ottoman empire.
1441-78 Paya Sai Tiakapat ruled Laos.
1443 Korea made a trade treaty with Japan. Choson Dynasty
1443 Phonetic Korean alphabet Han'gul was devised. Choson Dynasty
1444-49 Miners rebelled in China. Ming Empire
1446 Portuguese explorers arrived in western Malinke. West Africa
1447 Songs of Flying Dragons was printed in Han'gul. Choson Dynasty
1448-88 Trailok ruled Siam as a monk.
1449 Oirats captured Ming emperor Yingzong.
1449-57 Jingtai ruled China. Ming Empire
1450 Kabir used methods of Islam and Hinduism.
1450 Ethiopian Zara Ya'qob called Christian council.
1450 Macina became independent of Mali. West Africa
1451-69 Abu Sa'id ruled the Timurid empire.
1451-81 Mehmed II ruled Ottoman empire.
1452-89 Afghan Buhlul Khan ruled Delhi sultanate.
1453 Turks conquered Constantinople. Ottoman
1454 Mehmed II granted Venice freedom of trade. Ottoman
1456-68 Sejo ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1458-1511 Mahmud Begarha ruled Gujarat. North India
1460-98 Le Thanh Tong ruled Vietnam.
1463 Turks invaded Bosnia. Ottoman
1464-87 Xianzong ruled China. Ming Empire
1464-92 Sonni 'Ali ruled Songhay. West Africa
1465 China manufactured 300 cannons. Ming Empire
1467-77 Onin War was fought in Japan.
1467-96 Qait Bay ruled Egypt.
1467-97 Purushottama ruled Orissa. South India
1469-94 Songjong was king of Korea. Choson Dynasty
1469-1506 Husayn Baiqara ruled the Timurid empire. Persian Empire
1469-1539 Nanak founded the Sikh religion.
1471 Annam (Vietnam) annexed most of Champa.
1471 Korean National Code was promulgated. Choson Dynasty
1471 Portuguese attacked Tangier. West Africa
1472-1529 Wang Yangming taught Confucianism.
1477 Korean law banned women from remarrying. Choson Dynasty
1479-93 Uprisings occurred in Japan.
1481-1514 Denianke Fulani fought a war against Mali. West Africa
1482 Portuguese built El Mina fortress. West Africa
1485-91 Mamluk Egypt and Ottomans at war.
1486-1527 Girindrawardhana was last king of Majapahit. Java
1486-1531 Mingyinyo founded Taungngu dynasty of Burma.
1486-1533 Chaitanya practiced devotional love.
1487-1505 Xiaozong ruled China. Ming Empire
1489-1517 Sikander Shah ruled as Delhi sultan.
1491-1529 Ramathibodi II ruled Siam.
1493-1519 'Ala-ud-din Husain Shah ruled Bengal. North India
1493-1528 Muhammad Ture ruled Songhay.
1495-1506 Korea's Yonsan'gun executed dissenters. Choson Dynasty
1497-1540 Prataparudra ruled Orissa. South India, Chaitanya
1498 Vasco da Gama reached Mozambique, Mombasa. East Africa
1500 Cabral discovered South America, Sofala. East Africa
1500-20 Visunarat ruled Laos.
1501-16 Qansuh al-Ghuri ruled Egypt.
1504 Babur conquered Kabul. Mughal
1504 Sikander Shah founded city of Agra. Delhi Sultanate
1505 Almeida became first Portuguese viceroy. South India
1505-21 Zhengde ruled China. Ming Empire
1506-44 Chungjong ruled Koryo. Choson Dynasty
1508-40 Lebna Dengel ruled Ethiopia.
1509-28 Sanga ruled kingdom of Mewar. Delhi Sultanate
1509-29 Krishna Deva Raya ruled Vijayanagara. South India
1510 Spanish Hapsburgs occupied Tripoli. Egypt
1510 Albuquerque conquered Goa. South India
1511 Albuquerque conquered Melaka. Malaya
1511 Babur and Safavids took Samarqand, Bukhara.
1511-20 Selim ruled Ottoman empire.
1511-26 Gujarat's Muzaffar II fought the Rajputs. North India
1514 Selim's Turks invaded Persia. Ottoman
1515-32 Ganga ruled Marwar. North India
1517.1 Ottomans defeated Mamluks near Cairo. Egypt
1517-26 Sikander's son Ibrahim ruled Delhi sultanate.
1518 Slaves shipped from Guinea coast to America. Algeria
1519 Korean reformer Cho Kwang-jo was executed. Choson Dynasty
1519 Wang Yangming led victory over rebels. Ming Empire
1519-30 Babur invaded India five times. Mughal
1520-1604 Hyujong wrote Mirror of the Three Teachings. Korea
1520-47 Photisarath ruled Laos.
1520-66 Sulayman ruled Ottoman empire.
1521 Magellan was killed on island of Cebu. Philippines
1521-66 Jiajing ruled China. Ming Empire
1522 Luo Guanzhong wrote Three Kingdoms. Novels
1524 Wang Yangming wrote Instructions.
1524-76 Tahmasp ruled Persia.
1525-38 Sulayman Pasha governed Egypt for Ottomans.
1526 Babur founded Mughal dynasty in India.
1526 Ottomans defeated Hungarians at Mohacs.
1527-1602 Li Zhi taught moral relativism. Ming Confucians
1529 Ottoman army's siege of Vienna failed.
1529-38 Portuguese Nuno da Cunha colonized India. European Trade
1530 Portuguese attacked coast of Gujarat. European Trade
1530-39 Humayun ruled Mughal empire.
1534 Turk Khayr al-Din captured Tunis. Ottoman Egypt
1535-1615 Zhuhong taught Buddhism in China. Ming Decline
1539-45 Sher Khan took over Mughal empire.
1540 Turks raided the east coast of Africa. East Africa
1540-59 Galawdewos ruled Ethiopia.
1541-73 Altan's Mongols raided China. Ming Empire
1542 Jesuits led by Francis Xavier arrived in India. European Trade
1542-65 Rama Raya ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1543 Turk Khayr al-Din ravaged Naples and Sicily. Ottoman
1543-88 Sonam Gyatso was named Dalai Lama. Tibet
1545-56 Humayun ruled Mughal empire.
1546-67 Myongjong ruled Korea. Choson Dynasty
1547 Turks made treaty with Hungary, France, Venice. Ottoman
1547-67 China banned foreign trade and fought pirates. Ming Empire
1549 Jesuit Francis Xavier arrived at Kagoshima. Japan
1549-82 Dawud ruled Songhay. Central Sudan
1550-1617 Tang Xianzu wrote romantic plays. Theater
1551-97 Portuguese helped Dharmapala rule Sri Lanka. Southern India
1552-74 Amar Das was the third Sikh Guru.
1555 Ottomans, Persians made treaty at Amasya.
1556-1605 Akbar ruled Mughal empire.
1557 Portuguese at Macao began trade with China. Ming Empire
1559-82 Nobunaga increased his power in Japan.
1563-97 Sarsa Dengel ruled Ethiopia.
1564-86 Burma invaded and dominated Siam.
1565 Legazpi began colonizing the Philippines.
1565-79 Sokollu was Ottoman vizier.
1567 Akbar besieged Mewar's capital of Chitor.
1567-1608 Sonjo ruled Korea.
1570-1623 Trinh Tong ruled Tongking. Vietnam
1570-1773 Trinh, Nguyen families ruled divided Vietnam.
1571 Manila was founded. Philippines
1571 Portuguese invaded Zambezi lowlands. East Africa
1571 Spain, Venice defeated Turkish fleet at Lepanto. Ottoman
1572 Turks built a new fleet. Ottoman
1572-1620 Wanli was emperor of China. Ming Decline
1572-82 Tutor Zhang Juzheng governed China. Ming Decline
1573 Akbar's Mughal army conquered Gujarat.
1574 Tulsidas began writing Ramacaritamanasa.
1575 Akbar began sponsoring religious debates.
1575 Factions formed in Korean capital.
1578 5th Dalai Lama converted Mongol Altan Khan. Tibet
1578 Ottoman empire took Fez from Portuguese. Morocco
1578-1603 Al-Mansur ruled Morocco.
1578-90 Turks made war against Persia. Ottoman
1579 Akbar proclaimed himself religious authority.
1583-1610 Jesuit Matteo Ricci taught in China. Ming Decline
1585 Akbar transferred his capital to Lahore.
1585 Ieyasu and Hideyoshi made peace.
1586 Qasim Khan annexed Kashmir to Mughal empire.
1586-1614 Venkata II ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1587 Hideyoshi subdued Satsuma armies of Kyushu.
1587-1629 Shah 'Abbas ruled Safavid Persia.
1589 Janissaries rebelled over debased coins. Ottoman
1589 Nurhaci rescued kidnapped Chinese. Ming Decline
1590 Li Zhi published A Book to Burn. Ming Confucians
1590-1605 Naresuan ruled Siam.
1592 Wu Chengen wrote Journey to the West. Novels
1592-98 Japanese invaded Korea. Hideyoshi
1593 Three Siamese armies invaded Cambodia.
1593-1606 Ottomans made war against Hungary.
1593-1609 Jia canal was built in China. Ming Decline
1593-1815 Spain made Philippines commerce go by Mexico.
1594 Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania revolted. Ottoman
1595 Persia purchased firearms from Moscow.
1595-1603 Mehmed III ruled Ottoman empire.
1596-1610 Asia Minor peasants rebelled against Ottomans.
1597-1620 Rana Amar Singh ruled Mewar. Jahangir
1598 Emperor Akbar visited Guru Arjun. Sikhs
1598 Tang Xianzu wrote The Peony Pavilion. Theater
1598-1616 Ieyasu governed Japan.
1599 Manchurians adopted Jurchen alphabet. Ming Decline
1600 China had 230 million people. Ming Decline
1601-1783 Bahrain was under the Persian empire.
1602 Dutch formed United East India Company. European Trade, Java
1602 Yuan Liaofan wrote Silent Recompense. Ming Decline
1603 Okuni's dancing began Kabuki entertainment. Chikamatsu
1603 Siam made Cambodia a vassal state.
1603-17 Ahmed I ruled the Ottoman empire.
1604 Confucians founded Donglin academy. Ming Decline
1604 Sikh scripture Adi Granth was completed.
1604-35 Senerath ruled Kandy. Southern India
1605-27 Jahangir ruled Mughal empire.
1606 Sikh Guru Arjun was tortured and killed. Jahangir
1606-44 Guru Hargobind organized a Sikh army.
1607-32 Susenyos ruled Ethiopia, became a Catholic.
1607-36 Iskandar Muda ruled Acheh. Sumatra
1608-13 Ho Kyun wrote Story of Hong Kil. Korea
1608-23 Kwanghaegun ruled Korea.
1608-49 Tukaram wrote mystical poetry. Maharashtra Mystics
1610-28 Songtham ruled Siam.
1611 English defeated Portuguese off Bombay. European Trade
1611 Jahangir married Persian Nur Jahan.
1611 Japan prohibited preaching Christianity. Ieyasu
1611 Nurhaci executed his brother Surhaci. Ming Decline
1611-22 Itimad-ud-daula was Mughal prime minister. Jahangir
1611-80 Li Yu wrote comedies and novels. Theater
1612 Ottomans ceded territories to Persia.
1613-46 Agung ruled Mataram in central Java.
1615 British navy defeated Portuguese off Swally. European Trade
1616 English East India Company traded in Persia.
1616-32 Hidetada governed Japan.
1618 Jahangir granted English trade exemption.
1618 Nurhaci announced his seven grievances. Ming Decline
1618-22 Osman II ruled Ottomans, invaded Ukraine.
1618-30 Ramadevaraya ruled Vijayanagara. Southern India
1619 Dutch made Batavia their East Indies capital. Java
1620-27 Tianqi ruled China. Ming Decline
1621 Khurram had Khusrau secretly killed. Jahangir
1622 Nine European priests were executed at Nagasaki. Japan
1622 British, Persia pushed Portuguese out of Hormuz.
1622 Tianqi closed the Donglin Academy. Ming Decline
1622-32 Itiqad Khan governed Kashmir.
1622-73 Yu Hyong-won began Practical Learning in Korea.
1622-82 5th Dalai Lama united Tibet.
1623 Dutch East India Company traded in Persia.
1623-49 Injo ruled Korea.
1623-57 Trinh Trang ruled Tongking. Vietnam
1624 Japan expelled Spaniards.
1624 Persians conquered Baghdad. Ottoman
1624-27 Wei Zhongxian persecuted Donglin movement. Ming Decline
1626 Nurhaci died fighting the Ming army.
1626 Yoshiwara quarter was established in Edo. Chikamatsu
1627 Amin led Manchu invasion of Korea. Ming Decline
1627-44 Chongzhen was last Ming emperor.
1627-56 Muhammad 'Adil Shah ruled Bijapur. Southern India
1627-80 Shivaji Bhonsla led Maratha rebellion. Southern India
1628-58 Shah Jahan ruled Mughal empire.
1629 Mughal empire suffered famine. Shah Jahan
1629-43 Nurhaci's son Abahai led Manchus. Ming Decline
1630-47 Zhang Xianzhong led raids in China. Ming Decline
1630-56 Prasat Tong ruled Siam tyrannically.
1631 Mumtaz Mahal died in childbirth. Shah Jahan
1631-45 Li Zicheng led rebels. Ming Decline
1632 Mughal army defeated Portuguese at Hughli. Shah Jahan
1632-40 Murad IV tried to reform Ottoman empire.
1632-67 Fasiladas ruled Ethiopia, expelled Jesuits.
1633 Chinese, Manchus, and Mongols took exams. Ming Decline
1633 Daimyos were required to live in Edo. Japan
1633 Japan began excluding foreigners.
1634 Kashmir's Zafar Khan invaded western Tibet.
1635 Chogthu Mongols invaded Tibet.
1635 Li Yu wrote erotic novel, Jou Pu Tuan. Novels
1635-87 Rajasimha II ruled Kandy. Southern India
1636 Zaydi Shi'a threw Ottomans out of Yemen.
1636-37 Abahai led Manchu invasion of Korea.
1637-38 Shimabara revolt in Kyushu was crushed. Japan
1637-44 Aurangzeb governed the Deccan. Shah Jahan
1637-94 Souligna-Vongsa ruled Laos.
1638 Ottoman empire regained Baghdad. Persian
1638-1864 Tokugawa Japan avoided mobilizing armies.
1639 English built Fort St. George at Madras. European Trade
1639 Japan excluded foreigners.
1639-59 Muhammad Shuja governed Bengal. Shah Jahan
1640 Dong Yue wrote Tower of Myriad Mirrors. Novels
1640-48 Ibrahim ruled the Ottoman empire.
1641 Portuguese claimed western Madagascar. Southern Africa
1641 Dutch conquered Melaka. Malaya
1641 Japanese limited Dutch trade to Nagasaki.
1641-61 Garcia II ruled the Kongo. Southern Africa
1642 Schall von Bell taught Chinese gun-making. Kangxi
1642 Tasman explored and named New Zealand.
1642-49 Sriranga III was last king of Vijayanagara. Southern India
1643-50 Dorgon ruled Manchus as regent. Ming Decline, Qing Conquest
1644 Japan banned plays about current people. Chikamatsu
1644 Manchus captured Beijing. Ming Decline, Qing Conquest
1644-1912 Manchus ruled China as Qing dynasty. Qing Empire
1645 Turks invaded Crete. Ottoman
1645-77 Amangkurat I ruled Mataram in Java.
1646 Murad's Mughal army occupied Balkh. Shah Jahan
1646-62 Yongli tried to reign as Ming emperor.
1647 Fiqari and Qasimi vendetta in Egypt began.
1647 Yamazaki wrote Refutation of Heresies. Japanese Confucianism
1648 Manchu forces captured Suzhou. Qing Conquest
1648 Russians reached Kamchatka coast. Kangxi
1648 Treaty ended Spanish-Dutch trade battles. Philippines
1648-87 Hien Vuong ruled Annam. Vietnam
1648-87 Mehmet IV was Ottoman sultan.
1650 Manchu army invaded Guangdong. Qing Conquest
1650 Portuguese were ejected from Muscat. Persia
1651 English built a factory at Hughli. European Trade
1651 English built Fort St. James on Gambia River. Gold Coast
1651-61 Shunzhi ruled Qing empire.
1652 Dutch established a station at Table Bay. Southern Africa
1652 Fifth Dalai Lama visited Beijing. Qing Conquest
1653 5th Dalai Lama visited Chinese emperor. Tibet
1653-58 Aurangzeb was viceroy in the Deccan. Shah Jahan
1653-78 Maetsuycker governed from Batavia. Java
1656 Zheng Chenggong led defeat of Qing fleet.
1656-58 Dutch pushed Portuguese out of Sri Lanka. Southern India
1656-61 Vizier Koprulu Mehmed reformed Ottomans.
1657 Shah Jahan's illness led to civil war in India.
1657-88 Narai ruled Siam and tolerated Europeans.
1658 600 Christians were killed in Omura. Japan
1658 Abaza Hasan Pasha revolted in Anatolia. Ottoman
1658 Shunzhi revived Hanlin Academy. Qing Conquest
1658-1707 Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal empire.
1659 French established Saint-Louis on Senegal River. Gold Coast
1659 Qing armies defeated Li Dingguo's Ming army.
1659 Ramdas wrote his poem Dasabodha. Maharashtra Mystics
1659-74 Hyonjong ruled Korea.
1660 Dutch ended ban on exporting firearms to Africa. Gold Coast
1660-63 Mir Jumla governed Bengal. Aurangzeb
1661 Bengal's Mir Jumla declared war on Assam. Aurangzeb
1661 Portuguese gave England's Charles II Bombay. European Trade
1661-67 Four regents governed Qing empire.
1662 Ahmad Bey was assassinated in Egypt.
1662 Huang Zongxi published A Plan for the Prince. Confucian Intellectuals
1662-73 Wu Sangui governed Yunnan. Qing Conquest, Kangxi
1663 Ottomans invaded Hungary and Transylvania.
1664, 1670 Shivaji led raids on port of Surat. Southern India
1664-88 Shaista Khan governed Bengal. Aurangzeb
1665 Aurangzeb doubled customs duties for Hindus.
1665 Shivaji gave up 23 fortresses. Southern India
1665 Yang Guangxian's book criticized Christianity. Kangxi
1666 Shivaji escaped from Aurangzeb's court at Agra. Southern India
1666-94 Sulayman I ruled Safavid Persian empire.
1667-82 Yohannes ruled Ethiopia.
1667-1722 Kangxi ruled Qing empire.
1669 Aurangzeb ordered Hindu temples demolished.
1669 Gokla of Tilpat led Jat rebellion. Aurangzeb
1669 Spaniards claimed the Marianas Islands. Philippines
1669 Turks conquered Candia on Crete. Ottoman
1670 Portuguese failed to conquer Kongo. Central Africa
1670 Allada king sent an envoy to Paris. Oyo
1670 Dutch announced monopolies in Sri Lanka. Southern India
1670 Kangxi promulgated Sacred Edict.
1672 Aurangzeb revoked grants to Hindus.
1672 Turks invaded Poland, captured Kaminiec. Ottoman
1672-1727 Mawlay Isma'il ruled Morocco.
1673 Nasir al-Din invaded Futa Toro, Wolof, Kayor. West Africa
1674 Shivaji crowned himself Maratha king. Southern India
1674-81 Three feudatories rebelled against Qing. Kangxi
1674-1720 Sukchong ruled Korea.
1675 Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded. Aurangzeb
1675 Verbiest helped Qing make cannons. Kangxi
1675 Yamaga wrote An Autobiography in Exile. Japanese Confucianism
1676 Tibetan troops forced Bhutanese out of Sikkim.
1678 Japan's government began running a deficit.
1678 Portuguese confirmed trading at Macao. Kangxi
1679 Aurangzeb revived jiziya tax on non-Muslims. Southern India
1679 Kangxi hired scholars to write Ming history.
1680-82 Oyo went to war against Aja of Allada, Dahomey. Gold Coast
1680-1709 Tsunayoshi governed Japan.
1681 English began trading at Whydah. Gold Coast
1682 Saikaku wrote Life of an Amorous Man.
1683 Chikamatsu's play The Soga Heir was performed.
1683 Qing made Taiwan part of Fujian. Kangxi
1683 Turks besieged Vienna but were defeated. Ottoman
1684 Mughal army of 80,000 besieged Bijapur. Aurangzeb
1686 English sacked Hughli. Aurangzeb
1686 Olods led by Galdan attacked Outer Mongolia. Kangxi
1686 Saikaku wrote Five Women Who Loved Love.
1686 Saikaku wrote Life of an Amorous Woman.
1687 Japan proscribed Christianity, Nichiren sects. Japanese Confucianism
1687-1707 Vimala Dharma Suriya II ruled Kandy. Southern India
1688 Ottoman empire lost Belgrade to Habsburg army.
1688 Hong Sheng finished Palace of Eternal Youth. Theater
1688 Maratha Shambhaji was captured and killed. Southern India
1688-90 English traders fought Mughal navy. Aurangzeb
1688-1700 Rajaram led Maratha rebellion. Aurangzeb, Southern India
1689 Russians and Chinese made Nerchinsk treaty. Kangxi
1689 Saikaku wrote Japanese Family Storehouse.
1690 Tsunayoshi had a Confucian academy built. Japanese Confucianism
1692 Kangxi allowed Christians to preach in China.
1692 Novelist Kim Man-jung died. Korea
1692 Saikaku wrote This Scheming World.
1695 Food prices caused a famine in Egypt.
1695 Gu Yenwu published book on Han Learning. Confucian Intellectuals
1695 Japan debased its currency.
1695-1706 Aurangzeb fought Marathas in the Deccan.
1696 Russia's Peter captured Azov with his new fleet. Ottoman
1696 Kangxi led campaign against Dzungars.
1696 Miyazaki wrote The Farmer's Compendium. Japan
1696 Yen Yuan implemented new curriculum in Hebei. Confucian Intellectuals
1696-99 Omani fleet besieged Mombasa. East Africa
1696-1771 Chen Hongmou promoted education. Qianlong, Confucian Intellectuals
1698 English began collecting taxes at Calcutta. European Trade
1698 Vietnamese began colonizing lower Cambodia.
1699 English established a factory at Canton. Qianlong
1699 Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed a Sikh nation.
1699 Johor's Sultan Mahmud was killed. Malaya
1699 Kong Shangren produced Peach Blossom Fan. Theater
1699 Turks lost territory in the Karlowitz treaty. Ottoman
1700.10.14 He-Hasid led 1,000 Jews to Jerusalem. Palestine
1700-35 Sai-Ong-Hué ruled Vientiane. Laos
1701 Aurangzeb banned trade with Europeans.
1701 Zidan rebelled and took Tlemcen but lost. Morocco
1701-27 Quli Jafar Khan administered Bengal, Orissa. Mughal
1701-54 Wu Jingzi wrote satirical novel, The Scholars.
1702 Dutch cattlemen first clashed with Xhosa.
1702 Maratha army of 50,000 looted Hyderabad. Southern India
1702-03 47 ronin got revenge and committed seppuku. Japan
1703 Europeans declared Whydah port neutral. Nigeria
1703 Edo earthquake killed 150,000. Japan
1703-24 Chikamatsu wrote puppet plays.
1703-30 Ahmed III ruled the Ottoman empire.
1703-31 Mohamma Sharefa dan Dadi ruled Kano. Bornu and Hausaland
1703-62 Shah Waliullah translated Qur'an into Persian. Marathas
1703-92 Muhammad i. ‘Abd al-Wahhab reformed Islam.
1704 Mughal army defeated the Sikhs at Chamkaur.
1704-06 Beatriz Kimpa Vita claimed she was Anthony. Angola
1705 Dzungars repulsed Qing incursion into Tibet. Kangxi
1705 French missionaries left Ethiopia.
1705-17 Lhazang Khan ruled Tibet.
1705-40 Husain ibn ‘Ali led revolt in Tunisia.
1707-12 Bahadur Shah ruled Mughal empire.
1707-39 Narendrasimha ruled Sri Lanka.
1708 Sultan Isma‘il punished dissident scholars in Fez. Morocco
1708 Europeans provoked a trade war with Allada. Oyo and Nigeria
1708 Korea allowed tax payments in rice.
1708 Sikh Guru Gobind Singh was murdered. Maratha Rise
1708-16 Banda Bahadur led Sikh revolt. Maratha Rise
1708-40 Agaja Trudo ruled Dahomey.
1709 Afghans revolted from Persian rule in Qandahar.
1709-15 Mir Vais governed Afghanistan. Persia
1710-13 Maratha civil war ravaged southern India.
1711 Great Sedition erupted in Egypt.
1711 Ahmad Qaramanli began dynasty in Tripoli.
1711 Kangxi froze the poll tax.
1712 Portuguese declared war on Whydah. Oyo and Nigeria
1712 Kangxi deposed his heir Yinreng.
1713 Smallpox epidemic was brought to the Cape. Southern Africa
1713 Qing converted corvée labor to a tax. Kangxi
1713-19 Farrukh Siyar, Sayyid brothers ruled Mughals.
1713-47 Chao-Soi-Sisamout ruled Champassak. Laos
1714 French occupied the island of Mauritius. East Africa
1714 Portuguese founded an ivory market at Zumbo.
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman Empire
1715 Arai Hakuseki wrote A Report on the Occident. Japanese Confucianism
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman
1715-63 Cao Xueqin wrote Dream of the Red Chamber.
1716 Joao II reclaimed the Kongo throne.
1716 Words of Hagakure Master appeared. Japanese Confucianism
1716-42 Narbhupal Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1716-45 Yoshimune governed Japan with reforms.
1716-98 Yuan Mei wrote poetry, criticized Confucians.
1717 Sunni Abdalis and Sunnis plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717 Asante fought Ayem Kotoku; Osei Tutu died.
1717 Dzungar Mongols invaded Tibet.
1717 Olods and Dzungars invaded Tibet. Kangxi
1717 Sunni Abdalis revolted and plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717-27 French fought war in Wolof. West Africa
1718 Jesuits helped Chinese produce an atlas. Kangxi
1718 Turks lost territory in the Passarowitz treaty. Ottoman Empire
1718-30 Damad Ibrahim was vizier during tulip era. Ottoman
1718-46 Cakraningrat IV ruled Madura, allied with VOC. Java
1719-48 Muhammad Shah was Mughal emperor.
1720 Cohong guild was organized at Canton. Qianlong
1720 Qing army took over Lhasa. Kangxi
1720-40 Peshwa Baji Rao led Marathas.
1721 Qing soldiers repressed rebellion on Taiwan. Yongzheng
1721-48 'Ali Muhammad Rohilla ruled Rohilkhand. Mughal Decline
1721-62 Sudan’s Badi IV fought wars against Ethiopia.
1722 Mahmud's Afghans defeated the Persian army.
1722-39 Sa'adat Khan ruled Awadh. Mughal Decline
1723 Ottomans invaded Persia through Georgia.
1723 Yongzheng abolished exam discrimination.
1723, 1729 Suzhou textile workers went on strike. Yongzheng
1723-35 Yongzheng reformed the Qing empire.
1724 Qing troops put down Khoshote rebellion. Yongzheng
1724 Russians and Turks partitioned Transcaucasia. Ottoman Empire
1724-76 Yongjo ruled Korea.
1725-29 Ashraf ruled Afghans, fought Persians and Turks.
1727 Korean army put down a rebellion.
1727 Muteferrika printed books in Turkish. Ottoman Empire
1727 Ogyu Sorai wrote Political Essays. Japanese Culture
1727 Qing made Kyakhta treaty with Russia. Yongzheng
1727 Two of Yongzheng's brothers died in prison.
1727-76 Inta-Som ruled Luang Prabang. Laos
1728 Chinese published Complete Collection. Yongzheng
1728-29 Portuguese reoccupied Mombasa. East Africa
1728-47 Pholhanas governed Tibet.
1728-66 Queen Mentuab ruled Ethiopia as regent.
1729 China banned selling and using opium. Yongzheng
1729-1811 Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti united Qadiri factions. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1730 Agaja agreed to pay Oyo annual tribute. Dahomey
1730 Akwapim rebelled against Akwamu. Gold Coast
1730-50 Ayina Yella ruled Sulimana. West Africa
1730-54 Mahmud I ruled the Ottoman empire.
1731 Ibrahim Muteferrika urged military reform. Ottoman Empire
1732 Asante invaded Gonja.
1732 Qing crushed revolt by Taiwan aborigines. Yongzheng
1732 Turks ceded Tabriz to Kerman, retained Georgia. Ottoman Empire
1732-37 Jai Singh governed Malwa. Maratha Rise
1732-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey.
1733 Food riots broke out in Edo. Japan
1733-58 Boromokot ruled Siam.
c. 1733-60 Omukama Isansa ruled Bunyoro empire. Africa’s Lakes Region
1734 Russians invaded the Crimea and captured Azov. Ottoman Empire
1735 Nadir and 80,000 Persians defeated Ottomans.
1736-47 Nadir Shah Afshar ruled the Persian empire.
1736-95 Qianlong ruled Qing empire.
1737 Qianlong tried to ban liquor made from grain.
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1739 Oyo invaded Dahomey. Niger Coast
1739 Persia's Nadir Shah sacked Delhi. Mughal Decline
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1740 Ottoman Empire renewed friendship treaty with France.
1740 French renewed trade capitulations with Syria.
1740 Khoisan were forbidden to herd livestock. Southern Africa
1740-56 'Ali Bey I ruled Tunisia.
1740-56 Alivardi ruled Bengal. Mughal Decline, French
1740-61 Peshwa Balaji Rao led Marathas. Marathas
1740-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey. Niger Coast
1741-69 Babari ruled Gobir and fought wars. Bornu and Hausaland
1742 New Japanese law allowed peasants to sell land.
1742-44 Opoku Ware's Asante armies invaded neighbors.
1742-53 Dupleix governed Pondicherry. French
1742-74 Prithvi Narayan Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1744 Al-Wahhab allied with Muhammad ibn Saud.
1744 Muscat-Oman became independent. Persian Gulf
1744 Ahmad founded al-Busa‘idi dynasty of Oman. East Africa
1744-1829 Dagohoy Rebellion survived on Bohol Island. Philippines
1745 Aoki Konyo produced Dutch-Japanese dictionary.
1746, 1784 Qianlong persecuted Christians.
1746-48 Takeda, Namiki, Miyoshi produced three plays.
1746-55 'Ali ibn Athman ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1747 Futa Jallon confederation formed with Sambegu. West Africa
1747-49 Sichuan people defeated Qing forces. Qianlong
1747-67 Afghan Abdali invaded India 8 times.
1747-73 Ahmad Shah Durrani ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1748 Bereaved Qianlong punished officials.
1748-54 Ahmad Shah was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1749 Zhang Guangsi was executed for abusing Miao. Qianlong
1750 Cassava was brought from Brazil to Mozambique.
1750 Yongjo reduced military cloth tax. Korea
1750-64 Kusi Obodum ruled Asante without executions.
1751 English led by Clive captured Arcot.
1751-71 Ryk Tulbagh governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1751-85 Muhammad al-Amin ruled Bagirmi. Bornu and Hausaland
1751-1844 Alcalde-mayors in Philippines could do business.
1754-74 Gaha led the military in Oyo.
1754-93 ‘Ali Qaramanli ruled Tripoli.
1754-1817 Usman dan Fodio led jihad in West Africa. Bornu and Hausaland
1754-59 Alamgir II was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1756 Siraj attacked Calcutta, captured Fort William. English
1756-73 Mas‘ud ibn Nasir ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1757 English and Clive defeated Siraj at Plassey.
1757-63 Vizier Raghib Mehmed governed Ottoman empire.
1757-79 Karim Khan ruled Persia.
1757-90 Mawlay Muhammad ruled Morocco.
1758 English took Saint-Louis from the French. West Africa
1758 Portuguese expelled the Jesuits from Africa.
1758-60 Clive governed Bengal.
1759 Qing army slaughtered Dzungars. Qianlong
1759-82 'Ali Bey II ruled Tunisia.
1760 Marathas defeated Nizam forces, captured Delhi.
1760-86 Ieharu let corrupt Tanuma govern Japan.
1761 Afghans defeated Marathas at Panipat.
1761-82 Haidar 'Ali ruled Mysore. English
1762 Qing laws discriminated against Muslims. Qianlong
1762 Yongjo put Prince Sado to death. Korea
1762-1836 Chong Yag-yong wrote for Confucian reforms. Korea
1762-64 British navy sacked and occupied Manila. Philippines
1764 English defeated Shuja's Awadh army at Buxar.
1764 Qianlong lifted ban on intermarriage.
1764-72 Coutinho governed Angola for Portuguese.
1764-77 Osei Kwadwo ruled Asante, fighting wars.
1765 Holo made liberal treaty with Portuguese.
1765 Dutch conquered Kandy on Sri Lanka.
1765-77 Lago governed Mozambique.
1765-67 Clive governed Bengal.
1766-90 Ngolo Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1767 British first contacted Tahitians.
1767 Burma of Hsinhpyushin destroyed Ayudhya. Siam
1767 Qing punished Chinese miners at Hanoi. Qianlong
1767 Yamagata Daini was beheaded for treason. Japanese Culture
1767-78 Sikhs raided the Doab.
1767-82 Taksin organized and ruled Siam.
1768 'Ali Bey replaced the viceroy of Egypt.
1768 Nizam 'Ali made a treaty with the English.
1768-74 fought war against Russia.Ottoman empire
1769 'Ali Bey claimed Hijaz for Egypt.
1769 Cook visited Tahiti and New Zealand.
1769-1855 War-lords ruled Ethiopia.
1770 Ten million died in Bengal and Bihar famine. Hastings
1770-89 Abiodun ruled Oyo and exported slaves.
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1771 Egyptians invaded Ottoman Syria.
1771 Trekboers crossed the Gamtoos River. Southern Africa
1771-76 Qing army pacified Tibetans in Sichuan. Qianlong
1771-85 Warren Hastings governed Bengal.
1772-1833 Rammohun Roy was a social reformer.
1772-82 Najaf Khan commanded the Mughal army. North India
1773 Wahhabis took over Riyadh.
1773-1801 Nguyen Van brothers led Tay-son revolt. Vietnam
1773-84 Scholars compiled massive Four Treasuries. Qianlong
1773-93 Timur Shah ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1774 Awadh's Shuja and English annexed Rohilkhand. North India
1774 Muslim troops quelled White Lotus rebellion. Qianlong
1774-77 Portuguese waged war against Ovimbundu.
1774-89 Abdul Hamid ruled the Ottoman Empire.
1774-89 Kpengla ruled Dahomey.
1775 Egypt's Abu'l Dhahab invaded Syria.
1775 English took 8,000 slaves from Wolof. West Africa
1775-1808 Chief Asfa Wossen ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1775-1844 Ahmadu taught at Jenne and led a jihad. Segu
1775-89 Afghan Timur Shah invaded India 5 times. North India
1776-1800 Chongjo ruled Korea.
1776-1804 Al-Jazzar governed Sidon and Damascus. Palestine
1778 Xhosa chief Gcaleka died. Southern Africa
1778-93 Philippines fought Muslim raiders.
1779 Captain Cook was killed in Hawaii.
1780 Economic crisis began in Egypt.
1780 Pak Chi-won published 26-volume Jehol Diary. Korea
1780-1830 Angola exported more than 750,000 slaves.
1781 56 officials were executed for selling degrees. Qianlong
1781 British Captain Shirley took forts from the Dutch. Gold Coast
1781 British defeated Mysore's Haidar. Hastings
1781-1807 Al-Wali ruled Kano, ended cattle sacrifices. Bornu and Hausaland
1782 Ignatius Sancho published Letters in London. Slavery
1782-1809 Rama I ruled Siam.
1782-1814 Hamuda Bey ruled Tunisia.
1782-1819 Bodawhpaya ruled Burma.
1782-87 Japan suffered famine.
1782-94 Mahadji Sindia was a chief Maratha. North India
1783 Russia's Catherine II annexed the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1783-1814 Ahmad ibn Sa’id al-Mazrui ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1784 Pitt's India Act banned Company wars. Cornwallis
1784 Yi Sung-hun returned to Seoul as a Catholic. Korea
1785 Plague killed one-sixth of Egyptians.
1785 Burma took over Arakan.
1785 Chongjo prohibited Christianity. Korea
1786 Ottomans sent troops to control Egypt.
1786 Kedah ceded Penang to the English. Malaya
1786-93 Cornwallis governed British India.
1786-99 Heshan administered Qing empire corruptly. Qianlong
1787 Turks declared war on Austria and Russia. Ottoman Empire
1787 Yusuf wrote Shaking the Peasants' Heads. Egypt
1787 British opened Sierra Leone to ex-slaves.
1787 Cugoano wrote book against slavery.
1787 60,000 troops defeated Triad rebels on Taiwan. Qianlong
1787 Captain Bligh lost the Bounty to a mutiny. Tahiti
1787-1837 Ienari was shogun of Japan.
1787-93 Matsudaira Sadanobu governed Japan.
1788 English began penal colony at Sydney. Australia
1788 Ghulam Qadir blinded Emperor Shah Alam II. North India
1788 Otsuki wrote Explanation of Dutch Studies. Japanese Culture
1788-92 Gurkhas fought Tibetans.
1788-1801 British transported 7,486 prisoners to Australia.
1788-1803 Pomare I ruled Tahiti.
1788-1820 Pakubuwana IV reigned on Java. Netherlands East Indies
1788-1868 British transported 158,829 convicts to Australia.
1789 Temne’s King Jimmy burned slave-traders’ town. Gold Coast
1789 Ndlambe attacked Gqunukhwebe by Fish River. Southern Africa
1789 Equiano published Narrative of his life. Slavery
1789 Guangxi troops were driven out of Vietnam. Qianlong
1789 Slave trafficking in India was abolished. Cornwallis Reforms
1789-1807 Selim III tried to reform the Ottoman empire.
1790 Sadanobu imposed censorship on Japan.
1790-1808 Monzon Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1791 Comic writer Santo Kyoden was punished. Japan
1792 Chinese helped Tibetans defeat the Gurkhas.
1792 Dream of the Red Chamber was completed.
1792 Ex-slaves from Nova Scotia built Freetown. Sierra Leone
1792 Qing army drove Gurkhas back to Nepal. Qianlong
1792-1810 Hamengkubuwana II ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1792-1822 Mawlay Sulayman ruled Morocco.
1793 Baptist missionary Carey came to Calcutta. Cornwallis Reforms
1793 Qianlong refused to negotiate with English.
1793-98 John Shore governed British India. Cornwallis Reforms
1794 Agha Muhammad Khan founded Qajar dynasty.
1794 Duane published Indian World. Cornwallis Reforms
1794-1856 Wei Yuan proposed numerous reforms. Daoguang Era
1794-99 Afghan Shah Zaman invaded India 4 times. North India
1795 Al-Azhar scholars led uprising in Egypt.
1795 Qing emperor Qianlong abdicated.
1795 Missionaries arrived in Tahiti.
1795-1803 British governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1795-1816 Wolde Selassie ruled eastern Ethiopia.
1795-1819 Kamehameha I ruled the Hawaiian Islands.
1795-1832 Yusuf Qaramanli ruled in Tripoli.
1796 'Abd al-Qadir invaded Wolof. West Africa
1796 English occupied Dutch possessions in Sri Lanka.
1796 Opium was prohibited in China. Daoguang Era
1796-1804 White Lotus Society rebelled in China. Qianlong, Jiajing Era
1797-1803 Marathas fought civil war.
1797-1804 Burma fought a war with Siam.
1797-1830 Yuhi Gahindiro ruled Rwanda.
1797-1834 Fath 'Ali Khan ruled Persia.
1796-1835 Mangkunegara II ruled at Surakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1798 Honda Toshiaki wrote Secret Proposals. Japanese Culture
1798 Napoleon led French invasion of Egypt.
1798-1805 Richard Wellesley governed British India.
1799 Napoleon attacked al-'Arish, Jaffa, and Acre. Egypt
1799 Ranjit Singh took over Lahore. North India
1799 Turks allied with Russia and England. Ottoman empire
1799 Blacks revolted in Sierra Leone.
1799-1820 Jiajing ruled the Qing empire.