BECK index

South America 1831-65

by Sanderson Beck

Brazil 1831-65
Argentina and Paraguay 1831-65
Chile 1831-65
British Guiana 1817-65
Venezuela 1830-65
New Granada (Colombia) 1830-65
Ecuador 1830-65
Peru 1831-65
Bolivia 1829-65

Brazil 1831-65

      France’s revolution that replaced King Charles X with a liberal king in July 1830 influenced Brazil. The partido desorganizador criticized the policies of Dom Pedro and his government, and he replied with a proclamation on 22 February 1831. People protested in mid-March with five Noites das Garrafadas (Nights of Bottle Throwing). On 5 April Pedro made his cabinet more Portuguese and reactionary. More than 3,000 people gathered, and justices of the peace urged him to reinstate his Brazilian cabinet. The Emperor’s battalion commanded by his brother followed by two artillery corps and a battalion of grenadiers joined the people. On the 7th Emperor Pedro abdicated in favor of his 5-year-old son Pedro II, and Brazil would be under a regency until he barely came of age in 1840. The crowd acclaimed the new Emperor, and the Legislature selected a regency of General Francisco de Lima e Silva, the liberal senator Verguerio from São Paulo, and the conservative former Justice Minister, the Marques de Caravelas. Pedro I and his family left for Europe on 13 April. Masons formed the first Sociedade Defensora da Libertade e Independência Nacional in São Paulo, and radicals organized Sociedas Federais in several provinces by the end of 1831. Evaristo da Veiga had begun publishing the liberal Aurora Fluminense newspaper in November 1827, and Mineiro Teofilo Ottoni helped him bring about liberal reforms between 1831 and 1835. In August 1831 Brazil implemented laws similar to those being adopted in France, and the National Guard replaced the militias. All male citizens aged from 21 to 60 could vote but had to serve in the National Guard.
      In 1832 the Code of Criminal Procedures increased the police and judicial powers of the justices of the peace. With a new Emperor born in Brazil, the young nation broke its ties to Portugal, though restorationists were not repressed until 1832. Four other uprisings were led by radicals such as Major Frias de Vasconcelos and the revolutionary Cipriano Barata. In September slaves joined a larger riot that took over Rio de Janeiro and looted 42 shops and 25 taverns. The government called out the militia and armed civilians to suppress the revolt in which about a hundred rebels and 30 soldiers and loyal citizens were killed as more than a thousand were arrested. In April 1832 those fighting to restore Pedro I rebelled in Recife as well as in Rio. This was called the War of Cabanos and it was most serious in Pará which wanted independence. After Pedro I’s death in September 1834, the war wound down.
      In August 1834 the Additional Act amended the 1824 constitution by eliminating the Council of State and increasing the power of provincial assemblies. The three-man regency was replaced when the native-born liberal priest and Minister of Justice Diogo Feijó was elected Regent in April 1835 and took office on 12 October. The central government began sharing revenue with the provinces in 1836. The “Brazilian Molière,” Martins Pena had his first comedy, O Juiz de Paz na Roça, performed in 1838 about a guardsman who is threatened with arrest and demands constitutional rights. Justices of the peace and juries were letting impunity increase as crimes against slaves and women were considered private.
      In 1835 revolts broke out in northern Para and in Rio Grande do Sul in the south. Many Portuguese were killed in Para, and others left the province. In January 1835 radicals killed Para’s president and the military commander. They made one of their leaders president and declared Para independent. The regents in Rio sent an elderly marshal to be president, but he arrived with only 120 men. In August a rebel army of mostly blacks and mestizos called tapuios attacked the capital Belém and in nine days killed about 180 whites. The president and about 5,000 people fled. The rebel president was killed in the fighting, and 21-year-old Eduardo Angelim replaced him. He organized an army, and the rebellion spread in the interior. Rebels raided towns and farms. General Andreia arrived as the new president with an army as Angelim and 5,000 people abandoned Belém. Andreia had rebels arrested and ordered those resisting shot. Angelim was arrested in October 1836, and the last rebels gave up during a general amnesty in 1840. Slavery had not been abolished, and Angelim had even had a slave insurrection put down.
      The province of Rio Grande do Sul had changed from agriculture to livestock. The president suspected secessionists, and armed gaúchos (cowboys) overthrew him in Porto Alegre on 19 September 1835. A rich estancieiro (rancher) became president, and war erupted in February 1836. The liberal revolutionaries called farroupilhas declared independence in September. They invaded the province of Santa Catarina which was proclaimed a republic. This Ragamuffin War went on until the armistice in March 1845 as the cattle business declined.
      The rebellion in Bahia was named Sabinada after its leader, the physician and journalist Sabino Barroso, but it began in an army barracks at the capital Salvador on 6 November 1837 and quickly gained support. About 5,000 rebels were defeated by some 4,000 government forces in Salvador on 13-15 March 1838 as about 1,200 rebels and 600 loyalists were killed. The amnesty in 1840 prevented the execution of seven leaders.
      The fourth revolt was called “Balaida” after the rebel leader who was a basket-maker. The province of Maranhão had more than 200,000 people, and more than half were slaves. The conservative president had transferred power from the justices of the peace to the mayors (prefeitos), and he began appointing the officers in the national guard. The cafuso (mixed Indian and black) cowboy Raimundo Gomes freed his jailed brother and others, and in December 1838 he became the leader of a revolt. The basket-maker Balaio joined, and the black Cosme led 3,000 escaped slaves. In August 1839 about 11,000 balaios occupied the city of Caxias. Brazil’s government sent 8,000 troops who suppressed the rebellion by 1841. Amnesty was declared except for Cosme who was hanged.
      After Veiga’s death in 1837 Regent Feijó lost support in the press and the parliament, and he resigned on 18 September. The conservative party led by Vasconcelos gained a majority. Senator Pedro de Araújo Lima was elected Regent, and he organized a government in 1838 and appointed as Minister of Justice and of the Empire Vasconcelos who was supported by Coimbra graduates and promoted education. They were supported by magistrates and the sugar and coffee planters. Vasconcelos and Paulino de Sousa worked to reform the liberal laws, and in June 1839 they introduced into the Senate a bill to give the central government control over the administration of law. The “interpretation” law passed in May 1840 reduced the power of provincial assemblies. The liberals decided to promote 14-year-old Emperor Pedro II to his majority, and on 23 July 1840 they managed to end the Regency to initiate the Second Empire of Brazil.
      Conflict caused the cabinet to collapse on 31 March 1841, and it was reorganized with Aureliano Coutinho, Paulino Soares de Sousa as Minister of Justice, and others. Vasconcelos helped Paulino establish the Council of State by law on 23 November and a reformed Code of Criminal Procedures on 3 December. This regressive code gave the central government more control over the empire with judges appointed by the Minister of Justice. Anyone traveling in the empire had to carry a passport to avoid interrogation. On 1 May 1842 the conservative government dissolved the Chamber of Deputies and called new elections. That month São Paulo rebelled with arms followed by Minas Gerais in June, and the liberal rebellion moved into the Paraiba valley.
      Brazil’s liberals regained power in January 1844 and granted amnesty to Paulista and Mineiro rebels. That caused the Conservative cabinet to resign on 2 February. The liberals used the regressive laws to govern, gain patrons, and win elections. The Council of Ministers was given a president on 20 July 1847. Liberal cabinets ruled until September 1848 when the conservatives led by Pedro Araújo Lima, Visconde de Olina, took power. In November an uprising broke out in Pernambuco called “Praieria” from the liberal Rua da Praia newspaper. Their defeat in 1849 consolidated conservative control over Brazil.
      Brazil’s main products—sugar, cotton, and coffee—were more than 75% of their exports. By the 1840s Brazil was producing more than 40% of the world’s coffee. Rio de Janeiro’s population reached 200,000 in 1850. Brazil struggled with the anti-slave-trade treaty of 1826 and the commercial treaty of 1827 that they had made with Britain. For three years before the anti-slave trade treaty went into effect in March 1830 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves. The biggest urban slave uprising of the century was in Bahia on 24-25 January 1835; it was violently suppressed, and hundreds were punished. The death penalty was enacted for slaves who killed or seriously injured their masters, and juries needed only a two-thirds majority for conviction. In the years 1837-39 about 40,000 slaves per year were illegally imported into Brazil mostly from the Congo, Angola, and Mozambique. The Palmerston Act in 1839 allowed the British Navy to intercept slave ships, and this helped decrease slave imports to a total of 50,000 in 1841-43. In August 1845 Brazil’s Aberdeen Slave Trade Act approved the British Navy treating slave ships as pirates, and in the next five years more than 400 ships were captured to vice-admiralty courts. Yet Brazil’s slave imports averaged more than 55,000 per year in 1846-49. Brazil finally enacted a strong anti-slave-trade law on 4 September 1850, and slaves imported decreased from 22,856 in 1850 to 3,287 in 1851 to 800 in 1852 to none in 1853 and 1854 and with one last illegal shipment of 90 slaves in 1855. For this violation the Minister of Justice José Tomás Nabuco de Araújo Filho replaced the President of Pernambuco.
      From 1850 to 1865 about 94,000 Portuguese immigrated into Brazil. More Germans began coming in the late 1840s, and about 28,000 came by 1865. Some 3,000 Italians arrived 1861-65. In the early 1850s Brazil had only 61,700 students in elementary schools and 3,713 in secondary schools. In 1852 the Brazilian government began guaranteeing return on capital invested. Coffee planters supported the building of a railway from the Rio port to the Paraiba valley, and it reached the Paraiba River in 1858. Liberals and Conservatives formed the Ministry of Reconciliation led by the Marquis of Paraná 1853-56 and which lasted until 1861. In 1855 making electoral districts for single members aided the liberals, and their minority greatly increased in the 1856 election. Olinda appointed the Liberal leader Bernardo de Sousa Franco to be Treasury Minister, and tariffs were lowered. In 1859-61 the Conservative cabinet reversed the electoral reforms, and they enacted restrictive company laws. In the election of December 1860 moderate Conservatives joined with the Liberals. Although Conservatives were still the majority, some ardent Liberals gained seats. Both parties were split, and the Progressive League was formed. The Conservative cabinet was defeated in 1861, and the former Conservative Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos became Prime Minister for six days in May in 1862 and again in 1864 from January through August. In between Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda, was President of the Council. Another progressive reformer Francisco José Furtado replaced Zacarias, but he gave way to Olinda who became President for the fourth time in May 1865.
      In 1863 Brazil provided military support for rebels in Uruguay, and the Uruguay government asked for military aid from Paraguay. Paraguay’s President Solano López sent a warning to Brazil, but Brazilians invaded Uruguay on 12 October 1864. On 11 November a Paraguayan gunboat captured a Brazilian ship on the Paraguay River, and Brazil broke off diplomatic relations. President López sent an army that invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil on 14 December. He also asked Argentina to let him send a force through their Corrientes Province to attack Brazil’s army in Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay, but Argentine President Bartolomé Mitre denied the request. In March 1865 Paraguay declared war on Argentina, and a Paraguayan squadron attacked two Argentine ships at Corrientes on 13 April. Brazil had made peace with Uruguay on 20 February, and on 1 May Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay signed a triple alliance. Paraguayans invaded Rio Grande do Sul from Corrientes, but on 11 June the Brazilian Navy and Marines defeated them at Riachuelo on the Paraná River. Brazilians drove the foreign troops out of Rio Grande do Sul by September. In November 1865 the fighting moved into Paraguay, and the war would go on until 1870.
      The first great native work of literature in Brazil was the novel O Guarani by the lawyer José de Alencar which was serialized in the newspaper Diario do Rio de Janeiro in 1857.

Argentina and Paraguay 1831-65

      In 1832 the British Navy took over the Malvinas Islands and renamed them the Falklands despite the protests of Argentina, the United States, and France. Juan Manuel de Rosas ended his term as Governor of the Buenos Aires province on 5 December 1832. In March 1833 he led a military expedition into the southern frontier of the southern Pampas and northern Patagonia as far as Rio Negro. When the Ranquel and Mapuche people refused to negotiate and attacked rural villages, Rosas treated them as enemies. After his return in 1834 he claimed that his army had killed 3,200 natives and had taken 1,200 prisoners while rescuing 1,000 captives. He appropriated land and granted it to officers in the expedition. Juan Ramón Balcarce had been elected governor in 1832, but the legislature replaced him in November 1833 with General Viamonte. Rosas made him resign in June 1834, and the legislators agreed to let their president Manuel Vicente Maza become governor.
      The Federalist leader Facunda Quiroga wanted a new constitution, but he was assassinated in February 1835. With civil war impending Rosas resumed being governor again on 7 March. He was elected again on 13 April, but this time he got dictatorial power. He used terror and assassination to maintain political loyalty, killing about 2,000 people by 1852. In 1836 a tariff law prohibited importing cattle products, maize, timber, and butter. The commercial depression went on in the 1830s until 1837 when trade recovered to its 1825 activity. The emphyteusis land contracts expired in 1836, and private ownership took over by 1838. By the 1840s several ranchers owned more than a million acres. Rosas owned 800,000 acres and 500,000 cattle.
      On 19 March 1837 Rosas declared war against the Peru-Bolivian Confederation that was allied with the Unitarists. In the late 1830s citizens of Buenos Aires were forced to wear the red color of the Federalists in parades. Rosas would not give the French commercial concessions or pay indemnities, and in 1838 a French fleet blockaded Buenos Aires. In 1839 they aided the exiled Unitarist General Lavalle who invaded Entre Rios from Montevideo. Uruguay declared war on Rosas, and Bolivians also invaded. Cattle ranchers south of the Salado River in Chascomús rebelled, but the army led by Rosas’ brother defeated them in November. The British persuaded the French to end the blockade in 1840 as Rosas paid a small indemnity. They drove Lavalle north to Salta, and in 1841 he was killed in Jujuy, ending the civil war. Rosas maintained a standing army of 20,000 men and had 15,000 militia. Military spending was 23.8 million pesos or 47% of the budget in 1840 and rose to 71% in 1841. For the remainder of his regime it was always at least 49%.
      Argentina’s generation of 1837 “romantic” activists were led primarily by Esteban Echeverría, Juan Bautista Alberdi, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, and Bartolomé Mitre. Echeverría (1805-51) was a poet and novelist as well as a political activist. In the 1830s Echeverría promoted “moral regeneration” to overcome Rosas, and in 1846 he published his Manual of Moral Instruction and his Dogma socialista. Yet he is known mostly for his short story “El matadero” (The Slaughter Yard) which is a vivid attack on the violence of the Rosas regime. He wrote it while in exile in Uruguay from 1841-51, and it was not published until 1871.
      Alberdi was a friend of Echeverría and Juan María Gutiérrez. They started the group of liberal intellectuals called the “Generation of ’37” and began the Asociación de Mayo named after the Revolution of May 1810 in Buenos Aires. Alberdi moved to Uruguay in 1838 and to Chile in 1844, but he and Gutiérrez influenced the Constitution of 1853. Alberdi became more conservative and supported Urquiza and the federalist leaders who dominated the country.
      Mitre was a military leader and President of Argentina 1862-68. He was the first editor of El comercio in Valparaiso, Chile, and he contributed to Sarmiento’s El progreso. Mitre was a nationalist and opposed the politics of the lawyer Valentín Alsina who was governor of Buenos Aires twice in the 1850s. Yet in October 1852 Alsina asked Mitre to lead the defense of Buenos Aires. The moderate José Mármol was arrested for criticizing Rosas and went into exile. He published part of his autobiographical novel Amalia in 1844 and all of it in 1855. He also wrote the plays El Poeta in 1847 and El Cruzado in 1851.
      Sarmiento was an influential writer and the next President of Argentina 1868-74. The generation of 1837 did not like being called “romantics” and thought of themselves as eclectics or socialists. They promoted literary culture and progressive ideas through education and journalism, and they criticized medieval and Spanish colonialism and urged more European immigration. Sarmiento published his historical novel Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism in 1845 to denounce the tyranny of Rosas and to replace it with European civilization. The book discusses Argentine history and government and describes the life of Juan Facundo Quiroga who lived in Argentina 1788-1835. In 1849 Sarmiento published De la Educación Común to promote free schooling for all, and his Recuerdos de Provincia (Memories of Provincial Life) and his utopian Argirópolis came out in 1850.
      In 1843 Rosas imposed a blockade on Montevideo, and the siege continued for nine years. In 1845 he tried to control the trade on the Paraná River which aroused the French and British, and from 18 September they blockaded the Rio de la Plata region for five years. In 1849 Rosas declined to run for re-election; but he negotiated a treaty with Britain that was signed on 24 November 1849 and ratified on 15 May 1850, and France agreed to a settlement on 31 August.
      Justo José Urquiza became governor of the Entre Rios province in 1841. After gaining allies from Brazil and Uruguay he rejected the re-election of Rosas in May 1851. Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo in September, and he led an army toward Buenos Aires that defeated Rosas by the city of Caseros in early 1852 and then massacred several hundred followers of Rosas in Buenos Aires. Rosas fled on a British Navy ship and spent the rest of his life in England.
      On 1 May 1852 Alberdi published in Valparaiso his Bases y puntos de partida para la organización política de la República Argentina, and copies were sent to Urquiza, Gutiérrez, Mitre, and others. Alberdi supported Urquiza, but Sarmiento backed the autonomy of Buenos Aires under Mitre. Yet Alberdi and Sarmiento agreed on religious tolerance and secular public schools.
      Provinces sent delegates to a convention at San Nicolás near Santa Fe, and in the Acuerdo San Nicolás they endorsed a liberal constitution urged by intellectuals such as Sarmiento and Alberdi. In opposition the Partido Liberal formed at Bueno Aires in June 1852. Liberals there removed Urquiza’s puppet governor Vicente López y Planes on 26 July and then revolted in September and were called setembristas. Sarmiento gained support for them from Argentine exiles in Santiago. They rejected the San Nicolás accord in early 1853, and their delegates withdrew from the constitutional convention organized by Urquiza who was supported by the wealthy cattle producers. Yet the other provinces ratified that constitution, and Urquiza became President of the new Argentine Confederation at its capital in Entre Rios. Those in Buenos Aires declared independence, and the two states remained separate for six years. Buenos Aires had more trade and revenues while the Confederation struggled with inflated paper money and bankruptcy. Urquiza offered commercial concessions and gained diplomatic recognition from Britain in 1853. Argentina had 1.1 million people in 1857. That year Buenos Aires began paying off its defaulted loan made in 1824. From 1855 to 1858 Sarmiento edited and wrote influential articles in El nacional, and in 1850 he worked to reconcile the leaders of Buenos Aires and the Confederation.
      On 1 April 1859 the former Governor Benavidez of the San Juan Province was assassinated. Urquiza invaded Buenos Aires, and his army defeated theirs at Cepeda near Santa Fe on 23 October. The Confederate army occupied Buenos Aires until Bartolomé Mitre became governor there on 3 May 1860. Urquiza’s cavalry led revolts in the provinces; but Buenos Aires gained amendments to the Constitution of 1853, ratified it, and on 17 September 1861 Mitre’s militia with new rifles and cannons defeated the Confederates at Pavón. Urquiza retreated and found so much resistance in Buenos Aires that after his rearguard revolted, he went back to his palace in Entre Rios where he was eventually assassinated at the age of 88 in 1870. In the next two years Mitre tried to bring peace to Córdoba and the interior.
      On 12 October 1862 Governor Mitre became the first elected President of a united Argentina, and he served for four years. The amended Constitution provided for a bicameral legislature and an independent judiciary with a bill of rights that outlawed slavery and the slave trade. The Congress improved education, promoted immigration, and funded railroads by gaining foreign loans. The Constitution banned restraints on trade and authorized a Senate for which only the wealthy were qualified and which had nine-year terms. Catholicism was recognized as the state religion although liberty of conscience was protected. Foreigners were not required to provide loans or serve in the military. Jurist Dalmacio Vélez Sarsfield developed a Commercial Code that passed in 1863.
      Ángel Vicente Peñaloza, who was called El Chacho, led gaucho clans in La Rioja province that attacked San Luis in the southeast in 1862. He controlled much of the west and took over Córdoba on 14 June 1863; but two weeks later they were defeated at Pajas Blancas. An army from Santiago del Estero financed by Buenos Aires invaded La Rioja, defeating and dispersing his army and eventually executing El Chacho on 12 November. The number of sheep in Argentina multiplied, and wool exports went from 300 tons in 1829 to 55,000 tons in 1865.

      After the death of the Dictator Francia on 20 September 1840 a provisional junta ruled. They ordered Artigas and other influential foreigners arrested, and they did not release Francia’s 600 political prisoners. Carlos Antonio López returned to his home in Trinidad and met with dissatisfied officers. On 23 January 1841 an army unit surrounded Government House, and Sergeant Duré ordered the members of the Junta shackled and proclaimed a triumvirate with two city mayors; but on 9 February the officer Mariano Roque Alonso overthrew Duré and prepared for an assembly. Alonso took command and with his secretary Carlos Antonio López and the approval of the army they summoned a congress to meet on 12 March. Partidos elected nearly 500 delegates, and they met in the Church of San Francisco and elected Alonso and López consuls for three years.
      López was 54 years old and well educated but obese. Alonso let López govern while chain-smoking cigars between large meals. López opened schools to improve literacy. A constitution in 1844 gave López most of the power, and property-owners could elect the assembly. In 1844 the Congress voted López a ten-year term as President, and they met only once every five years. In 1845 Uruguay was opposing Argentina’s Rosas and recognized Paraguay’s independence. In 1846 a census counted 238,862 Paraguayans and an estimated 20,000 natives. On 15 May 1848 the illiterate Rose Dominga Ocampos won compensation in a lawsuit against her former fiancée, the Spaniard Martin de Abazolo, for breach of promise. López presided over the Congress in 1849 and persuaded many deputies to resign.
      Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain in 1853, but López refused to ratify one with the United States that included navigation. After Brazil raised a large navy in 1854, López partially mobilized the army in January 1855. The trade treaty with the British was allowed to expire in 1858. President López was re-elected and died on 10 September 1862. He was succeeded by his son Francisco Solano López who had been elected Vice President in 1857. More than half the business licenses granted at Asunción went to foreigners in 1863. That year López sided with the revolutionary government in Uruguay against Brazil which invaded Paraguay on 12 October 1864 In February that year López had been appointed Mariscal, and he ordered 64,000 men drafted into the army. He declared war on Brazil on 13 December, and the next day Paraguayans invaded Brazil’s province Mato Grosso and captured several cities by January 1865. That month López asked Argentina for permission to move his army of 20,000 men through the province of Corrientes, but Argentine President Mitre refused. Paraguay’s Congress met in March and declared war on Argentina. On 13 April the Paraguayans invaded Corrientes, and Argentina declared war against Paraguay on 4 May. On 11 June the navy of Brazil devastated Paraguay’s fleet in the battle of Riachuelo. Paraguay would fight the Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay until 1870.

Chile 1831-65

      In the 1830s the Republic of Chile’s territory stretched from the Atacama Desert in the north and south to the frontier by the Biobío River, beyond which were several hundred thousand Mapuche natives called Araucanians by the Spaniards. Chile had few highways except between Valparaiso and Santiago. They used ships and began building railroads in the 1840s. An electric telegraph connected Santiago with Valparaiso in June 1852, but trains did not do so until September 1863. A census found more than one million people in 1835 and 1.8 million in 1865. From the 1830s to the 1860s more than 80% of Chileans were inquilinos (tenant workers) or worked on haciendas or barely survived by stealing. Mining silver and copper as well as agriculture were the largest exports.
      The Conservative government provided a Constitution in 1833 that gave much power to the President who was allowed two consecutive 5-year terms. Congress could vote him strong powers. When Congress was in recess, the Council of State could declare a state of siege that also suspended civil liberties. The administration had a hierarchy of command with provinces governed by intendants who were “agents” of the President. In 1830 General Prieto became President, and Diego Portales governed as Minister of the Interior and Foreign Affairs. He began by removing 136 military officers who had served General Freire in the civil war. By the middle of 1831 the Civic Guard had 25,000 men, and it would more than double by 1850. The Civic Guard saved the Conservative government during a mutiny in June 1837 and quelled rebels in Santiago at Easter 1851. Only about 2% of the people were qualified to vote, though the literacy rule was ignored and only partially enforced after the 1840. Governors influenced elections by how they distributed voting certificates so that often opponents could not register. In seven of the eleven congressional elections from 1833 to 1864 the opposition ran hardly any candidates.
      Portales resigned in August 1831; but he was appointed Minister of War and Navy on 21 September 1835 and Interior Minister on 9 November. The second largest city Concepcion was ruined by an earthquake in February 1835. Then Santiago’s population of 70,000 increased to 120,000 by 1865. In July 1836 the electoral colleges gave all but 15 of their 158 votes to Prieto. After a brief tariff war Peru had imposed a duty on wheat from Chile which then doubled its tariff on Peruvian sugar. General Andrés Santa Cruz joined Peru with Bolivia with himself as Protector of the Confederation in October. Portales was concerned that exiled General Ramón Freire was planning to attack the Conservative government, and he demanded that the Confederation be dissolved; but Santa Cruz refused. The Chilean envoy Mariano Egaña declared war, and the Congress ratified it on 24 December and declared a state of siege in January 1837 for the war. Portales required returning exiles to get permission or be shot, and on 2 February permanent courts martial were ordered for every province with no appeals.
      Portales summoned Col. José Antonio Vadaurre and asked if he was conspiring to revolt. Vadaurre denied it but then captured Portales when he came to inspect his troops. Soldiers found the murdered body of Portales on 6 June 1837. His state funeral supported the Conservative regime. People believed that Vadaurre’s mutiny was supported by Santa Cruz’s agents. Admiral Manuel Blanco Encalada led an army of 2,800 to Islay in Peru, and they occupied Arequipa but were devastated by disease. Santa Cruz led an army that surrounded the city, and on 17 November he got Blanco Encalada to accept the treaty of Paucarpata in which
Chile recognized the Confederation. General Manuel Bulnes led a force of 5,400 soldiers from Valparaiso in July 1838, and they won a small naval battle at Casma on 12 January 1839. Bulnes invaded a northern state in Peru that was asserting independence and demanded that Chileans leave. Bulnes had his army occupy Lima, but then they withdrew to the north. Santa Cruz led a force that followed them, but the Chileans vanquished the Peruvians at Yungay as about 2,000 men were killed.
      Liberals formed a Patriotic Society in February 1840, and they began working for opposition candidates. They successfully opposed the Minister of Justice Egaña’s attempt to weaken the 1828 law on press freedom, and Egaña resigned in March 1841. The triumphant Manuel Bulnes was Prieto’s nephew, and Chileans elected him their President in September and again in 1846. The scholarly lawyer Manuel Montt became Minister of Justice. Chileans established a settlement on the Straits of Magellan in September 1843 and then made it a penal colony.
      Chile began teacher colleges for men in 1842 and for women in 1854. In November 1842 El Progreso became Santiago’s first daily newspaper. Valparaiso’s El Mercurio had become a daily newspaper in 1829. In 1848 they began publishing an edition for Santiago, and another with some English sold up the coast as far as Panama. External trade increased from the 1840s to the 1860s despite a major recession in the 1850s.
      Manuel Camilo Vial was the cousin of President Bulnes and became Interior Minister and temporary Finance Minister. He gave contracts and good jobs to three of his brothers and was criticized by the press. In October 1849 a Reform Club began, and a Progressive Party emerged promoted by the El Progreso newspaper. In 1850 Federico Errázuriz warned the Congress not to prevent the Republic’s march to civilization, and he and José Victorino Lastarria issued a manifest for the rights of equality before the law, free expression, inviolable property, free education, and private industry. They accepted universal suffrage for all men. The Society for Equality tried to take on the new tyrants. On 10 February 1851 about a hundred citizens in Concepción offered their Intendant General José Maria de la Cruz as a presidential candidate, and the Liberals persuaded Ramón Errázuriz to withdraw by the end of March. President Bulnes endorsed Manuel Montt as the Conservative candidate, and he was elected. Liberals in La Serena revolted on 7 September, and they captured the Yungay Regiment by inviting the officers to lunch. General Bulnes commanded the attack on the rebels led by Cruz; but neither side won the battle by the Loncomilla River on 8 December, and they made peace eight days later with the honorable treaty of Purapel. The last skirmish of the brief civil war was at Copiapó on 8 January 1852.
      The 1850s were a time of material progress in Chile. President Montt believed in primary education for all the inhabitants and proposed one school for boys and one for girls for every 2,000 citizens. During his two terms from 1851 to 1861 the number of primary schools went from 571 to 911 including 648 public schools. The University of Chile had started in 1843, and most of their 859 degrees in the next 14 years were in law. The 1854 census found that 17% of men and 10% of women were literate, and in 1865 one of five men could read and one of seven women. El Progreso condemned the Bishop of La Serena for banning books by Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Byron, de Staël, Gibbon, and others.
      President Montt was easily re-elected without much opposition in 1856. That year Lastarria published a book that criticized Chile’s 1833 Constitution for its failure to protect civil liberties, and he urged social regeneration. In 1858 young Carrasco Albano also urged more freedom in his Comentarios sobre la Constitución Política with separation of church and state and easier naturalization for Protestants. The Society for Equality urged agitation, and El Amigo del Pueblo supported the artisans and accepted the name “revolutionaries” but by the progress of ideas, not violence. In his El porvenir de hombre Pedro Félix Vicuña emphasized the development of manufacturing and industry, and in 1859 Ambrosio Montt published his Ensayo sobre el Gobierno en Europa which looked at the successful examples of England and the United States. In March 1858 Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas” in which angels sing,

Democracy is the idea of God;
   it is the principle of social perfectibility;
   do not profane this sacred principle.
1. Love God the Creator above all;
   this is the principle of principles.
2. Do not be perjurers or wicked.
3. Render public worship to the divine idea.
4. Love your parents, your elders, and all men;
   respect others so that you may be respected.
5. Do evil to nobody; may your lips pronounce
   nothing but peace, concord, love, and friendship.
6. Raise women to the dignity they should occupy in society,
   seeking in woman the tender mother, the beloved wife,
   the chaste friend, the adored sister, the innocent daughter,
   and the angel that sheds perpetual peace
   in this exile we call the world.
7. Live content with what you possess.
8. Do not be false, or hypocritical or mendacious.
9. Respect the peace of families.
10. And love the creative principle.
And then men understood how mischievous they had been,
and understood what democracy was,
and they were democrats, and they were happy.1

      The Liberals and Conservatives formed a Fusion movement, and they had a “protest banquet” on 19 October 1858. Radicals and younger liberals opposed the pact with the Conservatives, and they had been inspired by the Lamartine’s 1858 history of the early stages of the French Revolution. In January 1858 a small group of guerrillas seized the town of Talca in the Central Valley. A year later radicals seized the barracks and controlled Copiapó, and on 12 February 1859 rebels took over San Felipe. On 29 April soldiers led by Vidaurre Leal attacked the rebels near La Serena, and the revolutionary army dissolved. A mutiny in Valparaiso was put down in August. On 18 September armed men attacked a celebration and mortally wounded General Leal.
      On 16 September 1860 Antonio Varas gave an inspiring speech at the inauguration of a statue of Portales. Newspapers urged him to run for President, and National Party leaders supported him on 15 December; but on 12 January 1861 he declared that even if they elected him against his will, he would leave the country. In March the National Party nominated José Joaquín Pérez, and he was elected and cheered at his inauguration on 18 September. He urged national reconciliation, and on 4 October he submitted to Congress an amnesty bill for the past ten years. In 1862 President Pérez appointed officers from the Liberal-Conservative Fusion. In Santiago at the La Compañia church on 8 December 1863 at least 2,000 people, mostly women, died in a fire on the last day of month-long devotions to the Virgin Mary. This bitter tragedy stimulated new fire regulations.

British Guiana 1817-65

      In March 1817 the Demerara-Essequibo colony in British Guiana passed an ordinance to register slaves, and by 1820 all the British colonies in the West Indies had passed such acts. In 1823 several missionary societies worked together with Quakers to form the Anti-Slavery Society, and Thomas Fowell Buxton introduced resolutions in the House of Commons in May to improve the conditions of slaves by allowing them to marry and purchase their freedom. The Government’s George Canning proposed alternative resolutions to abolish flogging of women, allow slave evidence in court, encourage manumission, and protect slave property; this resulted in flogging being abolished in August. On the 17th slaves gathered on Plantation Success to plan an uprising. The African Quamina was a deacon in Rev. John Smith’s chapel at Le Resouvenir, and he urged a nonviolent strike instead. The house-slave Joseph Packard betrayed the plot to his master who informed the Governor. He ordered them to lay down their arms. They refused, and the next night they put managers and overseers in the stocks. These Africans had become Christians and used less violence. Smith was arrested on 21 August and was charged with rebellion. The government declared martial law and suppressed the rebellion on the East Coast as troops led by Col. Leahy dispersed 2,000 Africans at Bachelor’s Adventure. Natives killed Quamina as a runaway, and the African leader Jack Gladstone was hanged. After a trial 27 were executed. Yet soldiers had killed even more, though very few Europeans died. Smith died in prison in February 1824.
      In 1825 Britain passed slavery reforms that limited working hours, permitted marriage and the rights to hold property and buy freedom. The colonies of Demerara-Essequibo and Berbice united to become the colony of British Guiana in 1831. That year Demerara-Essequibo passed the Consolidated Slave Ordinance that mandated manumission which was to become law in August 1833 and end slavery on 1 August 1834. Planters were to be compensated with $21.5 million for 84,915 slaves. However, there was to be a transition to freedom by requiring six years of apprenticeship with field-slaves working 45 hours a week in exchange for food, clothing, and allowances. Africans led by Damon in the Trinity parish refused to work and took refuge in the Holy Trinity Church. The Governor had the leaders arrested. Four were transported; 31 others were imprisoned and flogged, and Damon was hanged.
      Voting qualifications still enabled planters and merchants to control the government. Following the example of West Indian colonies, the planters agreed to free the apprentices on 1 August 1838. They began importing immigrants with 430 Portuguese arriving in 1835, but most soon died. About 5,000 laborers came from the West Indies 1835-38. Immigration from India began with 396 in May 1838. In 1841 they used public money to bring in 4,297 Portuguese, 2,745 from the West Indies, and 1,102 Africans. Between 1846 and 1848 more than 11,000 from India and 10,000 from Madeira were imported. So many died that immigration from Madeira was suspended. They banned Portuguese immigration in 1848, though some was allowed from 1850 to 1882. In 1851 Britain revived immigration from India by providing a loan of £200,000, and 238,960 indentured Indians would come to British Guiana by 1917.
      The creole James Sayers Orr organized meetings in Georgetown and criticized the Catholic Church. On 15 February 1856 Governor Wodehouse prohibited meetings in Georgetown. Orr had meetings in a suburb and was arrested. Angry Africans reacted by attacking the Portuguese and looting shops. In 1864 Ordinance 4 regulated indentured service by immigrants.

Venezuela 1830-65

      Venezuela was founded as a republic with a constitution in 1830 when it had an estimated 800,000 people. On 13 January General José Antonio Páez set up a provisional government with a cabinet and summoned a Constituent Congress to meet in Valencia, the new capital. They met on 6 May, and Páez declared, “My sword, my lance, and all my military triumphs are submitted with the most respectful obedience to the decisions of the law.”2 The new constitution they passed was proclaimed on 23 October. That month the Congress had extended the period before manumission of slaves was required. Voting was still restricted to primary elections by men of means. The legislature included a Senate with two from each province and a House of Representatives with one representative for every 20,000 people. The President was elected for a four-year term but could not run for re-election until later. The Electoral College chose the President and the Vice President whose term provided a transition from the last two years of one President to the first two years of the next.
      The Congress met in Valencia in March 1831 and proclaimed the elected President Páez and Vice President Diego Bautista Urbaneja. The debt from the war of independence was apportioned in December 1834 with Colombia responsible for 50%, Venezuela for 28.5 %, and Ecuador with 21.5%. Venezuela’s exports of 3 million pesos in the early 1930s doubled by the early 1840s. Venezuela made commercial and navigation treaties, notably with Hanseatic cities in 1837. In this era political crimes could get the death penalty, and the churches lost their tax exemptions and their control over education. The Conservatives even gave this stable state autonomy over the military, and new roads aided commerce.
      Five candidates ran for president in 1835, and Páez shifted from supporting Carlos Soublette to helping the Electoral College choose José María Vargas. After his resignation, which Congress refused to accept, in June 1835 the military revolted in Maracaibo and a few days later in Caracas. They arrested Vargas and banished him to St. Thomas on 10 June. General Santiago Mariño took power in the name of reform, and a Popular Assembly made Páez provisional president with Mariño as commander-in-chief. In the east José Tadeo Monagas proclaimed a federation as he had in 1831. Páez disarmed enough rebels in July so that Vargas could return in August as President. Páez proclaimed an amnesty that allowed Monagas and other officers to keep their ranks; but Congress punished rebels in Puerto Cabello. Vargas did not like the conflict and resigned again in April 1836. Two other men were President until Soublette served from March 1837 to February 1839 when Páez was re-elected with 212-10 vote by the electors for another four years.
      In 1840 Antonio Leocadio Guzmán founded the Liberal party, and Fermín Toro became a leader of the Conservative party. Most newspapers supported one of these two parties. Guzmán’s El Venezolano newspaper called for abolition of slavery, extending voting rights, and protection for debtors. Federalists and the Monagas family brought the Liberal party to power. In the 1842 elections the Conservative candidate Soublette won, and he served 1843-47. In the 1844 elections the Liberals used aggressive tactics, and the Government called out the militia. In the 1846 election the Liberals had three candidates. Only 319 out of 8,798 electors voted, and Congress chose the Conservative José Tadeo Monagas who had 107 votes. Liberals rose up and were suppressed. The leaders were tried, and Guzmán was exiled. On 23 January 1848 Conservatives in Congress formed a private guard for protection. The next day the Government had army officers and a mob attack the guard, and they insulted the members. When the elected members tried to leave, several were killed along with a few spectators. On the 25th Monagas made the Congress grant amnesty and give him dictatorial power. Páez led the first revolt in February and March, but they were forced to take refuge in New Granada. On 3 April Monagas pleased liberals by abolishing the death penalty for political crimes, and a credit law repealed the rule that political rights could be stopped by debt. On 21 June revolts broke out in Caracas, Guarico, and Aragua, and in the capital the Belisario brothers let paecistas in an attack on the presidential palace against Monagas; but they were stopped and fled. In July 1849 Conservatives rose up in Caracas, but they also failed. Páez was banished but was kept in prison for months before his exile that lasted until 1858.
      Monagas used dictatorial power, but he appointed some Liberals and moved toward that party. Yet many Liberals joined with Conservatives against him. In the 1850 election José Tadeo’s brother José Gregorio Monagas was proclaimed President. He was supported by José Tadeo who was re-elected by the Electoral College with all but one of the 398 votes in 1855. In May 1853 a revolt broke out in Valencia that spread, and this led to the ending of slavery. On 23 March 1854 the Liberals abolished it, and 40,000 slaves were soon freed. They also ended the death penalty, expanded education to the poor, and made town councils autonomous, though these things were not always implemented.
      On 2 March 1857 President José Tadeo Monagas proposed a constitution that was promulgated on 18 April and gave the President the authority to choose the provincial governors and the Congress the power to select the next President and Vice President. Two days later the cooperative Congress elected José Tadeo to another term with his nephew and son-in-law as Vice President. Political leaders of both parties organized opposition outside of Venezuela, and the Congress of 1858 granted amnesty to political exiles since 1848. Carabobo’s Governor Julián Castro became the leader and launched the revolution in March 1858. President Monagas resigned and took refuge at the French embassy. Congress elected a provisional government led by Castro who arrived in Caracas on the 18th and announced, “No party has triumphed. The whole nation has triumphed. Let us all unite.”3
      Castro included in his cabinet Fermín Toro who demanded inspection of peculation in the Treasury. Wenceslao Urrutia arranged for French and British diplomats to escort the ex-president out of Venezuela, and this was challenged and led to a conflict in which the French and British broke off relations and blockaded Venezuela with warships in May. A National Convention met at Valencia in July to draft a new charter. Liberals planned a revolt, but Toro was president of the Convention. They gave Castro dictatorial power to handle the revolt. General Juan Crisóstomo Falcón led a revolt at La Guaira that was put down by troops led by Soublette. On 27 August the foreign diplomats and the commissioners agreed to let the Monaga family leave, and the Convention expelled the Monagas for life. On 31 December a new Constitution was promulgated that gave the people more power in elections and in Municipal Power over local government.
      In 1859 most of the wealth in Venezuela was in the hands of a few landowners and merchants. President Castro tried to work with Conservatives and Liberals and formed a cabinet in February 1859. The Federal War started on the 20th when forty revolutionaries took over Coro and then made exiled Ezequiel Zamora their chief. He returned two days later, and they declared a federation and tried to take over Puerto Cabello. While Zamora led the fight in the west, Falcón arrived in July and directed the Federalists in the east. In June President Castro retired but resumed a week later causing a period of chaos until he was succeed by Vice President Manuel Felipe de Tovar on 29 September. Elections were held, and he was elected a constitutional President. In a major battle on 10 December at Santa Inés forces led by Zamora defeated the Government’s army. During a battle on 10 January 1860 a sniper killed Zamora. On 17 February the Government’s army defeated the Federalists at Coplé, and Falcón fled to New Granada. Conservatives wanted Páez to be dictator, and Tovar resigned in May 1861 and was succeeded by Vice President Pedro Gual who asked Páez to resign his ministry; but the Caracas garrison arrested Gual and declared Páez chief. He became dictator on 10 September, but his negotiation with Falcón failed at Carabobo in December.
      In August 1862 Falcón sent Antonio Guzmán Blanco to Caracas, Aragua, Carabobo, and Guárico, and by early in 1863 the Federalists controlled most of Venezuela. Páez made a treaty at Coche on 23 April that gave power to the Federalist leader Falcón. He published a Decree of Guarantees to affirm democracy and human rights in August. That month Guzmán Blanco arranged a loan in London for £2 million based on custom duties, and the Venezuelan Constituent Assembly approved the terms on 14 January 1864; but Venezuela actually got only £900,000 at 6% interest. The national debt was up to 51 million pesos. On 24 December the Constituent Assembly met with mostly military members and Guzmán Blanco as President. They passed a new Constitution that went into effect on 13 April that changed the country’s name to the United States of Venezuela with the provinces organized into twenty states. Muncipal Power was retained, and the states had judiciaries independent of the federal system. Some uprisings and mutinies broke out in 1864; but these calmed down by 1868, and more opportunity made the nation less unequal and enabled more people to become literate.

New Granada (Colombia) 1830-65

      What was later called “Gran Colombia” had been formed in 1819-20 when Bolívar led the liberation of New Granada from Spain. With the spread of independence the federation was dissolved in 1830-31 and became New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador. New Granada’s government under President Joaquin Mosquera in Bogotá continued to use the name Colombia for a while according to the Constitution of 1830. In August the military deposed Mosquera and replaced him with the Venezuelan General Rafael Urdaneta who served for eight months. Generals José María Obando and José Hilario Lopez led the military that persuaded him to resign. Obando was Vice President and governed until Congress under the new Constitution of 1832 elected José Ignacio de Márquez in March. Voting was still limited to men with property or sufficient income, but they delayed the implementation of the literary requirement from 1840 to 1850. Local assemblies gained the authority to make ordinances for schools, roads, etc. The military lost their exemption from jurisdiction that was retained for the clergy. The military in Panama supported the liberals and restored that region to New Granada.
      General Francisco de Paula Santander had been Bolívar’s Vice President of Colombia 1821-27, and he became President of New Granada in October 1832 and began a four-year term in 1833. A conspiracy led by Catalan General José Sardá was discovered. Most were easily caught, and 17 were executed in Bogotá’s main square. Sardá escaped, but loyal officers pretended to join his organization and shot him dead in 1834. New Granada spent about half its budget on the military with an army of 3,300 men. In 1835 a census counted 1,686,000 people in New Granada with 40,000 in Bogotá, the only large city. Congress abolished the regressive alcabala sales tax over the President’s veto. Government monopolies of tobacco and salt with other taxes provided most of the revenue. Santander increased the number of children going to primary schools from 17,000 to over 20,000, and he had new secondary schools opened. The Catholic religion was predominant, and New Granada formed diplomatic relations with the papacy, though the state kept a role in ecclesiastical appointments. Santander wanted to be succeeded by Obando, but he was suspected of being behind the assassination of the heroic General Sucre.
      Instead the civilian Dr. José Ignacio de Márquez was supported by the Bolivarians and was elected President in 1837. He got the agreement dividing up Gran Colombia’s debt ratified, and he formed diplomatic relations with Spain. When Congress tried to suppress the smaller monasteries in Pasto, a revolt broke out in 1839 that was called the “War of the Supremes” because local leaders called themselves jefe supremo. The Pastusos were put down, but in 1840 Obando revived the effort, and he was supported by Santanderistas who called themselves “Progresistas.” Santander had been elected to the Chamber of Representatives; he opposed violent revolt but died in May. Supreme Director Obando favored a federal system, and the uprising spread. The Bolivarian generals Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera and Pedro Alcántara Herrán suppressed the rebellion by early 1842, and Congress elected Herrán President in 1841.
      These Conservatives issued another constitution in 1843 that strengthened the executive, and Herrán invited the Jesuits to come back in order to improve education. His Secretary of the Interior Mariano Ospina Rodríguez removed Bentham and other modern thinkers from the curriculum, and they tried to focus on natural sciences and useful studies. They extended the work requirement for the children of slaves from up to the age of 18 to 25. In 1843 they allowed slave owners to export slaves to other countries. Mosquera was elected President in 1845, and he supported public works and technical development, introducing the metric system and modern bookkeeping. Steam navigation began on the Magdalena River. The Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty was negotiated with the United States in 1846 to guarantee New Granada’s sovereignty and protect transit over the Panama isthmus which led to the nation’s first railroad there. Independent Florentino González became Secretary of Finance, and tariff duties were reduced by 25% in 1847. The government’s tobacco monopoly was eventually abolished in 1850.
      The Liberal candidate José Hilario López got a plurality of the votes over two Conservatives, and in the Congress the Conservative Ospina helped López become President in 1849. Artisans angry about reduced tariffs on imports supported López. Congress raised custom duties, but not enough to satisfy the artisans. In May mostly privatized tobacco was freed of state control. The business was shifting from snuff and pipe tobacco to cigars, and by the 1860s tobacco would be more than a third of exports. This increased the wealth of owners of large estates and merchants. In May 1851 New Granada passed a law that liberated the remaining 20,000 slaves on 1 January 1852. Reforms included redeeming church mortgages, ending academic degree requirements for professions except pharmacy, abolishing libel laws, and reducing taxes by giving them to the provinces.
      Another constitution in 1853 included universal male suffrage, and direct elections replaced the electoral college. People began electing Supreme Court judges, the Attorney General, and provincial governors. The province of Vélez even passed female suffrage, but the Supreme Court blocked it as unconstitutional. All citizens were guaranteed freedom of religion, and religious censorship was banned. The Catholic Church regained autonomy of clerical appointments, but many Catholics did not like the introduction of civil marriage and the legalization of divorce.
      José Eusebio Caro and Mariano Ospina Rodríguez wrote a manifesto for the newly formed Conservative Party, and they opposed heterodox European writers. In the 1853 elections the Liberal candidate José María Obando won a majority for the presidency, but Conservatives were elected as Attorney General and Supreme Court judges. The Liberal Party became divided with the radical reformers called “Gólgotas” (after the place where Jesus was crucified) being opposed by the artisans who collaborated with young liberals in the Sociedad Democratica that started in Bogotá and spread and by the moderate Draconianos who opposed ending the death penalty and the reduction of the army to 1,500 men. In April 1854 General José María Melo used his command in Bogotá to take control of the government, and he asked Obando to accept the coup. When he refused, Melo proclaimed himself a dictatorial president. Melo had little support beyond the troops and the artisans, and the Constitutionalists gradually regained control of the country and returned to Bogotá in early December. Melo surrendered in the presidential palace and was banished, and about 350 of his followers were exiled in the less healthy province of Panama.
      The Gólgotas and Conservatives had allied against the Draconianos and artisans. The restored Congress impeached President Obando for allowing the coup, and José de Obaldía’s term as Vice President ended in early 1855. In that election the Conservative Manuel María Mallarino was elected to complete Obando’s term, and he appointed two Liberals to his cabinet; but the Congress repealed the legalization of divorce. In 1856 about 40% of the adult males who voted elected the Conservative Mariano Ospina Rodríguez to be President in 1857, and he allowed the Jesuits to return. The Conservatives supported the first federalist constitution that established the Granadine Confederation in 1858. Panama had already become autonomous in early 1855. In 1859 Ospina and Congress passed laws that increased their power over Liberal opposition. The provincial government in Santander (formed from Socorro and Pamplona) enacted liberal reforms such as abolishing the death penalty, allowing coining money, private schools, and road-building, and taxing personal wealth. Conservatives rebelled, and Ospina proclaimed a public emergency in order to call out national forces. Mosquera also rebelled in May 1860 and led the Liberal forces opposing Ospina.
      The Liberals won the civil war as they took Bogotá in July 1861, though fighting went on for another year. Ospina, who had appointed a successor, was arrested and exiled to Guatemala. Mosquera as head of state claimed control of the Church. He appropriated church assets except for buildings being used for religion, and he expelled the Jesuits. The state took over the Church’s wealth and promised to pay back annually 6% of what was taken. Most religious orders of monks and nuns were abolished. Archbishop Antonio Herrán complained and was arrested, and Pope Pius IX excommunicated Mosquera. His administration issued treasury bills based on real estate sales that went slowly. The clergy were no longer able to provide as much welfare and education, and the government was not doing much either.
      In 1863 a constituent convention meeting in Antioquia provided a constitution even more federalist and renamed the nation Estado Unidos de Colombia with the nine states Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Panama, Santander, and Tolima. Each state was to have one vote to elect the President to a two-year term without immediate re-election. States could determine voting qualifications, and most made restrictions on male suffrage. The Constitution could not be amended without the consent of all nine states. Human life was affirmed, and the death penalty was banned for all offenses. Citizens were allowed to keeps arms and trade them during peace-time. The radical Liberal Manuel Murillo Toro was elected President and succeeded Mosquera on 8 April 1864. Conservatives in Antioquia overthrew their Liberal rulers and made Pedro Justo Berrío their governor. President Murillo Toro declined to invoke his power to maintain order, affirming federal self-determination.

Ecuador 1830-65

      After Venezuela withdrew from Gran Colombia, in May 1830 a constitutional congress met in Quito to prevent that happening there; but on the 31st General Juan José Flores called a constituent assembly to meet in Riobamba. From 10 August to 22 September they devised a constitution for a new nation named Ecuador after the equator with a federal government for three equal states of Quito, Guayaquil, and Azuay. The Roman Catholic Church was established, but the government controlled patronage and collected tithes. Congress was elected indirectly and chose the president and vice president, an executive that appointed many officials and judges as well as bishops. Thirty deputies had one-year terms and elected Flores the President for four years. He had been born in Venezuela and rose in the military, married an influential heiress, and was supported by the councils of Quito and Pasto. Bolivarians led by General Urdaneta fought to maintain Gran Colombia there starting in Guayaquil on 28 November, but after Bolívar’s death on 17 December Urdaneta and 25 officers left the country. Flores had an army of 2,000 men with many foreigners, and the military budget of 200,000 pesos was most of the government’s 387,973 pesos of revenues. Colombians prevented Flores from annexing Cauca and Popayan, and the Río Tulcán became the northern border with Peru. In 1832 Ecuador did annex the Archipiélago de Colón (Galápagos Islands).
      President Flores was criticized for appointing a Colombian as Minister of the Treasury, and in 1833 the English liberal Col. Francisco Hall founded El Quiteño Libre to oppose the conservative government; but their periodical lasted only four months until 14 September when Congress approved the suppression of that society. Six days later the El Quiteño Libre Society began a revolt in Guayaquil that was supported by the liberal Vicente Rocafuerte. On 10 October soldiers killed Col. Hall and three society members. Rocafuerte had a large estate in Chihuahua, Mexico, and the revolt was called the “War of the Chihuahuas.” The army defeated the rebels at Sabaneta and Mapasingue. In 1834 President Flores came to an agreement with Rocafuerte, and fighting ended after the battle of Miñarca on 18 January 1835.
      Vicente Rocafuerte governed the Guayas state from September 1834 to June 1835. Then a constitutional convention met in June with Vice President José Joaquín de Olmedo presiding. On 8 August 1835 the Ambato Convention elected Vicente Rocafuerte Ecuador’s second President, and his term lasted until January 1839. He had been born in Guayaquil and was well educated in Europe learning six languages. Rocafuerte was influenced by the French Revolution and the government of the United States. From July 1821 to November 1823 he lived in New York and Philadelphia. In 1821 he published Ideas necesarias a todo pueblo Americano independiente, que quiera ser libre (Necessary Ideas for Every Independent American Nation which Wishes to Be Free). Then he wrote another book to support Mexican revolutionaries who drove Emperor Agustín de Iturbide into exile in May 1823. Also that year he wrote a book with his political ideas for a popular, elective, representative Colombian system that fit independent America. He urged a federalist republic after the example of the United States. From 1824 to 1829 Rocafuerte worked as a diplomat for Mexico in London.
      The liberal 1835 constitution strengthened Ecuador’s independence from Gran Colombia. It required the President to have been born in Ecuador and made the House of Deputies more representational. Rocafuerte reduced the power of militaristic officers by forming the National Guard and by founding military academies for the army and navy. An attempt to start a girls school with a Quaker teacher aroused the opposition of the Bishop of Quito. Criminal cases were given trials by jury; public funding became regular; foreign debt payments were arranged; and a commission was appointed to codify the laws. In 1838 Congress reduced religious holidays and made the age to join a religious order 25. When Rocafuerte left office in 1839, he returned to govern Guayaquil with more reforms.
      General Flores was re-elected President of Ecuador again on 15 January 1839. On 15 February 1840 Spain recognized Ecuador’s independence. Flores tried to annex Pasto and caused a failed war against Colombia. He had so many troubles that he dissolved the Congress in 1841, and they did not meet until 1843 to choose his successor. Instead a third constitutional convention met in Quito on 15 January 1843. Flores did not want to alternate the presidency with Rocafuerte, and this convention obediently passed what critics called “The Charter of Slavery” that gave the President a term of eight years followed by a possible a second term. The 27 senators were to be elected to 12-year terms, nine every four years. Thirty deputies were to be elected for eight years also, half every four years. Congress would meet only once every four years, and a permanent commission of five senators would advise in between. Only the Catholic Church was allowed public worship, but others could meet in private. On 1 April the Convention elected Flores president again with only two votes against him.
      While they were living in exile in Lima, Rocafuerte in A la Nación and Pedro Mancayo in La Linterna Mágica wrote promoting a revolution that began in Guayaquil in February 1845 led by Vicente Ramón Roca. Guayaquil’s Governor Manuel Espantoso learned of the plot and banished Roca, provoking the revolution that began on 6 March. In May citizens from Esmeraldas, Loja, and Alausí joined the uprising. When the acting Vice President Valdivieso moved the nation’s capital, Quito revolted. Flores made two peace treaties on 17-18 June at La Virginia hacienda. Flores resigned from the army but retained his rank and property and promised to move to Europe for two years. He left one week later, and on 11 July the provisional government summoned a national assembly to meet in Cuenca to revise the constitution and elect a president.
      The Liberal Rocafuerte was president of the Cuenca Convention that began on 3 October, and in the next four months the 42 deputies created a liberal constitution with votes for all men. The President’s power to appoint bishops and other officials was reduced. Yet after 80 ballots the Conservative Vicente Ramón Roca was elected by a two-thirds vote, and he became President of Ecuador on 22 February 1846. The Convention rejected the La Virginia treaty and ordered the property of General Flores confiscated. Roca had attempts to make Flores dictator squelched, and he banished his supporters. Territory on the northern coast was made the province of Esmeraldas.
      In 1849 the Congress was divided between General Elizalde and the civilian Noboa y Arteta, and they could not elect a president. The honest Vice President Manuel Ascázubi governed for one year, but his posting governmental expenditures aroused greed. General José María Urbina and the candidates Elizalde and Noboa objected to a partisan of Flores being made foreign minister. On 20 February 1850 Urbina abandoned Ascasubi and took control of Guayaquil to finance a revolution. Noboa y Arteta was proclaimed chief of Ecuador on 2 March, and Ascázubi resigned on 10 June. A constitutional convention met at Quito on 8 December and offered a new constitution on 10 April 1851 that restricted male suffrage by age, income, and literacy. Voting was by local assemblies that elected a National Assembly which could elect the president by a majority vote. He was aided by three cabinet ministers and a council of five chosen by the legislature to act when they were not meeting. They affirmed free expression and barred the same person from having civil and military authority. They abolished capital punishment for political crimes and allowed commutation to exile. The Convention had elected Noboa president on 25 February 1851. He removed 63 military officers, exiling Elizarde and others. The Convention also authorized return of the Jesuits on 25 March.
      The Liberals General Urbina and Pedro Moncayo in Guayaquil feared Flores. Urbina had President Noboa arrested while he was traveling from Quito to Guayaquil and shipped him off to Costa Rica. General Urbino claimed power on 24 July at Guayaquil and defeated governmental forces at Guaranda, Urbina, Villamil, and Quito, which he entered on 27 September. General Flores led a naval expedition that invaded Ecuador in 1852, but they were defeated before reaching Guayaquil. There the National Assembly met on 18 July and passed Ecuador’s sixth constitution which was similar to Cuenca’s in 1845. The Assembly decreed free primary education for all, and the Jesuits were expelled again. On 30 August the Assembly elected Urbina a constitutional President. On 28 October 1853 he decreed the option of independent studies at the University of Quito with only an exam for a degree. Conservatives objected to the lodges of Freemasons and Urbina’s control over church affairs. Urbina directed an honor guard of coastal Negroes to use force to collect contributions to the Treasury and to drive out his opponents.
      In Ecuador’s first presidential election with popular suffrage in 1856 Urbina’s choice General Francisco Robles defeated three other candidates. President Robles continued to improve education, and in 1857 the Congress abolished the head tax which natives had been paying since the Spanish conquest. Conservative opposition was led by Gabriel García Moreno who was alcalde (mayor) of Quito and rector of the University. Robles offended Peru when he ceded 16,000 square kilometers of land in the Oriente to pay British creditors. He quarreled with Peru’s minister Juan Celestino Cavero, and diplomatic relations were broken. With war threatened the Congress gave President Robles emergency powers and approved moving the capital to Riobamba before adjourning in 1858.
      In early January 1859 Peruvians invaded Puná Island near the port of Guayaquil. On 1 May the municipal officers of Quito rejected Robles and declared a provisional government led by the triumvirate of Gabriel García Moreno, Ecuador’s Vice President Jerónimo Carrión, and former Vice President Pacifico Chiriboga. They were supported by the mountain provinces of Imbabura, Pichinchia, León, and Chimborazo. Urbina returned to Quito on 17 June, and he defeated the triumvir’s forces in Ibarra. On 2 September the triumvir’s forces overcame government troops in Imbabura, and two days later Quito’s Governor Borja y Lizarzaburu surrendered the city to the triumvirs. Then Guayaquil ousted the Robles Governor Teodoro Maldonado, but on 6 September General Guillermo Franco claimed power in Guayaquil. Robles and Urbina left Ecuador. Franco gave the Oriente back to Peru in exchange for Peru recognizing him as President of Ecuador. This aroused protests, and the Manabí province and coast communities defected. The triumvirate recalled General Flores from Peru and gave him military command against Franco. Their forces took over Guayaquil on 23 September, and Franco left the country.
      On 10 January 1861 General Flores presided over a national convention in Quito that elected García Moreno interim president and then to a four-year term on 10 March. Moreno (1821-75) had advocated tyrannicide at literary meetings in 1843, and in 1846 he married a wealthy lady who was 12 years older. He criticized Ecuador’s government in various periodicals over the years, and he persuaded President Noboa to let the Jesuits return. He satirized President Urbina in his ode A Fabio. In March 1853 Moreno began publishing the weekly La Nación. He had a doctorate in law and was elected a senator in May 1857.
      García Moreno led the Conservatives, and their new constitution provided for a congressional deputy for every 20,000 persons and strengthened the executive. They divided Guayaquil into the provinces Guayas and Los Rios to weaken the Liberals. Moreno punished corruption regardless of party, and he applied his salary to public service. He reacted to a border skirmish with Peruvians in July 1862 by leading an untrained force that was defeated at Tulcan on the 31st. He and his Minister of War Daniel Salvador were captured and were released after recognizing Arboleda’s Grenadine Confederation. Moreno negotiated a concordat with Pope Pius IX that was signed on 26 September 1862 that greatly increased the role of the Catholic Church in Ecuador with new dioceses created in Ibarra, Riobamba, and Loja on 29 December. The Concordat was ratified and proclaimed on 18 April 1863, but in August a majority of the Congress rejected it as invalid without their approval, though they worked out a compromise on some issues. Moreno asked Napoleon III to annex or protect Ecuador but gave up the idea in 1863.
      On 15 August Colombia’s Mosquera called upon his people to aid Ecuadorians who opposed Moreno’s policies. Moreno sent an army of 7,000 men led by General Flores to invade Colombia, but on 6 December they were routed at Cuaspud and suffered 2,500 killed and wounded with at least 2,200 men captured. In July 1864 Moreno declared Ecuador neutral in the war between Peru and Spain, but he allowed Spanish ships to get supplies in Ecuador’s ports. He quarreled with the Peruvian Chargé d’affaires Barranechea who left Quito. Moreno supported public works, notably the construction of a wagon road in 1862 to replace the mule path from Quito to Guayquil. He reduced the army and imposed strict discipline including on officers. From 1862 to 1865 several Urbinist plots were discovered and defeated. Moreno was criticized for promoting torture, for keeping his political opponents in prison, and for having 24 prisoners executed after the Jambeli revolt was suppressed in June 1865.
      In the election that year Moreno’s chosen candidate, Jerónimo Carrión, was elected President over the Liberal Gómez de la Torre. Before Carrión was inaugurated on 7 September 7, Moreno banished Gómez de la Torre and most of the Liberals who had just been elected to the Congress.

Peru 1831-65

      In 1828 the Guia de Forasteros published that the population of Peru was 1,248,723 people. On 31 August 1829 Peru’s Congress chose Agustín Gamarra a provisional President with La Fuente as Vice President. Military spending was 48% of Peru’s budget in 1827 and rose to 59% in 1831. That August Chilean diplomacy prevented a border war between Peru and Bolivia. José María de Pando had been a minister for Bolivar, and in 1832 and 1833 he promoted his ideas in the bi-weekly La Verdad. In Pando’s salon in Arequipa he and the orator Andrés Martinez persuaded Manuel Ignacio Vivanco and the officer Felipe Santiago Salaverry to use force to implement their conservative philosophy. Gamarra served until December 1833. He wanted Pedro Pablo Bermúdez to succeed him, but Luna Pizarro returned from exile and persuaded the Congress to elect Luis José de Orbegoso president. Gamarra and Bermúdez started a civil war, and the latter was the provisional supreme ruler from 4 January 1834; but on 5 April constitutionalist forces led by Domingo Nieto defeated the rebels led by San Ramón at Cangallo. José Rufino Echenique changed sides to support Orbegoso on the 23rd, and the next day Orbegoso became President again.
      The Constitution of 1834 increased civilian control to reduce the power of the military. Congress determined the size of the armed forces and elected a council of war. In January 1835 the Callao garrison mutinied and supported La Fuente to replace Orbegoso, and Salaverry led the force that defeated them. Then on 23 February Salaverry challenged the government, and Orbegoso fled north from Lima. Salaverry took over the capital and proclaimed himself “Supreme Chief.” Orbegoso made a deal with Bolivia’s leader Santa Cruz, offering him a third of Peru. The Bolivian army invaded Peru, and Salaverry retreated back to Arequipa. His forces won a battle at Uchumayo on 4 February 1836 but were defeated three days later. General Miller betrayed Salaverry by turning him over to Santa Cruz who ordered him executed, but Salaverry survived. Santa Cruz then allied with Orbegoso against Salaverry and Gamarra. Santa Cruz wanted to head a confederation of three states with Bolivia and Peru divided into north and south. Gamarra met in Cuzco with Felipe Pardo, and they agreed to recognize Salaverry as President of Peru. The army of Santa Cruz conquered southern Peru by mid-year while Gamarra went to Lima to join Salaverry who banished Gamarra and was defeated by Santa Cruz and finally executed on 19 February 1836. Santa Cruz ruled Peru as interim President for two years from August 1836.
      Orbegoso and Bolivia’s President Andrés Santa Cruz formed a confederation of Bolivia and Peru, and Orbegoso was President of North Peru from August 1837 to July 1838. He established the Sociedad de Beneficencia Pública de Lima with a board of forty prominent citizens to endow hospitals and other welfare, and by 1839 they owned more than a tenth of the private houses in the city. The head tax called a contribución was selectively enforced against native Americans and Mestizos, and many who were unable to pay mortgages lost their land, reducing some of these two oppressed ethnic groups nearly to slavery. Also communal lands of indigenous communities were broken up. Peruvian exiles appealed to Chile, and their General Manuel Bulnes led an army that included the Peruvian leaders Gamarra, Gutierrez de la Fuente, and Ramón Castilla. The historian José de la Riva Agüero was President of North Peru from August 1838 to January 1839. South Peru also had two independent presidents from September 1837 to February 1839.
      In August 1838 Gamarra and La Fuente occupied Lima, and Gamarra became President again. They defeated the Confederate army led by Santa Cruz in the Yungay province on 20 January 1839. Gamarra influenced the constitution of 1839 that gave the President a six-year term and more power, and it was in effect until 1854 except 1842-45. In early 1841 Manuel Ignacio Vivanco opposed Gamarra; but San Ramón supported Gamarra, and with Castilla they defeated Vivanco’s armies. After Bolivia recalled the exiled Santa Cruz from Ecuador, Peru’s Council of State approved war against Bolivia. Gamarra tried to form a confederation by invading Bolivia, but on 18 November the Bolivians were victorious at Ingavi and killed Gamarra.
      Between 1826 and 1865 Peru had 34 chief executives. Only four were elected by Congress or the electoral college, and four-fifths were military officers. The production from Peru’s silver mines had decreased since the colonial era to 95,261 marks in 1830 and then went up to 307,214 in 1840; but this was in silver coins, and exports reduced the money supply. Also in 1840 steamships began appearing in the Pacific Ocean, and British capitalists helped Ramón Castilla organize the mining of guano (bird-dung deposits) for export that became a very lucrative business. However, the ammonia fumes harmed the skin and blinded some workers who were mostly native Americans. In 1854 and 1857 Easter Islanders and Polynesians were brought to Peru to work with guano, and most of them died.
      In early 1843 the military leader Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco seized power and proclaimed himself president, and José Rufino Echenique supported him. Castilla and Domingo Nieto organized constitutionalist forces in the south, and they fought Vivanco’s army on 29 August at Pachia in Taona and again in Moquegua in October. Nieto died in February 1844, but Castilla led their army and defeated Vivanco’s forces at Carmen Alto on 22 July 1844. Castilla acted as President of Peru for six months from February 1844 to August when he reinstated Manuel Menéndez as the constitutional president.
      Castilla was elected president, and at his inauguration on 20 April 1845 he promised law and order. His mother was a native American, but Castilla made travel between Lima and Trujillo safer by reducing the activities of the numerous bandoleros. He participated in religious festivals and ceremonies. He sent political opponents who plotted against him into exile but only for short periods and then granted them amnesty. From 1839 to 1845 the tax on native Americans averaged 1,757,296 pesos per year, but it was reduced to 830,826 in 1846. On 21 October 1845 he sent Peru’s first national budget to Congress, and a general accounting bureau was set up in 1848. By that year interesthad increased Peru’s debt to Britain to £4,380,530. Latin America’s first railway connected Lima to Callao on 5 April 1851. Roads, aqueducts, and bridges were constructed, and steamboats were employed. He used income from guano to pay revolutionary war debts and to provide pensions for veterans. Castilla expanded public education at all levels, and in 1847 he founded a military secondary school (colegio) and a naval school. In 1850 a census found more than two million people in Peru but missed some who did not pay taxes, and this increased to about 2.5 million in 1862.
      Castilla supported his Vice President José Rufino Echenique who was elected President in 1851. During his term civil laws were codified. His Minister of War Juan Crisóstomo Torrico was criticized. Echenique was also advised by the reactionary church leader Bartolomé Herrera who wanted a theocracy. Domingo Elías had been a self-proclaimed president June-August 1844, and in 1852 he criticized the government with his Cartas politicas in El Comercio. This newspaper in 1853 serialized a translation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. After the consolidation of the internal debt of 23,211,400 soles in 1853, Torrico and his friends were accused of gaining 4 million soles. Elías started a rebellion which Torrico suppressed in January 1854. Yet the movement for reform spread. Castilla went to Arequipa in February to lead insurgents, and from exile San Román also joined them. Vivanco offered his forces to the government. Castilla challenged Echenique in the next election. While campaigning on 5 July 1854 Castilla promised that he would abolish the “Indian tribute,” and this would cause a 10% decline in government revenue. Near the end of the year Echenique decreed that Black slaves who served two years in the army were free, and Castilla in December promised to free all slaves. In 1854 Peru had 25,505 slaves. On 5 January 1855 near Lima the revolutionaries defeated the army led by Torrico.
      Castilla won the election and was President a third time from January 1855 to October 1862. In February 1855 voters chose delegates to a constituent assembly, though those favoring Echenique were not allowed to vote or faced reprisals. José Galvez, who was influenced by Benjamin Constant, led the young liberals who supported Castilla, and his brother Pedro Galvez was Castillo’s secretary. Castilla compensated owners of 20,000 freed slaves with 300 pesos for each one by using one million pesos from guano fees. Many of those freed refused to continue working in agriculture, and production plunged in the next five years as some prices tripled. Landowners began importing Chinese laborers using bondage that was nearly slavery in 1850. Publicity of the abuses led to a law in 1856 suspending the traffic in Asian workers. Yet 87,952 had come by 1874. Landowners complained, and Castilla got the law repealed in 1862. In 1855 he reformed San Marcos University by coordinating five independent faculties and modernizing the curriculum, and a medical school joined the University in 1856. By then Lima and Callao had water distribution and sewage disposal systems. By 1857 Lima had 2,200 street lights and more than 5,000 lamps using gas.
      In 1856 the Assembly produced a new constitution with liberal reforms that increased the power of Congress to check the President. Arequipa rebelled on 31 October, and the navy mutinied. Castilla found one ship, and his army besieged Arequipa for eight months until it surrendered on 6 March 1858. Castilla had silenced critical newspapers and exiled political adversaries, and now he dissolved the uncooperative Congress. From 1852 to 1858 military spending had quadrupled. Guano revenues kept increasing with more than 16 million pesos in 1859 and in 1860, but the United States’ Civil War reduced demand and shipping. After 1859 Peruvian imports were four times its exports. Because of Catholic objections to usury (charging interest on loans), Spain and Peru and did not develop much banking and depended on foreign credit. Finally in 1863 three banks were opened by a Belgian, the British, and one by domestic investors.
      Vivanco persuaded Castilla to improve the navy. After Ecuador granted to creditors land that Peru claimed, Castilla led the Peruvian forces that invaded Guayaquil in October 1859. In 1860 the Conservatives got a new constitution that once again strengthened the presidency. Liberals were angry, and two attempts were made to kill Castilla. Those he sent into exile included José Galvez. Peru got a favorable treaty with Ecuador, but Castilla declined to use the military to enforce it. Castilla supported his Minister of War Miguel de San Román as his successor, and he was elected President in 1862; but San Román appointed several anti-Castilla liberals to advise him. He became ill and died on 3 April 1863.
      Castilla refused to accept Vice President Pedro Diez Canseco and claimed the presidency for six days until the Congress chose Canseco who was replaced by General Juan Antonio Pezet on 5 August. That month a labor dispute between Peruvians and Basque immigrants provoked Spain to take over the Chincha Islands in April 1864. Peru and Spain signed the Vivanco-Pareja Treaty on 27 January 1865, but the next week Spain’s Marine Minister Pareja led an invasion at Callao. Many Peruvians believed their national honor was offended, and mobs attacked Spanish residents. Pezet banished Castilla in February. Arequipa revolted, and the uprising replaced Pezet on 25 April with General Mariano Ignacio Prado who was President for two months before turning the presidency back over to Pezet who lasted until 28 November when the dictatorial Prado took over again.

Bolivia 1829-65

      When Bolivia became independent in 1825, there were about 800,000 native Americans, 200,000 Europeans, 100,000 Mestizos, 4,700 African slaves, and 2,300 free Africans. The main languages were Quechua and Aymara, and about one-fifth of the people spoke Spanish. General Andrés Santa Cruz returned to Bolivia in May 1829 and ruled the nation for ten years. In 1829 he eliminated the colonial mining tax, and other taxes were reduced to 5%. In 1830 the 3% gold tax was also ended. Military expenses were about 45% of the budget. Bolivia was fairly peaceful until June 1835 when their army invaded Peru during their civil war that led to the defeat of Gamarra and Salaverry who was executed in February 1836. Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz was the chief organizer of the Confederation of Bolivia with North Peru and South Peru that proclaimed the Republic of South Peru on 17 March 1836 and of North Peru on 11 August. A Chilean army invaded Peru in 1838. Santa Cruz and his Confederate army were defeated in Yungay on 20 January 1839, and he resigned as Supreme Protector on 20 February. The Confederation dissolved.
      José Miguel de Velasco Franco had been Vice President of Bolivia from May 1829 to July 1835, and he became President on 22 February 1839. He turned against Santa Cruz and had his personal possessions confiscated. Velasco presided over the writing of a new constitution and implemented some reforms. General José Ballivián led a revolt by those favoring Santa Cruz, and they removed Velasco in June 1841. A Peruvian army invaded Bolivia and without a battle took over La Paz in October. Argentina supported Velasco’s army in the south while Ballivián supported Gamarra’s attempt to take over part of Bolivia for a while. Then Ballivián turned against Gamarra and took control of Bolivia’s government to oppose the Peruvians. On 18 November at Ingavi his army defeated the invaders and killed Gamarra. This ended Bolivia’s economic obligations to Peru from the Confederation. Ballivián was President of Bolivia from 27 September 1841 to December 1847 during a period of peace. National revenues increased to two million pesos by the late 1840s while native tribute was still providing 40% of the revenue. A census in 1846 counted 1.4 million Bolivians while an additional 700,000 natives were living outside the government in the eastern lowland territories. La Paz had 43,000 people and Cochabamba 30,000. In 1847 only 22,000 children or 10% of that age group were in school, and only 7% of the population was literate.
      Velasco was President for about a year until December 1848 until the troops of General Manuel Isidoro Belzu proclaimed him President in December 1848. During his six years in office he faced about 35 revolts and several assassination attempts, but he was the first Bolivian President to resign voluntarily since Sucre in 1828. General Jorge Córdova was elected and was President from 15 August 1855 until he was overthrown by the forces of the civilian Constitutionalist José María Linares in October 1857. He allowed more free trade but took more control over mining and established a monopoly on mercury. Native tribute was still 36% of revenues. Linares tried to reduce the military, but those expenses remained 41% of the budget. In September 1858 he took dictatorial powers, and his opponents mobilized against him. In 1860 the government massacred native rebels at the Copacabana shrine on Lake Titicaca during the time of a large revolt. Finally three of his ministers drove Linares into exile in January 1861.
      The Bolivian Congress chose War Minister José María de Achá to be President. He abolished the mercury monopoly and organized finances. In 1862 his military governor of the La Paz province, Plácido Yáñez, ordered the massacre of opponents who favored Belzu. Chilean mining in the Atacama region in 1863 caused a conflict with Bolivia’s Mejillones nitrate fields. Congress voted for war, but President Achá was forced to accept Chile’s demands. Before elections could take place, Achá’s relative General Mariano Melgarejo overcame the forces of Achá and Belzu, and he seized power in December 1864 and would hold it for six years. In 1865 Bolivia made a treaty with Peru to gain free port rights at Arica that resulted in 450,000 pesos a year from customs houses in Arica and Tacna.

Notes

1. Quoted in Chile: The Making of a Republic, 1830-1865: Politics and Ideas by Simon Collier, p.215.
2. Quoted in A History of Venezuela by Guillermo Morón, p. 153.
3. Ibid., p. 165.

Copyright © 2018 by Sanderson Beck

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